An ironworker is the American term for a tradesman who works in the iron-working industry. A structural/ornamental ironworker fabricates and erects the structural steel framework of pre-engineered metal buildings and multi-story buildings, arenas, towers, wind turbines, bridges. Ironworkers assemble the structural framework in accordance with engineered drawings, they are distinct from the term blacksmith, someone who works with and tempers raw iron. Ironworkers are called "steel erectors" in New Zealand, they must be a qualified "Dogman" and "Rigger". They do not work with rebar as, the "Steel Fixer's" job. A dogman or rigger may move the rebar bundles for the steel fixer. A steel fixer fixes steel only. Ironworkers unload and tie reinforcing steel bars, as well as install post-tensioning systems, both of which give strength to the concrete used in piers, slabs and bridges. Ironworkers load, unload and set machinery and equipment as well as operate power hoists and aerial lifts, they unload and fasten metal decking, safety netting, edge rails to facilitate safe working practices.
Ironworkers finish buildings by erecting curtain wall and window wall systems and handrails, metal doors, sheeting and elevator fronts. Ironworkers perform all types of industrial maintenance as well. Ironworkers worked with wrought iron or cast iron, but today they utilize many different materials including ferrous and non-ferrous metals, glass and composites. Overnight, carpenters who built wooden bridges became ironworkers by the 1880s, it was seen despite its dangerous drawbacks. A worker could risk his life on high structures for about two dollars per day; the production of cast iron parts in larger and larger sizes brought about the use of cranes. This heavy equipment was used in the early 1900s to construct high buildings, they used cranes to lift steel girders into place and used rivets to connect the girders to the columns of a structure. The mortality rate of men working in this trade was the highest of all trades and they would be lucky to go 10 years without a serious or fatal injury.
In the late 19th century, workers formed the International Union of Ironworkers because of concerns they had about safety on-the-job and the lack of protection from employers. The union's first order of business was to give widows of ironworkers $50 to cover the costs of a funeral and to give disabled ironworkers $5 a week to compensate for lost wages. With the increase in benefits from unionization, the Union increased its presence in numbers in the early 1900s. 10,000 workers were considered Union Ironworkers. In the early 1900s, during the third great immigration wave, the Ironworker wage in real 2010 US dollars was $9.50 to $12 per hour. Following the imposition of immigration quotas in 1921 wages rose to $17.50 an hour for a structural ironworker just prior to the Great Depression, the real wage subsequently only dropped 10% to $16.00 given the deflation during the depression. However, following the wartime destruction of manufacturing complexes - with the exception of North America, 1956 wages for structural and rebar ironworkers rose to $27.30 an hour.
By 1970, through the Cold war buildup, iron worker wages peaked at $44.80. Following the 1965 new immigration policy and the start of the fourth great migration wave, wages fell 10% to $40.38 by 1980, fell another 20% to $29.90 per hour by 1990, comparable to the 1950s wage rate. With the end of the Cold War buildup in 1991, ironworker rates have since stayed constant and were $29.30 an hour in 2002. In 2010 the mean wage for Ohio ironworkers, both union and nonunion, was $24.66 per hour. About 10% of all ironworkers in New York City are Mohawk tribesmen, down from about 15% earlier in the 20th century. Ironworkers from this and other Iroquois tribes were involved in building nearly all of the skyscrapers and bridges in New York City, including the Time Warner Center, the Rockefeller Center, the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building. There are three main types of ironworkers: reinforcing and ornamental. A reinforcing ironworker, colloquially known as a Rodbuster, works with reinforcing bars to make structures based on a certain design.
Reinforcing ironworkers assemble structures with reinforcing bars by tying the bars together with tie wire. They place the rebar inside of forms, so concrete can be poured over top of them to form a solid structure; when reinforcing floors, concrete blocks are used to raise the rebar off of the deck, so no rebar can be seen underneath of the deck of the floor after the forms are stripped. In addition, ironworkers have to cut the steel that they have for a job to fit into certain positions. For example, the rebar will have to be cut with a cutting torch, so it can fit around a drain. In some instances, welded wire fabric is used to help strengthen concrete; the average pay for a reinforcing bar ironworker in residential c
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Heath Andrew Ledger was an Australian actor and music video director. After performing roles in several Australian television and film productions during the 1990s, Ledger left for the United States in 1998 to further develop his film career, his work comprised nineteen films, including 10 Things I Hate About You, The Patriot, A Knight's Tale, Monster's Ball, Lords of Dogtown, Brokeback Mountain, The Dark Knight, The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus, the latter two being posthumous releases. He produced and directed music videos and aspired to be a film director. For his portrayal of Ennis Del Mar in Brokeback Mountain, Ledger won the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor and the Best International Actor Award from the Australian Film Institute, he was nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role and the Academy Award for Best Actor. Posthumously, he shared the 2007 Independent Spirit Robert Altman Award with the rest of the ensemble cast, the director, the casting director for the film I'm Not There, inspired by the life and songs of American singer-songwriter Bob Dylan.
In the film, Ledger portrayed a fictional actor named Robbie Clark, one of six characters embodying aspects of Dylan's life and persona. Ledger died on 22 January 2008 due to accidental intoxication from prescription drugs. A few months before his death, Ledger had finished filming his performance as the Joker in The Dark Knight, his death occurred during editing of The Dark Knight and in the midst of filming his last role as Tony in The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus. His untimely death cast a shadow over the subsequent promotion of The Dark Knight. Ledger received numerous posthumous accolades for his critically acclaimed performance in The Dark Knight, including the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, a Best Actor International Award at the 2008 Australian Film Institute Awards, the 2008 Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor, the 2009 Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture, the 2009 BAFTA Award for Best Supporting Actor. Ledger was born in Perth, Western Australia, the son of Sally Ledger, a French teacher, Kim Ledger, a racing car driver and mining engineer whose family established and owned the Ledger Engineering Foundry.
The Sir Frank Ledger Charitable Trust is named after his great-grandfather. He had English and Scottish ancestry. Ledger attended Mary's Mount Primary School in Gooseberry Hill, Guildford Grammar School, where he had his first acting experiences, starring in a school production as Peter Pan at the age of 13, his parents separated when he was 10 and divorced when he was 11. Ledger's older sister Kate, an actress and a publicist, to whom he was close, inspired his acting on stage, his love of Gene Kelly inspired his successful choreography, leading to Guildford Grammar's 60-member team's "first all-boy victory" at the Rock Eisteddfod Challenge. Ledger's two half-sisters are Ashleigh Bell, his mother's daughter with her second husband and his stepfather Roger Bell, Olivia Ledger, his father's daughter with second wife and his stepmother Emma Brown. After sitting for early graduation exams at age 17, Ledger left school to pursue an acting career. With Trevor DiCarlo, his best friend since he was three years old, Ledger drove across Australia from Perth to Sydney, returning to Perth to take a small role in Clowning Around, the first part of a two-part television series, to work on the TV series Sweat, in which he played a gay cyclist.
From 1993 to 1997, Ledger had parts in the Perth television series Ship to Shore. In 1999, he starred in the teen comedy 10 Things I Hate About You and in the acclaimed Australian crime film Two Hands, directed by Gregor Jordan. From 2000 to 2005, he starred in supporting roles as Gabriel Martin, the eldest son of Benjamin Martin, in The Patriot, as Sonny Grotowski, the son of Hank Grotowski, in Monster's Ball. In 2001, he won a ShoWest Award as "Male Star of Tomorrow". Ledger received "Best Actor of 2005" awards from both the New York Film Critics Circle and the San Francisco Film Critics Circle for his performance in Brokeback Mountain, in which he plays Wyoming ranch hand Ennis Del Mar, who has a love affair with aspiring rodeo rider Jack Twist, played by Jake Gyllenhaal, he received a nomination for Golden Globe Best Actor in a Drama and a nomination for Academy Award for Best Actor for this performance, making him, at age 26, the ninth-youngest nominee for a Best Actor Oscar. In The New York Times review of the film, critic Stephen Holden writes: "Both Mr. Ledger and Mr. Gyllenhaal make this anguished love story physically palpable.
Mr. Ledger magically and mysteriously disappears beneath the skin of his sinewy character, it is a great screen performance, as good as the best of Marlon Brando and Sean Penn." In a review in Rolling Stone, Peter Travers states: "Ledger's magnificent performance is an acting miracle. He seems to tear it from his insides. Ledger doesn't just know how Ennis moves and listens. To see him inhale the scent of a shirt hanging in Jack's closet is to take measure of the
The Fortress of Solitude (novel)
The Fortress of Solitude is a 2003 semi-autobiographical novel by Jonathan Lethem set in Brooklyn and spanning the 1970s,'80s, and'90s. It follows two teenage friends, Dylan Ebdus and Mingus Rude, one white and one black, who discover a magic ring; the novel explores the issues of race and culture, self-discovery, music. The Fortress of Solitude was the fictional headquarters of Superman. Though his main residence was Metropolis, Fortress of Solitude was the only place Superman could be himself, as shown by the statues of Superman's Kryptonian parents that adorn the interior. In the novel, the Fortress of Solitude acts as a direct metaphor for Dean Street, Dylan's childhood neighborhood. Though Dylan went on to Camden College in Vermont and University of California, the Brooklyn neighborhood always remained his true home, much like Superman's Fortress of Solitude. Dean Street held the most meaning to Dylan as the last memory of his mother, the place where he first met Mingus, his shelter from the racial tensions of Brooklyn, and, in general, the street where he spent his entire childhood.
Dylan Ebdus - Protagonist, the son of Rachel and Abraham, an artist father and a Brooklyn native mother. He has a hard time adjusting to the neighborhood; as time passes on they grow apart, Dylan goes to Camden College in Vermont, while Mingus goes to prison in Brooklyn. Dylan attempts to find to restore their relationship. Abraham Ebdus - Dylan's father, an avant-garde artist. After Rachel abandons the family, he becomes more introverted, shutting himself in the attic to paint cels of his animated film, a masterpiece that will never be complete. In order to support himself and Dylan, he turns to painting garish science fiction book covers, a field in which he becomes prominent, his relationship with Dylan is strained. Barrett Rude Jr. - Former lead singer of a 1960s, moderately successful soul group called The Subtle Distinctions. He had a number of hits at that time. More he is Mingus's father, a musical icon for Dylan. Throughout the novel, he struggles with cocaine addiction. Arthur Lomb - Dylan's only white friend during his elementary and middle school years.
Arthur persuades Dylan to apply to a public high school. However, Dylan is accepted and Arthur is not; the two follow different paths throughout the novel: Dylan goes on to college and California, Arthur stays in Brooklyn and assumes the role of Mingus's right-hand man, participating in drug deals and graffiti. When Dylan visits Arthur at the end of the novel, Arthur is a landlord and has opened a chic bistro, adding to the general gentrification of the area. Robert Woolfolk - Nicknamed “Willfuck” by Henry, Robert plays the role of Dylan's arch enemy who has the knack of showing up at the worst possible times. Over the course of the novel, he trashes Dylan's first bike, yokes him and holds him at gun point during a drug robbery. Robert ends up in prison with Mingus; when Dylan visits the two in prison, Mingus persuades him to offer the ring to Robert to help Robert escape. However, Robert's attempt at a flight escape ends in his demise. Mingus Rude - Son of Barrett Rude Jr. and childhood friend of Dylan Ebdus.
One of the most prominent characters in the novel. He moves to Dean Street after Dylan does, the two become friends, their friendship evolves over the course of the first part of the novel. Rachel Ebdus- Mother of Dylan Ebdus. Is a character of the book who, in the beginning is mentioned little, but is a big part of Dylan Ebdus's world; as one of only a few white children growing up in Brooklyn's public schools, Dylan faces a whole childhood full of public embarrassment and “yokings,” mild forms of mugging and bullying common among elementary school and junior high children. Because of this racial tension and Mingus’ friendship exists on secret terms. On Dean Street, the two are best friends. To get through his school years, Dylan befriends another white boy named Arthur Lomb; the two, take different approaches to the racial tensions in their neighborhood: while Dylan goes to an elite and predominantly white public high school, Arthur uses Mingus and Robert Woolfolk as models for his lifestyle.
Graffiti serves as a status symbol in Lethem's Brooklyn. The tags served as a new identity for the artists, as shown in Part 3 of the novel, when Mingus is referred to solely by his tag name Dose. Dylan, though he dabbles in the world of graffiti art with Mingus, never develops his own tag name but instead uses Mingus' name Dose in an effort to further merge himself with his best friend. "Things are radically simplified: the white kid's stopped looking for his own moniker, been encouraged by the black kid to throw up his perfect replication of the black kid's tag instead. Dose, Dose. It's a happy solution for both; the black kid gets to see his tag spread further, in search of bragging points for ubiquity, that bottom-line standard for a graffiti writer's success.... What's in it for the white kid? Well, he's been allowed to merge his identity in this way with the black kid's, to lose his funkymusicwhiteboy geekdom in the illusion that he and his friend Mingus Rude are both Dose, no more and no less.
A team, a united front, a brand name, an idea." Arthur, on the other hand, strives to distinguish himself with the tag name Art, but never reaches the level of importance that Mingus achieves. In years, Mingus’ talent for graffiti art carries him through his years of prison as both a source of income and pride. Graffiti art is juxtaposed with the avant-garde art of Dylan's father, Abra
A Carnegie library is a library built with money donated by Scottish-American businessman and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. A total of 2,509 Carnegie libraries were built between 1883 and 1929, including some belonging to public and university library systems. 1,689 were built in the United States, 660 in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 125 in Canada, others in Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, Belgium, the Caribbean, Mauritius and Fiji. At first, Carnegie libraries were exclusively in places where he had a personal connection - namely his birthplace in Scotland and the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area, his adopted home-town. Yet, beginning in the middle of 1899, Carnegie increased funding to libraries outside these areas. In years few towns that requested a grant and agreed to his terms were refused. By the time the last grant was made in 1919, there were 3,500 libraries in the United States, nearly half of them built with construction grants paid by Carnegie; the first of Carnegie's public libraries, Dunfermline Carnegie Library was in his birthplace, Scotland.
It was first commissioned or granted by Carnegie in 1880 to James Campbell Walker and would open in 1883. The locally quarried sandstone building displays a stylized sun with the carved motto "Let there be light" at the front entrance; the first library in the United States to be commissioned by Carnegie was in 1886 in his adopted hometown of Allegheny, Pennsylvania. In 1890, it became the second of his libraries to open in the USA; the building contained the first Carnegie Music Hall in the World. The first Carnegie library to open in the United States was in Braddock, about 9 miles up the Monongahela river from Pittsburgh, home to one of the Carnegie Steel Company's mills in 1889, it was the second Carnegie Library in the United States to be commissioned, 1887, was the first of just four libraries that he endowed. An 1893 addition doubled the size of the building and included the third Carnegie Music Hall in the United States. Carnegie limited his support to a few towns in which he had an interest.
These would be in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area. In America, 6 out of the first 7, 7 of the first 10, 9 of the first 13 libraries he commissioned are all found in Southwestern Pennsylvania. Architectural critic Patricia Lowry wrote "to this day, Carnegie's free-to-the-people libraries remain Pittsburgh's most significant cultural export, a gift that has shaped the minds and lives of millions."Until 1898, only one library was commissioned in America outside Southwestern Pennsylvania—a library in Fairfield, commissioned in 1892. As the first time that Carnegie had funded a library in which he had no personal ties, it helped initiate the funding model that would be used by Carnegie for thousands of additional libraries. Beginning in 1899, his foundation funded a dramatic increase in the number of libraries; this coincided with the rise of women's clubs in the post-Civil War period, which were most responsible for organizing efforts to establish libraries, including long-term fundraising and lobbying within their communities to support operations and collections.
They led the establishment of 75–80 percent of the libraries in communities across the country. Carnegie believed in giving to ambitious. Under segregation black people were denied access to public libraries in the Southern United States. Rather than insisting on his libraries being racially integrated, Carnegie funded separate libraries for African Americans. For example, in Houston he funded a separate Colored Carnegie Library; the Carnegie Library in Savannah, opened in 1914 to serve black residents, excluded from the public library. The organized Colored Library Association of Savannah had raised money and collected books to establish a small Library for Colored Citizens. Having demonstrated their willingness to support a library, the group petitioned for and received funds from Carnegie. Future U. S. Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas wrote in his memoirs that he used it as a boy, before the library system was desegregated. Most of the library buildings were unique, constructed in a number of styles, including Beaux-Arts, Italian Renaissance, Classical Revival, Spanish Colonial.
Scottish Baronial was one of the styles used in Carnegie's native Scotland. Each style was chosen by the community, although as the years went by James Bertram, Carnegie's secretary, became less tolerant of designs which were not to his taste. Edward Lippincott Tilton, a friend recommended by Bertram, designed many of the buildings; the architecture was simple and formal, welcoming patrons to enter through a prominent doorway, nearly always accessed via a staircase. The entry staircase symbolized a person's elevation by learning. Outside every library was a lamppost or lantern, meant as a symbol of enlightenment. Carnegie’s grants were large for the era and his library philanthropy is one of the largest philanthropic activities, by value, in history. Small towns received grants of $10,000 that enabled them to build large libraries that were among the most significant town amenities in hundreds of communities. Books and libraries were important to Carnegie, beginning with his early childhood in Scotland and his teen years in Allegheny/Pittsburgh.
There he listened to readings and discussions of books from the Tradesman's Subscription Library, which his father helped create. In Pennsylvania, while working for the l
Jean-Michel Basquiat was an American artist of Haitian and Puerto Rican descent. Basquiat first achieved fame as part of SAMO, an informal graffiti duo who wrote enigmatic epigrams in the cultural hotbed of the Lower East Side of Manhattan during the late 1970s, where hip hop and street art cultures coalesced. By the 1980s, his neo-expressionist paintings were being exhibited in galleries and museums internationally; the Whitney Museum of American Art held a retrospective of his art in 1992. Basquiat's art focused on "suggestive dichotomies", such as wealth versus poverty, integration versus segregation, inner versus outer experience, he appropriated poetry and painting, married text and image, abstraction and historical information mixed with contemporary critique. Basquiat used social commentary in his paintings as a "springboard to deeper truths about the individual", as well as attacks on power structures and systems of racism, while his poetics were acutely political and direct in their criticism of colonialism and support for class struggle.
He died of a heroin overdose at his art studio at the age of 27. On May 18, 2017, at a Sotheby's auction, a 1982 painting by Basquiat depicting a black skull with red and black rivulets set a new record high for any American artist at auction, selling for $110.5 million. Basquiat's art has inspired many in the hip hop music community such as Jay-Z. Jean-Michel Basquiat was born in Brooklyn, New York, on December 22, 1960, shortly after the death of his elder brother, Max, he was the second of four children of Gérard Basquiat. He had two younger sisters: Lisane, born in 1964, Jeanine, born in 1967, his father, Gérard Basquiat, was born in Port-au-Prince and his mother, Matilde Basquiat, of Puerto Rican descent, was born in Brooklyn, New York. Matilde instilled a love for art in her young son by taking him to art museums in Manhattan and enrolling him as a junior member of the Brooklyn Museum of Art. Basquiat was a precocious child who learned how to read and write by the age of four and was a gifted artist.
His teachers, including artist Jose Machado, noticed his artistic abilities, his mother encouraged her son's artistic talent. By the age of 11, Basquiat was fluent in French and English. In 1967, Basquiat started attending. There he met his friend Marc Prozzo. Basquiat became an avid reader of Spanish and English texts and a more than competent athlete, competing in track events. In September 1968, at the age of seven, Basquiat was hit by a car while playing in the street, his arm was broken and he suffered several internal injuries. While he was recuperating from his injuries, his mother brought him the Gray's Anatomy book to keep him occupied; this book would prove to be influential in his future artistic outlook. His parents separated that year and he and his sisters were raised by their father; the family resided in Boerum Hill, for five years moved to San Juan, Puerto Rico in 1974, where Basquiat studied at Saint John's School in Condado. After two years, they returned to New York City; when he was 13, his mother was committed to a mental institution and thereafter spent her life in and out of institutions.
At 15, Basquiat ran away from home. He slept on park benches in Tompkins Square Park, was arrested and returned to the care of his father within a week. Basquiat dropped out of Edward R. Murrow High School in the 10th grade at the age of 17 and attended City-As-School, an alternative high school in Manhattan, home to many artistic students who failed at conventional schooling, his father banished him from the household for dropping out of high school and Basquiat stayed with friends in Brooklyn. He supported himself by selling T-shirts and homemade post cards. Basquiat transitioned from being homeless and unemployed to selling a single painting for up to $25,000 in a matter of several years. In 1976, Basquiat and his friend Al Diaz began spray painting graffiti on buildings in Lower Manhattan, working under the pseudonym SAMO; the designs featured inscribed messages such as "Plush safe he think.. SAMO" and "SAMO as an escape clause". In 1978, Basquiat worked for the Unique Clothing Warehouse in their art department at 718 Broadway in NoHo, at night he began "SAMO," painting his original graffiti art on neighborhood buildings.
Unique's founder Harvey Russack discovered Basquiat painting a building one night, they became friends, he offered him a day job. On December 11, 1978, The Village Voice published an article about the graffiti; when Basquiat and Diaz ended their friendship, The SAMO project ended with the epitaph "SAMO IS DEAD", inscribed on the walls of SoHo buildings in 1979. In 1979, Basquiat appeared on the live public-access television show TV Party hosted by Glenn O'Brien, the two started a friendship. Basquiat made regular appearances on the show over the next few years; that same year, Basquiat formed the noise rock band Test Pattern –, renamed Gray – which played at Arleen Schloss's open space, "Wednesdays at A's", where in October 1979 Basquiat showed, among others, his SAMO color Xerox work. Gray consisted of Shannon Dawson, Michael Holman, Nick Taylor, Wayne Clifford and Vincent Gallo, the band performed at nightclubs such as Max's Kansas City, CBGB, Hurrah and the Mudd Club. In 1980, Basquiat starred in O'Brien's independent film Downtown 81 titled New York Beat.
That same year, Basquiat met Andy Warhol at a restaurant. Basquiat p
Keri Lynn Russell is an American actress and dancer. She came to fame for portraying the title role of Felicity Porter on the WB drama series Felicity, for which she won a Golden Globe Award. Russell starred as KGB agent Elizabeth Jennings on the FX spy thriller series The Americans, for which she received Primetime Emmy Award and Golden Globe Award nominations. Russell has appeared in several films, including Mission: Impossible III, August Rush, Extraordinary Measures, Dawn of the Planet of the Apes, Free State of Jones. In 2017, she received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Keri Lynn Russell was born on March 23, 1976, in Fountain Valley, the daughter of Stephanie, a homemaker, David Russell, a Nissan Motors executive, she has an older brother, a younger sister, Julie. The family lived in Texas. Russell's dancing earned her a spot on The Mickey Mouse Club. Russell first appeared on television at age 15 as a cast member of the All-New Mickey Mouse Club variety show on the Disney Channel.
She was on the show from 1991 to 1994 and co-starred with future actor Ryan Gosling and future pop stars Christina Aguilera, Britney Spears, JC Chasez, Justin Timberlake, Tony Lucca. In 1992, Russell appeared in Honey, I Blew Up the Kid alongside Rick Moranis and in 1993, she had a role on the sitcom Boy Meets World as Mr. Feeny's niece. Russell appeared on Married... with Children in a 1995 episode. She subsequently starred in several film and television roles, including the 1996 made-for-television film The Babysitter's Seduction; that year she had a role on the short-lived soap opera series Malibu Shores. In 1994, Russell appeared as the "other woman" in Bon Jovi's music video "Always" with Jack Noseworthy, Carla Gugino, Jason Wiles. In 1997, she appeared in two episodes of Roar alongside Heath Ledger. From 1998 to 2002, Russell starred as the title character on the successful WB Network series Felicity. In 1999, she won a Golden Globe for the role. Russell's long curly hair was one of her character's defining characteristics, her drastic hairstyle change at the beginning of the show's second season was thought to cause a significant drop in the show's ratings.
During the show's run, Russell appeared in the films Eight Days a Week, The Curve, Mad About Mambo, all of which received only limited releases in North America. Her next role was in the film We Were Soldiers, playing the wife of a United States serviceman during the Vietnam War; the film was released two months before the end of Felicity's run. When Felicity ended, Russell moved to New York City and made her off-Broadway stage debut in 2004, appearing opposite Jeremy Piven, Andrew McCarthy, Ashlie Atkinson in Neil LaBute's Fat Pig. In 2005, she returned to television and film, beginning with an appearance in the Hallmark Hall of Fame television movie The Magic of Ordinary Days, theatrical film The Upside of Anger, the television miniseries Into the West. Directing Mission: Impossible III in 2005, J. J. Abrams asked Russell to join the cast and she accepted, she was screen tested for the role of Lois Lane in Superman Returns but lost the role to Kate Bosworth. In the summer of 2006, Russell was chosen to be a celebrity spokeswoman for CoverGirl Cosmetics.
In the summer of 2007, Russell appeared in The Keri Kronicles, a reality show/sitcom sponsored by CoverGirl and airing on MySpace. In 2007, she played "Melody" on the NBC show Scrubs. Russell next starred in the film Waitress, her performance—opposite Nathan Fillion, Cheryl Hines, Jeremy Sisto, Andy Griffith and the film's director Adrienne Shelley—was positively received by critics, with Michael Sragow of The Baltimore Sun writing that Russell's performance had "aesthetic character" and "wields tenderness and fierceness with quiet heat". In 2007, Russell completed roles in Grimm Love, in which she played Katie Armstrong, a graduate student who writes a thesis paper on an infamous cannibal murder case, the thriller The Girl in the Park, opposite Sigourney Weaver, Kate Bosworth and Alessandro Nivola. Russell next appeared in August Rush, released in November 2007, she appeared on the cover of the New York Post's Page Six magazine on November 11, 2007. Russell appeared in Bedtime Stories. In an appearance on The View on December 15, 2008, Russell said she got the part because Adam Sandler's wife Jackie had seen her in Waitress and suggested her for the movie.
Russell voiced Wonder Woman in a direct-to-video animated feature released March 3, 2009. Russell starred alongside Brendan Fraser and Harrison Ford in the Tom Vaughan-helmed Extraordinary Measures for CBS Films; the drama, which started filming on April 6, 2009 and was released on January 22, 2010, was the first film to go into production for the new company. Russell played Aileen Crowley, a mother who tries to build a normal home life for her sick children while her husband, an unconventional scientist race against time to find a cure. Russell starred in the Fox series Running Wilde, from 2010 to 2011. From 2013 to 2018, she starred in the FX drama series The Americans, playing Elizabeth Jennings, a deep-undercover Russian KGB spy living as an American in the 1980s Cold War era, she appears opposite Matthew Rhys, who portrays her character's spy partner. Russell and Rhys became partners in real life during this