World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, 419.2 million years ago, to the beginning of the Carboniferous, 358.9 Mya. It is named after Devon, where rocks from this period were first studied; the first significant adaptive radiation of life on dry land occurred during the Devonian. Free-sporing vascular plants began to spread across dry land, forming extensive forests which covered the continents. By the middle of the Devonian, several groups of plants had evolved leaves and true roots, by the end of the period the first seed-bearing plants appeared. Various terrestrial arthropods became well-established. Fish reached substantial diversity during this time, leading the Devonian to be dubbed the "Age of Fishes." The first ray-finned and lobe-finned bony fish appeared, while the placoderms began dominating every known aquatic environment. The ancestors of all four-limbed vertebrates began adapting to walking on land, as their strong pectoral and pelvic fins evolved into legs.
In the oceans, primitive sharks became more numerous than in the Late Ordovician. The first ammonites, species of molluscs, appeared. Trilobites, the mollusc-like brachiopods and the great coral reefs, were still common; the Late Devonian extinction which started about 375 million years ago affected marine life, killing off all placodermi, all trilobites, save for a few species of the order Proetida. The palaeogeography was dominated by the supercontinent of Gondwana to the south, the continent of Siberia to the north, the early formation of the small continent of Euramerica in between; the period is named after Devon, a county in southwestern England, where a controversial argument in the 1830s over the age and structure of the rocks found distributed throughout the county was resolved by the definition of the Devonian period in the geological timescale. The Great Devonian Controversy was a long period of vigorous argument and counter-argument between the main protagonists of Roderick Murchison with Adam Sedgwick against Henry De la Beche supported by George Bellas Greenough.
Murchison and Sedgwick named the period they proposed as the Devonian System. While the rock beds that define the start and end of the Devonian period are well identified, the exact dates are uncertain. According to the International Commission on Stratigraphy, the Devonian extends from the end of the Silurian 419.2 Mya, to the beginning of the Carboniferous 358.9 Mya. In nineteenth-century texts the Devonian has been called the "Old Red Age", after the red and brown terrestrial deposits known in the United Kingdom as the Old Red Sandstone in which early fossil discoveries were found. Another common term is "Age of the Fishes", referring to the evolution of several major groups of fish that took place during the period. Older literature on the Anglo-Welsh basin divides it into the Downtonian, Dittonian and Farlovian stages, the latter three of which are placed in the Devonian; the Devonian has erroneously been characterised as a "greenhouse age", due to sampling bias: most of the early Devonian-age discoveries came from the strata of western Europe and eastern North America, which at the time straddled the Equator as part of the supercontinent of Euramerica where fossil signatures of widespread reefs indicate tropical climates that were warm and moderately humid but in fact the climate in the Devonian differed during its epochs and between geographic regions.
For example, during the Early Devonian, arid conditions were prevalent through much of the world including Siberia, North America, China, but Africa and South America had a warm temperate climate. In the Late Devonian, by contrast, arid conditions were less prevalent across the world and temperate climates were more common; the Devonian Period is formally broken into Early and Late subdivisions. The rocks corresponding to those epochs are referred to as belonging to the Lower and Upper parts of the Devonian System. Early DevonianThe Early Devonian lasted from 419.2 ± 2.8 to 393.3 ± 2.5 and began with the Lochkovian stage, which lasted until the Pragian. It spanned from 410.8 ± 2.8 to 407.6 ± 2.5, was followed by the Emsian, which lasted until the Middle Devonian began, 393.3± 2.7 million years ago. During this time, the first ammonoids appeared. Ammonoids during this time period differed little from their nautiloid counterparts; these ammonoids belong to the order Agoniatitida, which in epochs evolved to new ammonoid orders, for example Goniatitida and Clymeniida.
This class of cephalopod molluscs would dominate the marine fauna until the beginning of the Mesozoic era. Middle DevonianThe Middle Devonian comprised two subdivisions: first the Eifelian, which gave way to the Givetian 387.7± 2.7 million years ago. During this time the jawless agnathan fishes began to decline in diversity in freshwater and marine environments due to drastic environmental changes and due to the increasing competition and diversity of jawed fishes; the shallow, oxygen-depleted waters of Devonian inland lakes, surrounded by primitive plants, provided the environment necessary for certain early fish to develop such essential characteristics as well developed lungs, the ability to crawl out of the water and onto the land for short periods of time. Late DevonianFinally, the Late Devonian started with the Frasnian, 382.7 ± 2.8 to 372.2 ± 2.5, during which the first forests took shape on land. The first tetrapods appeared in the fossil record in the ensuing Famennian subdivisi
The Senate is the upper house of the French Parliament. Indirectly elected by elected officials, it represents territorial collectivities of the Republic and French citizens living abroad; the Senate enjoys less prominence than the directly elected National Assembly. The Senate is housed inside the Luxembourg Palace in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, it is guarded by Republican Guards. In front of the building lies the Senate's gardens, the Jardin du Luxembourg, open to the public. France's first experience with an upper house was under the Directory from 1795 to 1799, when the Council of Ancients was the upper chamber. There were Senates in both the First and Second Empires, but these were only nominally legislative bodies – technically they were not legislative, but rather advisory bodies on the model of the Roman Senate. With the Restoration in 1814, a new Chamber of Peers was created, on the model of the British House of Lords. At first it contained hereditary peers, but following the July Revolution of 1830, it became a body to which one was appointed for life.
The Second Republic returned to a unicameral system after 1848, but soon after the establishment of the Second French Empire in 1852, a Senate was established as the upper chamber. In the Fourth Republic, the Senate was replaced by the Council of the Republic, but its function was the same. With the new Constitution of the Fifth Republic enforced on 4 October 1958, the older name of Senate was restored. In 2011, the Socialist Party won control of the Senate for the first time since the foundation of the Fifth Republic. In 2014, the centre-right Gaullists and its allies won back the control of the Senate. Under the Constitution of France, the Senate has nearly the same powers as the National Assembly. Bills may be submitted by either house of Parliament; because both houses may amend the bill, it may take several readings to reach an agreement between the National Assembly and the Senate. When the Senate and the National Assembly cannot agree on a bill, the administration can decide, after a procedure called commission mixte paritaire, to give the final decision to the National Assembly, whose majority is on the government's side, but as regarding the constitutionnal laws the administration must have the Senate's agreement.
This does not happen frequently. This power however gives the National Assembly a prominent role in the law-making process since the administration is of the same side as the Assembly, for the Assembly can dismiss the administration through a motion of censure; the power to pass a vote of censure, or vote of no confidence, is limited. As was the case in the Fourth Republic's constitution, new cabinets do not have to receive a vote of confidence. A vote of censure can occur only after 10 percent of the members sign a petition. If the petition gets the required support, a vote of censure must gain an absolute majority of all members, not just those voting. If the Assembly and the Senate have politically distinct majorities, the Assembly will in most cases prevail, open conflict between the two houses is uncommon; the Senate is the representative of the territories and defends the regions and mayors, see the article 24 of the Constitution. The Senate serves to monitor the administration's actions by publishing many reports each year on various topics.
Until September 2004, the Senate had 321 members, each elected to a nine-year term. That month, the term was reduced to six years, while the number of senators progressively increased to 348 in 2011, in order to reflect the country's population growth. Senators were elected in thirds every three years; the President of the Senate is elected by Senators from among their members. The current incumbent is Gérard Larcher; the President of the Senate is, under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic, first in the line of succession—in case of death, resignation or removal from office —to the presidency of the French Republic, becoming Acting President of the Republic until a new election can be held. This happened twice for Alain Poher—once at the resignation of Charles de Gaulle and once at the death of Georges Pompidou; the President of the Senate has the right to designate three of the nine members of the Constitutional Council, serving for nine years. Senators are elected indirectly by 150,000 officials, including regional councillors, department councillors, municipal councillors in large communes, as well as members of the National Assembly.
However, 90 % of the electors are delegates appointed by councillors. This system introduces a bias in the composition of the Senate favoring rural areas; as a consequence, while the political majority changes in the National Assembly, the Senate has remained politically right, with one brief exception, since the foundation of the Fifth Republic, much to the displeasure of the Socialists. This has spurred controversy after the 2008 election in which the Socialist Party, despite controlling all but two of France's regions, a majority of departments, as well as communes representing more than 50 % of the population, still failed to achieve a majority in the Senate. The
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures. The term covers a wide range of work from large ships and bridges to precise engine parts and delicate jewelry, it therefore includes a correspondingly wide range of skills and tools. Metalworking is a science, hobby and trade, its historical roots span cultures and millennia. Metalworking has evolved from the discovery of smelting various ores, producing malleable and ductile metal useful tools and adornments. Modern metalworking processes, though diverse and specialized, can be categorized as forming, cutting, or joining processes. Today's machine shop includes a number of machine tools capable of creating a precise, useful workpiece; the oldest archaeological evidence of copper mining and working was the discovery of a copper pendant in northern Iraq from 8,700 BCE. The earliest substantiated and dated evidence of metalworking in the Americas was the processing of copper in Wisconsin, near Lake Michigan.
Copper was hammered until brittle heated so it could be worked some more. This technology is dated to about 4000-5000 BCE; the oldest gold artifacts in the world come from the Bulgarian Varna Necropolis and date from 4450 BCE. Not all metal required fire to work it. Isaac Asimov speculated that gold was the "first metal", his reasoning is. In other words, gold, as rare as it is, is sometimes found in nature as the metal. There are a few other metals that sometimes occur natively, as a result of meteors. All other metals are found in ores, a mineral-bearing rock, that require heat or some other process to liberate the metal. Another feature of gold is that it is workable as it is found, meaning that no technology beyond a stone hammer and anvil to work the metal is needed; this is a result of gold's properties of ductility. The earliest tools were stone, bone and sinew, all of which sufficed to work gold. At some unknown point the connection between heat and the liberation of metals from rock became clear, rocks rich in copper and lead came into demand.
These ores were mined. Remnants of such ancient mines have been found all over Southwestern Asia. Metalworking was being carried out by the South Asian inhabitants of Mehrgarh between 7000–3300 BCE; the end of the beginning of metalworking occurs sometime around 6000 BCE when copper smelting became common in Southwestern Asia. Ancient civilisations knew of seven metals. Here they are arranged in order of their oxidation potential: Iron +0.44 V, Tin +0.14 V Lead +0.13 V Copper −0.34 V Mercury −0.79 V Silver −0.80 V Gold −1.50 V. The oxidation potential is important because it is one indicator of how bound to the ore the metal is to be; as can be seen, iron is higher than the other six metals while gold is lower than the six above it. Gold's low oxidation is one of the main reasons; these nuggets are pure gold and are workable as they are found. Copper ore, being abundant, tin ore became the next important players in the story of metalworking. Using heat to smelt copper from ore, a great deal of copper was produced.
It was used for simple tools. However, copper by itself was too soft for tools requiring stiffness. At some point tin was added into the molten copper and bronze was born. Bronze is an alloy of tin. Bronze was an important advance because it had the edge-durability and stiffness that pure copper lacked; until the advent of iron, bronze was the most advanced metal for weapons in common use. Outside Southwestern Asia, these same advances and materials were being discovered and used around the world. China and Great Britain jumped into the use of bronze with little time being devoted to copper. Japan began the use of bronze and iron simultaneously. In the Americas things were different. Although the peoples of the Americas knew of metals, it was not until the European colonisation that metalworking for tools and weapons became common. Jewelry and art were the principal uses of metals in the Americas prior to European influence. Around 2700 BCE, production of bronze was common in locales where the necessary materials could be assembled for smelting and working the metal.
Iron was beginning to be smelted and began its emergence as an important metal for tools and weapons. The period that followed became known as the Iron Age. By the historical periods of the Pharaohs in Egypt, the Vedic Kings in India, the Tribes of Israel, the Maya civilization in North America, among other ancient populations, precious metals began to have value attached to them. In some cases rules for ownership and trade were created and agreed upon by the respective peoples. By the above periods metalworkers were skilled at creating objects of adornment, religious artifacts, trade instruments of precious metals, as well as weaponry of ferrous metals and/or alloys; these skills were finely honed and well executed. The techniques were practiced by artisans, atharvavedic practitioners and other categories of metalworkers around the globe. For example, the granulation technique was employed by numerous ancient cultures before the historic record shows people traveled to far regions to share this process.
This and many other ancient techniques are still used by metalsmiths today. As time progressed metal objects became more common, more complex; the need to further acquire and work metals grew in importance
Stamping is the process of placing flat sheet metal in either blank or coil form into a stamping press where a tool and die surface forms the metal into a net shape. Stamping includes a variety of sheet-metal forming manufacturing processes, such as punching using a machine press or stamping press, embossing, bending and coining; this could be a single stage operation where every stroke of the press produces the desired form on the sheet metal part, or could occur through a series of stages. The process is carried out on sheet metal, but can be used on other materials, such as polystyrene. Progressive dies are fed from a coil of steel, coil reel for unwinding of coil to a straightener to level the coil and into a feeder which advances the material into the press and die at a predetermined feed length. Depending on part complexity, the number of stations in the die can be determined. Stamping is done on cold metal sheet. See Forging for hot metal forming operations. Stamped parts were used for mass-produced bicycles in the 1880s.
Stamping replaced die forging and machining, resulting in reduced cost. Although not as strong as die forged parts, they were of good enough quality. Stamped bicycle parts were being imported into the United States from Germany in 1890. U. S. companies started to have stamping machines custom built by U. S. machine tool makers. Through research and development Western Wheel was able to stamp most bicycle parts. Several automobile manufacturers adopted stamped parts before Ford Motor Company. Henry Ford resisted the recommendations of his engineers to use stamped parts, but when the company could not satisfy the demand with die forged parts, Ford was forced to use stampings. Over the history of metal stamping and deep drawing, presses of all types are the backbone of metals manufacturing; the processes continue to evolve and improve in moving more metal in one stroke of a metal stamping press. Press and interconnected automation devices increase production rates, reduce labor costs and provide higher safety levels for factory workers.
In today's metal stamping environment, controls such as I-PRESS with Connected Enterprise are able to capture history, send reports or the I-PRESS & Automation control can be viewed from remote or mobile devices. A new trend in gathering information on today's production for historical data. Bending - the material is deformed or bent along a straight line. Flanging - the material is bent along a curved line. Embossing - the material is stretched into a shallow depression. Used for adding decorative patterns. See Repoussé and chasing. Blanking - a piece is cut out of a sheet of the material to make a blank for further processing. Coining - a pattern is compressed or squeezed into the material. Traditionally used to make coins. Drawing - the surface area of a blank is stretched into an alternate shape via controlled material flow. See deep drawing. Stretching - the surface area of a blank is increased by tension, with no inward movement of the blank edge. Used to make smooth auto body parts. Ironing - the material is squeezed and reduced in thickness along a vertical wall.
Used for beverage cans and ammunition cartridge cases. Reducing/Necking - used to reduce the diameter of the open end of a vessel or tube. Curling - deforming material into a tubular profile. Door hinges are a common example. Hemming - folding an edge over onto itself to add thickness; the edges of automobile doors are hemmed. Piercing and cutting can be performed in stamping presses. Progressive stamping is a combination of the above methods done with a set of dies in a row through which a strip of the material passes one step at a time; the Tribology process generates friction which requires the use of a lubricant to protect the tool and die surface from scratching or galling. The lubricant protects the sheet metal and finished part from the same surface abrasion as well as facilitate elastic material flow preventing rips, tears or wrinkles. There are a variety of lubricants available for this task, they include plant and mineral oil based, animal fat or lard based, graphite based and acrylic based dry films.
The newest technology in the industry is polymer based synthetic lubricants known as oil-free lubricants or non-oil lubricants. The term "Water-Based" lubricant refers to the larger category that includes more traditional oil and fat based compounds. Sheet metal forming simulation is a technology that calculates the process of sheet metal stamping, predicting common defects such as splits, wrinkles and material thinning. Known as forming simulation, the technology is a specific application of non-linear finite element analysis; the technology has many benefits in the manufacturing industry the automotive industry, where lead time to market and lean manufacturing are critical to the success of a company. Recent research by the Aberdeen research company found that the most effective manufacturers spend more time simulating upfront and reap the rewards towards the end of their projects. Stamping simulation is used when a sheet metal part designer or toolmaker desires to assess the likelihood of manufacturing a sheet metal part, without the expense of making a physical tool.
Stamping simulation allows any sheet metal part forming process to be simulated in the virtual environment of a PC for a fraction of the expense of a physical tryout. Results from a stamping simulation allow sheet metal part designers to assess alternative designs quickly to optimize their part for low cost manufacture. While the concept of stamping sheet metal components has traditionally focused on the macro level (e.g. vehicle and packag
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, their mixtures, which are called alloys. A special type of alloy was invented in 1995, when Taiwanese scientists invented the world's first high-entropy alloys of metals that can withstand the highest temperatures and pressures for use in industrial and technological applications such as state of the art race cars, submarines, nuclear reactors, jet airplanes, nuclear weapons, long range hypersonic missiles and many other areas of technology. Metallurgy is used to separate metals from their ore. Metallurgy is the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers; the production of metals involves the processing of ores to extract the metal they contain, the mixture of metals, sometimes with other elements, to produce alloys.
Metallurgy is distinguished from the craft of metalworking, although metalworking relies on metallurgy, as medicine relies on medical science, for technical advancement. The science of metallurgy is subdivided into physical metallurgy. Metallurgy is subdivided into ferrous metallurgy and non-ferrous metallurgy. Ferrous metallurgy involves processes and alloys based on iron while non-ferrous metallurgy involves processes and alloys based on other metals; the production of ferrous metals accounts for 95 percent of world metal production. The roots of metallurgy derive from Ancient Greek: μεταλλουργός, metallourgós, "worker in metal", from μέταλλον, métallon, "metal" + ἔργον, érgon, "work"; the word was an alchemist's term for the extraction of metals from minerals, the ending -urgy signifying a process manufacturing: it was discussed in this sense in the 1797 Encyclopædia Britannica. In the late 19th century it was extended to the more general scientific study of metals and related processes. In English, the pronunciation is the more common one in the Commonwealth.
The pronunciation is the more common one in the USA, is the first-listed variant in various American dictionaries. The earliest recorded metal employed by humans appears to be gold, which can be found free or "native". Small amounts of natural gold have been found in Spanish caves used during the late Paleolithic period, c. 40,000 BC. Silver, copper and meteoric iron can be found in native form, allowing a limited amount of metalworking in early cultures. Egyptian weapons made from meteoric iron in about 3000 BC were prized as "daggers from heaven". Certain metals, notably tin and copper, can be recovered from their ores by heating the rocks in a fire or blast furnace, a process known as smelting; the first evidence of this extractive metallurgy, dating from the 5th and 6th millennia BC, has been found at archaeological sites in Majdanpek and Plocnik, in present-day Serbia. To date, the earliest evidence of copper smelting is found at the Belovode site near Plocnik; this site produced a copper axe from 5500 BC.
The earliest use of lead is documented from the late neolithic settlement of Yarim Tepe in Iraq, "The earliest lead finds in the ancient Near East are a 6th millennium BC bangle from Yarim Tepe in northern Iraq and a later conical lead piece from Halaf period Arpachiyah, near Mosul. As native lead is rare, such artifacts raise the possibility that lead smelting may have begun before copper smelting." Copper smelting is documented at this site at about the same time period, although the use of lead seems to precede copper smelting. Early metallurgy is documented at the nearby site of Tell Maghzaliyah, which seems to be dated earlier, lacks pottery. Other signs of early metals are found from the third millennium BC in places like Palmela, Los Millares, Stonehenge. However, the ultimate beginnings cannot be ascertained and new discoveries are both continuous and ongoing. In the Near East, about 3500 BC, it was discovered that by combining copper and tin, a superior metal could be made, an alloy called bronze.
This represented a major technological shift known as the Bronze Age. The extraction of iron from its ore into a workable metal is much more difficult than for copper or tin; the process appears to have been invented by the Hittites in about 1200 BC. The secret of extracting and working iron was a key factor in the success of the Philistines. Historical developments in ferrous metallurgy can be found in a wide variety of past cultures and civilizations; this includes the ancient and medieval kingdoms and empires of the Middle East and Near East, ancient Iran, ancient Egypt, ancient Nubia, Anatolia, Ancient Nok, the Greeks and Romans of ancient Europe, medieval Europe and medieval China and medieval India and medieval Japan, amongst others. Many applications and devices associated or involved in metallurgy were established in ancient China, such as the innovation of the blast furnace, cast iron, hydraulic-powered trip hammers, double acting piston bellows. A 16th century book by Georg Agricola called De re metallica describes the developed and complex processes of mining metal ores, metal extraction and metallurgy of the time.
Agricola has been described as the "father of metallurgy". Extractive metallurgy is the practice of removing valuable metals from an ore and refining the extracted