Devils Postpile National Monument
Devils Postpile National Monument is located near Mammoth Mountain in eastern California. The national monument protects Devils Postpile, a rock formation of columnar basalt. In addition, the John Muir Trail and Pacific Crest Trail merge into one trail as they pass through the monument, excluding a small developed area containing the monument headquarters, visitor center and a campground, the National Monument lies within the borders of the Ansel Adams Wilderness. The monument was once part of Yosemite National Park, but discovery of gold in 1905 near Mammoth Lakes prompted a change that left the Postpile on adjacent public land. Later, a proposal to build a dam called for blasting the Postpile into the river. Influential Californians, including John Muir, persuaded the government to stop the demolition and, in 1911. The flora and fauna at Devils Postpile are typical of the Sierra Nevada, dark-eyed juncos and white-crowned sparrows are common in the summer. The name Devils Postpile refers to a cliff of columnar basalt.
Radiometric dating indicates the formation was created by a flow at some time less than 100,000 years ago. Estimates of the thickness range from 400 feet to 600 feet. The lava that now makes up the Postpile was near the bottom of this mass, because of its great thickness, much of the mass of pooled lava cooled slowly and evenly, which is why the columns are so long and so symmetrical. Columnar jointing occurs when certain types of contract while cooling. A glacier removed much of this mass of rock and left a surface on top of the columns with very noticeable glacial striations. The Postpiles columns average 2 feet in diameter, the largest being 3.5 feet, together they look like tall posts stacked in a pile, hence the features name. If the lava had cooled perfectly evenly, all of the columns would be expected to be hexagonal, but some of the columns have different polygonal cross-sections due to variations in cooling. A survey of 400 of the Postpiles columns found that 44. 5% were 6-sided,37. 5% 5-sided,9. 5% 4-sided,8.
0% 7-sided, compared with other examples of columnar jointing, the Postpile has more hexagonal columns. Another feature that places the Postpile in a category is the lack of horizontal jointing. Several stones from the Devils Postpile can be seen at the entrance to the United States Geological Survey headquarters lot in Reston, although the basaltic columns are impressive, they are not unique
Clear Lake (California)
Clear Lake is the largest natural freshwater lake in California with 68 square miles of surface area. Lakes have existed at the site of Clear Lake for at least 2,500,000 years and it is located in Lake County, north of Napa County and San Francisco. Known as the Bass Capital of the West, Clear Lake supports large populations of bass, bluegill, two-thirds of the fish caught in Clear Lake are largemouth bass, with a record of 17.52 pounds. Clear Lake was most recently ranked by Bassmaster Magazine in its 2016 top-100 ranking as the No.3 best bass lake in the United States, locals strongly recommend against eating the fish from Clear Lake, because of potentially toxic levels of mercury. In addition to fish, there is abundant wildlife within the Basin, there are year-round populations of ducks, grebes, blue herons, egrets and bald eagles. The Basin supports abundant populations of deer, mountain lion, the expansive, warm water of Clear Lake makes it popular for watersports, such as swimming, water skiing, sailing, boat races, and jet skiing.
Clear Lake is 19 mi by 8 mi at its widest point, with area of 43,785 acres. Average depth is 27 ft, maximum is 60 ft, lake elevation is 1,329 ft, Clear Lake is believed to be one of the oldest lakes in North America, due to a geological fluke. The lake sits on a block of stone which slowly tilts in the northern direction at the same rate as the lake fills in with sediment. Core samples of the sediments, taken by U. S. Geological Survey geologists in 1973 and 1980. Some experts feel that Mono Lake, to the east of the Sierra Nevada in California, is older than Clear Lake. However, the history of Clear Lake is unbroken, while Mono Lakes sediments have been disturbed by past eruptions of the Long Valley Caldera. Clear Lake is described as the largest natural lake wholly within California, two lakes are larger, Lake Tahoe is partially in Nevada, and Salton Sea was accidentally flooded. At one time Clear Lake was even bigger than it is now, volcanic eruptions and subsequent landslides changed the landscape dramatically, forever separating Clear Lake from the Blue Lakes and from its former westward drainage into the Russian River.
Archaeologists believe that the Clear Lake basin has been occupied by Native Americans for at least 11,000 years, evidence of this has been found at nearby Borax Lake and on Rattlesnake Island in the lakes south arm. Abundant fish and waterbirds made Clear Lake an oasis in the harsh conditions of Northern Californias mountains. The native Clear Lake Hitch, was once so abundant that millions of hitch clogged the lakes feeder streams in dry months. When the Spanish missionaries came to California, they found thousands of Native Americans lived in the Clear Lake Basin, primarily Pomo, Yuki
It is the most widely distributed pine species in North America. It grows in various forms from British Columbia southward and eastward through 16 western U. S. states and has been successfully introduced in temperate regions of Europe. It was first documented into modern science in 1826 in eastern Washington near present-day Spokane, on that occasion, David Douglas misidentified it as Pinus resinosa. In 1829, Douglas concluded that he had a new pine among his specimens, in 1836, it was formally named and described by Charles Lawson, a Scottish nurseryman. It is the state tree of Montana. Pinus ponderosa is a large pine tree. The bark helps to distinguish it from other species, mature to over-mature individuals have yellow to orange-red bark in broad to very broad plates with black crevices. Younger trees have blackish-brown bark, referred to as blackjacks by early loggers, ponderosa pines five subspecies, as classified by some botanists, can be identified by their characteristically bright, green needles.
The Pacific subspecies has the longest—19.8 cm or 7.8 in—and most flexible needles in fascicles of three. The Columbia ponderosa pine has long—12. 0–20.5 cm or 4. 7–8.1 in—and relatively flexible needles in fascicles of three. The Rocky Mountains subspecies has shorter—9. 2–14.4 cm or 3. 6–5.7 in—and stout needles growing in scopulate fascicles of two or three. The southwestern subspecies has 11. 2–19.8 cm or 4. 4–7.8 in, needles are widest and fewest for the species. Sources differ on the scent of P. ponderosa, but it is more or less of turpentine, some state that it has no distinctive scent. The National Register of Big Trees lists a ponderosa pine that is 235 ft tall and 324 in in circumference, in January 2011, a Pacific ponderosa pine in the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest in Oregon was measured with a laser to be 268.35 ft high. The measurement was performed by Michael Taylor and Mario Vaden, a professional arborist from Oregon, the tree was climbed on October 13,2011, by Ascending The Giants and directly measured with tape-line at 268.29 ft high.
This is the second tallest known pine after the sugar pine and this species is grown as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens. The trees were burned and blown over. Pinus ponderosa is a dominant tree in the Kuchler plant association, like most western pines, the ponderosa generally is associated with mountainous topography
Quercus kelloggii, the California black oak, known as simply black oak, or Kellogg oak, is an oak in the red oak section, native to western North America. It is a relative of the black oak found in eastern. California black oak is a tree growing in mixed evergreen forests, oak woodlands. California black oak is distributed along foothills and lower mountains of California and it is found from Lane County, south through the Cascade Range, the Sierra Nevada, and the Coast and Peninsular ranges to San Diego County and into Baja California. The tree occurs in pure or mixed stands, pure stands usually indicate sites unfavorable to conifer growth or recurring disturbance such as fire or logging activities. The tree can grow in many types of soils, but it is important that the soil be well-drained, Quercus kelloggii typically grows from 9–25 m in height and from 0. 3–1.4 m in diameter. Large trees may exceed 36 m in height and 1.6 m diameter, the species grows in shrubby scrub-oak form on poor sites.
In open areas the crown is broad and rounded, with lower branches nearly touching the ground or forming a browse line, in closed stands, the crown is narrow and slender in young trees and irregularly broad in old trees. Trunks are usually free of branches on the lower 6–12 m in closed stands, trunks are often forked, and usually decayed and hollow in older trees. The bark is thin and smooth in young trees, becoming thick and this oak grows from one to several vertical roots which penetrate to bedrock, with large, laterally spreading roots extending off from vertical ones. It has a number of surface roots, acorns are relatively large in this species, from 2. 5–3 cm long and 1. 5–1.8 cm wide. The deeply lobed leaves are typically 10–20 cm long, while individual trees generally have a lifespan between 100 and 200 years, California black oak can live up to 500 years of age. The tree reproduces when its acorns sprout to form seedlings and it reproduces vegetatively with new growth sprouting from the root crown after the tree is top-killed by wildfire, frost, or other events.
The California black oak, Quercus kelloggii, is a species for wildlife. Livestock make use of this species for food and cover. Cavities in the trees provide den or nest sites for owls, various woodpeckers, tree squirrels, trees provide valuable shade for livestock and wildlife during the hot summer months. California black oak forest types are used for spring, summer. It is browsed by deer and livestock
Pinus lambertiana is the tallest and most massive pine tree, and has the longest cones of any conifer. The species name lambertiana was given by the British botanist David Douglas and it is native to the mountains of the Pacific coast of North America, from Oregon through California to Baja California. The sugar pine is the tallest and largest Pinus species, commonly growing to 40–60 meters tall, exceptionally to 82 m tall, with a diameter of 1. 5–2.5 m. The tallest recorded specimen is 83.45 metres tall, is located in Yosemite National Park, the second tallest recorded was Yosemite Giant, an 82.05 m tall specimen in Yosemite National Park, which died from a bark beetle attack in 2007. The tallest, living specimens today grow in southern Oregon and Yosemite National Park, one in Umpqua National Forest is 77.7 m tall and another in Siskiyou National Forest is 77.2 m tall. Yosemite National Park has the third tallest, measured to 80.5 m tall as of June 2013, the Rim Fire affected this specimen, but it survived.
Pinus lambertiana is a member of the white group, Pinus subgenus Strobus, like all members of that group. They are 6–11 cm ch) long, Sugar pine is notable for having the longest cones of any conifer, mostly 25–50 cm long, exceptionally to 66 cm long, although the cones of the Coulter pine are more massive. The seeds are 10–12 mm long, with a 2–3-centimeter long wing that aids their dispersal by wind, the seeds of the sugar pine are a type of edible pine nut. The sugar pine has been affected by the white pine blister rust. A high proportion of sugar pines has been killed by the blister rust, the rust has destroyed much of the western white pine and whitebark pine throughout their ranges. The U. S. Forest Service has a program for developing rust-resistant sugar pine, seedlings of these trees have been introduced into the wild. However, blister rust is less common in California, and Sugar, Western White. Naturalist John Muir considered sugar pine to be the king of the conifers, the common name comes from the sweet resin, which Native Americans used as a sweetener.
John Muir found it preferable to maple sugar and it is known as the great sugar pine. The scientific name was assigned by David Douglas in honor of Aylmer Bourke Lambert, in the Achomawi creation myth, the creator, makes one of the First People by intentionally dropping a sugar pine seed in a place where it can grow. One of the descendants in this ancestry is Sugarpine-Cone man, who has a son named Ahsoballache. After Ahsoballache marries the daughter of Tokis the Chipmunk-woman, his grandfather insists that the new couple have a child
Located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada in Californias Owens Valley between the towns of Lone Pine to the south and Independence to the north, it is approximately 230 miles north of Los Angeles. Long before the first incarcerees arrived in March 1942, Manzanar was home to Native Americans and miners formally established the town of Manzanar in 1910, but abandoned the town by 1929 after the City of Los Angeles purchased the water rights to virtually the entire area. As different as these groups were, their histories displayed a common thread of forced relocation, the primary focus is the Japanese American incarceration era, as specified in the legislation that created the Manzanar National Historic Site. The site interprets the former town of Manzanar, the days, the settlement by the Owens Valley Paiute. Let us review the main points of the debate, over 120,000 residents of the U. S. A. two thirds of whom were American citizens, were incarcerated under armed guard. There were no crimes committed, no trials, and no convictions, to detain American citizens in a site under armed guard surely constitutes a concentration camp.
But what were the used by the government officials who were involved in the process. Raymond Okamura provides us with a detailed list of terms, lets consider three such euphemisms, evacuation and non-aliens. Earthquake and flood victims are evacuated and relocated, the words refer to moving people in order to rescue and protect them from danger. The official government policy makers consistently used evacuation to refer to the removal of the Japanese Americans. These are euphemisms as the terms do not imply forced removal nor incarceration in enclosures patrolled by armed guards. Hirabayashi went on to describe the harm done by the use of such euphemisms, the harm in continuing to use the governments euphemisms is that it disguises or softens the reality which subsequently has been legally recognized as a grave error. The actions abrogated some fundamental principles underlying the Constitution, the document under which we govern ourselves. This erosion of fundamental rights has consequences for all citizens of our society, some have argued that the Nazi Germany camps during the Holocaust were concentration camps and to refer to the Japanese American camps likewise would be an affront to the Jews.
It is certainly true that the Japanese Americans did not suffer the fate of the Jews in the terrible concentration camps or death camps where Nazi Germany practiced a policy of genocide. Although the loss of life was minimal in Americas concentration camps and Walter Weglyns research concerning Nazi Germanys euphemisms for their concentration camps revealed such phrases as protective custody camps, reception centers, and transit camps. Ironically, two Nazi euphemisms were identical to our governments usage, assembly centers and relocation centers and it might be well to point out, that the Nazis were not operating under the U. S. Constitution. Comparisons usually neglect to point out that Hitler was operating under the rules of the Third Reich
Point Reyes National Seashore
Point Reyes National Seashore is a 71, 028-acre park preserve located on the Point Reyes Peninsula in Marin County, California. As a national seashore, it is maintained by the US National Park Service as an important nature preserve, some existing agricultural uses are allowed to continue within the park. All of the beaches were listed as the cleanest in the state in 2010. The fact that the peninsula is on a different tectonic plate than the east shore of Tomales Bay produces a difference in soils and therefore to some extent a noticeable difference in vegetation. The even smaller town of Olema, about 3 miles south of Point Reyes Station, serves as the gateway to the Seashore and its visitor center, the peninsula includes wild coastal beaches and headlands and uplands. The Seashore administers the parts of the Golden Gate National Recreation area, such as the Olema Valley, the northernmost part of the peninsula is maintained as a reserve for Tule Elk, which are readily seen there. The preserve is very rich in raptors and shorebirds.
The Point Reyes Lighthouse attracts whale-watchers looking for the Gray Whale migrating south in mid-January, the Point Reyes Lifeboat Station is a National Historic Landmark. It is the last remaining example of a rail launched lifeboat station that was common on the Pacific coast and this encompasses 5,965 acres along the coast of Drakes Bay. Kule Loklo, a recreated Coast Miwok village, is a walk from the visitor center. The Point Reyes National Seashore attracts 2.5 million visitors annually, hostelling International USA maintains a 45-bed youth hostel at the Seashore. Point Reyes National Seashore Association, formed in 1964, collaborates with the Seashore on maintenance, like underwater parks, these marine protected areas help conserve ocean wildlife and marine ecosystems. A large shellfish farm raising Japanese oysters, Crassostrea gigas, was located in Drakes Estero until, under court order, Court appeals to keep the operation in place were dropped in December,2014. The farm was purchased by the National Park Service in 1972, a federal law enacted in 2009 authorized, but did not require, Interior Secretary Ken Salazar to renew the permit.
The NPS and conservation groups viewed the farm as an inappropriate and environmentally-insensitive use of the estero, the farms supporters argued that it was not ecologically harmful and was important to the local economy. Salazar visited the farm the previous week and phoned the farms owner to give him the news. The oyster farm closure was challenged in U. S. District Court on January 25,2013, the challenge was rejected by a federal court judge, who ruled that the law gave Salazar unfettered discretion to approve or deny a renewal of the permit. The California Coastal Commission voted on February 7,2013 to unanimously approve cease and desist, an attempt to have the appeals court rehear the case was rejected on January 14,2014 and a petition to the United States Supreme Court was denied on June 30,2014
Sequoia National Park
Sequoia National Park is a national park in the southern Sierra Nevada east of Visalia, California, in the United States. It was established on September 25,1890, the park is south of and contiguous with Kings Canyon National Park, the two are administered by the National Park Service together as the Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. They were designated the UNESCO Sequoia-Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve in 1976, the park is famous for its giant sequoia trees, including the General Sherman tree, the largest tree on Earth. The General Sherman tree grows in the Giant Forest, which five out of the ten largest trees in the world. The Giant Forest is connected by the Generals Highway to Kings Canyon National Parks General Grant Grove, the parks giant sequoia forests are part of 202,430 acres of old-growth forests shared by Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. Indeed, the preserve a landscape that still resembles the southern Sierra Nevada before Euro-American settlement. Many park visitors enter Sequoia National Park through its entrance near the town of Three Rivers at Ash Mountain at 1,700 ft elevation.
The last California grizzly was killed in this park in 1922, the California Black Oak is a key transition species between the chaparral and higher elevation conifer forest. At higher elevations in the front country, between 5,500 and 9,000 feet in elevation, the landscape becomes montane forest-dominated coniferous belt, found here are Ponderosa, Jeffrey and lodgepole pine trees, as well as abundant white and red fir. Found here too are the giant sequoia trees, the most massive living single-stem trees on earth, between the trees and summer snowmelts sometimes fan out to form lush, though delicate, meadows. In this region, visitors often see deer, Douglas squirrels, and American black bears. There are plans to reintroduce the bighorn sheep to this park, the vast majority of the park is roadless wilderness, no road crosses the Sierra Nevada within the parks boundaries. 84 percent of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks is designated wilderness and is only by foot or by horseback. Sequoias backcountry offers a vast expanse of high-alpine wonders, covering the highest-elevation region of the High Sierra, the backcountry includes Mount Whitney on the eastern border of the park, accessible from the Giant Forest via the High Sierra Trail.
On the floor of canyon, at least two days hike from the nearest road, is the Kern Canyon hot spring, a popular resting point for weary backpackers. From the floor of Kern Canyon, the trail ascends again over 8,000 ft to the summit of Mount Whitney, in the summertime, Native Americans would travel over the high mountain passes to trade with tribes to the East. By the time the first European settlers arrived in the area, smallpox had spread to the region. The first European settler to homestead in the area was Hale Tharp, Tharp allowed his cattle to graze the meadow, but at the same time had a respect for the grandeur of the forest and led early battles against logging in the area
Lava Beds National Monument
Lava Beds National Monument is located in northeastern California, in Siskiyou and Modoc counties. The Monument lies on the flank of the Medicine Lake Volcano. The region in and around Lava Beds Monument lies at the junction of the Sierra-Klamath, the Monument was established as a United States National Monument on November 21,1925, and includes more than 46,000 acres. Lava Beds National Monument has numerous lava tube caves, with twenty-five having marked entrances and developed trails for public access, the monument offers trails through the high Great Basin xeric shrubland desert landscape and the volcanic field. 1872–1873, this area was the site of the Modoc War, the area of Captain Jacks Stronghold was named in his honor. Volcanic eruptions on the Medicine Lake shield volcano have created a rugged landscape punctuated by these many landforms of volcanism. Cinder cones are formed when magma is under great pressure and it is released in a fountain of lava, blown into the air from a central vent.
The lava cools as it falls, forming cinders that pile up around the vent, when the pressure has been relieved, the rest of the lava flows from the base of the cone. Cinder cones typically only erupt once, the cinder cones of Hippo Butte, Three Sisters, Juniper Butte, and Crescent Butte are all older than the Mammoth and Modoc Crater flows, more than 30, 000–40,000 years old. Eagle Nest Butte and Bearpaw Butte are 114,000 years old, Schonchin Butte cinder cone and the andesitic flow from its base were formed around 62,000 years ago. The flow that formed Valentine Cave erupted 10,850 years ago, an eruption that formed The Castles is younger than the Mammoth Crater flows. Even younger were eruptions from Fleener Chimneys, such as the Devils Homestead flow,10,500 years ago, about 1,110 years ago, plus or minus 60 years, the Callahan flow was produced by an eruption from Cinder Butte. Though Cinder Butte is just outside the boundary of the monument, spatter cones are built out of thicker lava. The lava is thrown out of the vent and builds, layer by layer, Fleener Chimneys and Black Crater are examples of spatter cones.
Roughly ninety percent of the lava in the Lava Beds Monument is basaltic, there are primarily two kinds of basaltic lava flows, pahoehoe and aa. Pahoehoe is smooth, often ropy and is the most common type of lava in Lava Beds, aa is formed when pahoehoe cools and loses some of its gases. Aa is rough and jagged, an excellent example is the Devils Homestead lava flow, most of the rest of the lava in the monument is andesitic. Pumice, a type of lava, is found covering the monument
Angel Island (California)
Angel Island is an island in San Francisco Bay offering expansive 360° views of the San Francisco skyline, the Marin County Headlands and Mount Tamalpais. The entire island is included within Angel Island State Park and is administered by California State Parks, Angel Island is the second largest island in area of the San Francisco Bay. The island is so large that on a day and Napa can be seen from the north side of the island. The highest point on the island, almost exactly at its center, is Mount Caroline Livermore at a height of 788 feet, the island is separated from the mainland of Marin County by Raccoon Strait, the depth of the water approximately 90 feet. The United States Census Bureau reported an area of 3.107 km². Until about ten years ago, Angel Island was connected to the mainland. From about two years ago the island was a fishing and hunting site for Coast Miwok Native Americans. Similar evidence of Native American settlement is found on the mainland of the Tiburon Peninsula upon Ring Mountain.
In 1775, the Spanish naval vessel San Carlos made the first European entry to the San Francisco Bay under the command of Juan de Ayala, Ayala anchored off Angel Island, and gave it its modern name, the bay where he anchored is now known as Ayala Cove. In his book Two Years Before the Mast, published in 1840, Richard Henry Dana, like much of the California coast, Angel Island was subsequently used for cattle ranching. In 1863, during the American Civil War, the U. S. Army was concerned about Confederate naval raiders attacking San Francisco and it decided to construct artillery batteries on Angel Island, first at Stuart Point and Point Knox. Col. René Edward De Russy was the Chief Engineer, James Terry Gardiner was the engineer tasked with designing and supervising the work. The Army established a camp on the island, and it became an infantry garrison during the US campaigns against Native American peoples in the West. In the 19th century, the designated the entire island as Fort McDowell and developed further facilities there.
A quarantine station was opened in Ayala Cove in 1891, during the Spanish–American War the island served as a discharge depot for returning troops. It continued to serve as a transit station throughout the first half of the 20th century, at the end of World War I the disembarkation center was commanded by William P. Burnham, who had commanded the 82nd Division in France during the war. In 1938, hearings concerning charges of membership in a political party against labor leader Harry Bridges were held on Angel Island before Dean James Landis of Harvard Law School. After eleven weeks of testimony that filled nearly 8,500 pages, the decision was accepted by the United States Department of Labor and Bridges was freed
Napa Valley AVA
Napa Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Napa County, United States. Napa Valley is considered one of the wine regions in the world. Records of commercial production in the region date back to the nineteenth century. The combination of Mediterranean climate and geology of the region are conducive to growing quality wine grapes, John Patchett established the Napa Valleys first commercial vineyard in 1858. In 1861 Charles Krug established another of Napa Valleys first commercial wineries in St. Helena, Napa Valley is now a major enotourism destination. The valley floor is flanked by the Mayacamas Mountain Range on the western and northern sides the Vaca Mountains on the eastern side, several smaller valleys exist within these two ranges. The floor of the valley gradually rises from sea level at the southern end to 362 feet above sea level at the northern end in Calistoga at the foot of Mount Saint Helena. The Oakville and Rutherford American Viticultural Areas lie within an area known as the Rutherford Bench in the center of the valley floor.
Several of the hills that emerge from the middle of the valley floor near Yountville are indicators of the regions volcanic past. Several mesoclimates exist within the due to various weather and geographical influences. The open southern end of the floor is cooler during the growing season due to the proximity of San Pablo Bay while the sheltered, closed northern end is often much warmer. The eastern side of the valley tends to be more arid because winter storms tend to much more precipitation on the western mountains. Early pioneer and settler George C, Yount is generally credited to have been the first to grow grapes in the Napa Valley. In 1864, on the marriage of one of his granddaughters to Thomas Rutherford, Yount gave the couple around 1,000 acres of land, commercial production started in 1858, with John Patchett selling wine for $2 per gallon. His wine cellar, built in 1859, narrowly predates that established in 1861 in St. Helena by Charles Krug, captain Gustave Niebaum established Inglenook Winery in 1879 near the village of Rutherford.
This was the first Bordeaux style winery in the USA, Inglenook wines won gold medals at the 1889 Worlds Fair in Paris. In 1868 H. W. Crabb bought land near Oakville close to the Napa River, Crabb established a vineyard and winery named To Kalon, and by 1877 had planted 130 acres and was producing 50,000 US gallons of wine per year. Crabb experimented with over 400 grape varieties to find the types best suited for the area, by the end of the nineteenth century there were more than one hundred and forty wineries in the area
Arbutus is a genus of 11 accepted species of flowering plants in the family Ericaceae, native to warm temperate regions of the Mediterranean, western Europe, the Canary Islands and North America. The name is borrowed from Latin, where it referred to A. unedo, Arbutus are small trees or shrubs with red flaking bark and edible red berries. Fruit development is delayed for five months after pollination, so that flowers appear while the previous years fruit are ripening. Members of the genus are called madrones or madronas in the United States, in Canada—in British Columbia, where the species is common—arbutus is commonly used or, rarely and locally, tick tree. All refer to the species, Arbutus menziesii, native to the Pacific Northwest. It is Canadas only native broadleaved evergreen tree, some species in the genera Epigaea and Gaultheria were formerly classified in Arbutus. As a result of its past classification, Epigaea repens has a common name of trailing arbutus. Arbutus andrachne L. – Greek Strawberry Tree Arbutus canariensis Duhamel – Canary Madrone Arbutus pavarii Pampan, Arbutus unedo L.
– Strawberry Tree Arbutus arizonica Sarg. – Arizona Madrone Arbutus glandulosa Mart and it is likely that either or both of A. canariensis and A. andrachne conferred not only structural size but leaf size and smoothness of bark. The parent species likely experienced different blooming times, as the hybrid blooms nearly continuously, Arbutus × andrachnoides Link Arctostaphylos tomentosa Lindl. Comarostaphylis discolor Diggs Gaultheria phillyreifolia Sleumer Arbutus species are used as food plants by some Lepidoptera species including emperor moth, several species are widely cultivated as ornamental plants outside of their natural ranges, though cultivation is often difficult due to their intolerance of root disturbance. The hybrid Arbutus Marina is much more adaptable and thrives under garden conditions, the Arbutus unedo tree makes up part of the coat of arms of the city of Madrid, Spain. In the center of the city there is a statue of a bear eating the fruit of the madroño tree, the image appears on city crests, taxi cabs, man-hole covers, and other city infrastructure.
The tree figured into certain myths of the Straits Salish, the fruit is edible but has minimal flavour and is not widely eaten. In Portugal, the fruit is distilled into a potent brandy known as medronho. In Madrid, the fruit is distilled into madroño, a sweet, Arbutus is a great fuelwood tree since it burns hot and long. Also, according to the Great Flood legends of several bands in the northwest, because of this the Saanich people do not burn madrone out of thanks for saving them. Vasey, Michael C. & Thomas Parker, V.2001, phylogeny and Biogeography of the Arbutoideae, Implications for the Madrean-Tethyan Hypothesis