A bog or bogland is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss. It is one of the four main types of wetlands. Other names for bogs include mire and muskeg, they are covered in ericaceous shrubs rooted in the sphagnum moss and peat. The gradual accumulation of decayed plant material in a bog functions as a carbon sink. Bogs occur where the water at the ground surface is low in nutrients. In some cases, the water is derived from precipitation, in which case they are termed ombrotrophic. Water flowing out of bogs has a characteristic brown colour, which comes from dissolved peat tannins. In general, the low fertility and cool climate result in slow plant growth, but decay is slower owing to the saturated soil. Hence, peat accumulates. Large areas of the landscape can be covered many meters deep in peat. Bogs have distinctive assemblages of animal and plant species, are of high importance for biodiversity in landscapes that are otherwise settled and farmed.
Bogs are distributed in cold, temperate climes in boreal ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere. The world's largest wetland is the peat bogs of the Western Siberian Lowlands in Russia, which cover more than a million square kilometres. Large peat bogs occur in North America the Hudson Bay Lowland and the Mackenzie River Basin, they are less common in the Southern Hemisphere, with the largest being the Magellanic moorland, comprising some 44,000 square kilometres. Sphagnum bogs were widespread in northern Europe but have been cleared and drained for agriculture. A 2014 expedition leaving from Itanga village, Republic of the Congo, discovered a peat bog "as big as England" which stretches into neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo. There are many specialised animals and plants associated with bog habitat. Most are capable of waterlogging. Sphagnum is abundant, along with ericaceous shrubs; the shrubs are evergreen, understood to assist in conservation of nutrients. In drier locations, evergreen trees can occur, in which case the bog blends into the surrounding expanses of boreal evergreen forest.
Sedges are one of the more common herbaceous species. Carnivorous plants such as sundews and pitcher plants have adapted to the low-nutrient conditions by using invertebrates as a nutrient source. Orchids have adapted to these conditions through the use of mycorrhizal fungi to extract nutrients; some shrubs such as Myrica gale have root nodules in which nitrogen fixation occurs, thereby providing another supplemental source of nitrogen. Bogs are recognized as a significant/specific habitat type by a number of governmental and conservation agencies, they can provide habitat for mammals, such as caribou and beavers, as well as for species of nesting shorebirds, such as Siberian cranes and yellowlegs. The United Kingdom in its Biodiversity Action Plan establishes bog habitats as a priority for conservation. Russia has a large reserve system in the West Siberian Lowland; the highest protected status occurs in Zapovedniks. Bogs have distinctive insects. In Ireland, the viviparous lizard, the only known reptile in the country, dwells in bogland.
Bog habitats may develop depending on the climate and topography. One way of classifying bogs is based upon their location in the landscape, their source of water; these develop in sloping valleys or hollows. A layer of peat fills the deepest part of the valley, a stream may run through the surface of the bog. Valley bogs may develop in dry and warm climates, but because they rely on ground or surface water, they only occur on acidic substrates; these develop over either non-acidic or acidic substrates. Over centuries there is a progression from open lake, to a marsh, to a fen, to a carr, as silt or peat accumulates within the lake. Peat builds up to a level where the land surface is too flat for ground or surface water to reach the center of the wetland; this part, becomes wholly rain-fed, the resulting acidic conditions allow the development of bog. The bog continues to form peat, over time a shallow dome of bog peat develops into a raised bog; the dome is a few meters high in the center and is surrounded by strips of fen or other wetland vegetation at the edges or along streamsides where groundwater can percolate into the wetland.
The various types of raised bog may be divided into: Coastal bog Plateau bog Upland bog Kermi bog String bog Palsa bog Polygonal bog In cool climates with high rainfall, the ground surface may remain waterlogged for much of the time, providing conditions for the development of bog vegetation. In these circumstances, bog develops as a layer "blanketing" much of the land, including hilltops and slopes. Although a blanket bog is more common on acidic substrates, under some conditions it may develop on neutral or alkaline ones, if abundant acidic rainwater predominates over the groundwater. A blanket bog cannot occur in drier or warmer climates, because under those conditions hilltops and sloping ground dry out
Skyport Airport is a public use airport located three nautical miles north of the central business district of Cornelius, a city in Washington County, United States. It is owned and managed by V. D. Putman. Skyport Airport covers an area of 8 acres at an elevation of 174 feet above mean sea level, it has one runway designated 16/34 with a gravel surface measuring 2,000 by 45 feet. For the 12-month period ending February 24, 2010, the airport had 2,000 general aviation aircraft operations, an average of 166 per month. At that time there were 3 aircraft based at all single-engine. Aerial image as of 12 June 2002 from USGS The National Map Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for 4S4 AirNav airport information for 4S4 FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker SkyVector aeronautical chart for 4S4
Justin M. Warner is an American chef, he is best known for his appearances on Food Network, including the eighth season of the series Food Network Star, which he won. He is the author of The Laws of Cooking: He is the chef host of Eat the Universe on marvel.com where he makes meals inspired by characters of the Marvel Universe. Warner was born on February 1984 in Hagerstown, Maryland, his mother, Jan, is a schoolteacher, his father was a psychiatrist. Warner was born, his father died shortly after Justin graduated from South Hagerstown High School in 2002. Warner has had no formal culinary training. Warner appeared on 24 Hour Restaurant Battle in August 2010 with his then-girlfriend J. J. Pyle, they won the episode with their brunch restaurant concept, but the restaurant itself never came to fruition. In 2012 Warner became a contestant on the eighth season of Food Network Star, mentored by Alton Brown, he did not watch the series before becoming a contestant. He became one of the final four contestants, he filmed a pilot for a potential series called Rebel with a Culinary Cause.
He won the competition. Alton Brown announced on January 2013, that he will "regrettably" not be producing Justin's show. In March 2013, Justin Warner debuted a one-hour pilot special on Food Network titled Rebel Eats. In 2014, he was a judge on Guy's Grocery Games, he was one of the co-owners of Do or Dine restaurant in Bed-Stuy, New York, before it closed in September 2015. Starting October 31, 2016 Warner, along with a few others acting as staff, created a new cooking show on Twitch.tv known as Chefshock, "Shockingly Real, Shockingly Live, just plain Shockingly Delicious.", where he cooks live from his home kitchen from raw ingredients with viewers encouraged to cook along and ask questions. Questions are presented to Warner by a moderator who shares in eating the finished results, while those that cook along and post their own progress pictures are featured throughout the show during lulls in the cooking process. Ingredients required to cook along at home are shared a week in advance through the use of google documents to allow those that wish to participate time to gather them.