The Bidhawal were an Australian Aboriginal tribe of Gippsland, Victoria. According to A. W. Howitt, the Bidhawal were composed of refugees from tribal justice or individual vengeance from neighbouring tribes, the Bidhawal spoke a dialect of the Kurnai language, which was spoken by the Kurnai tribes to the west. However, the Bidhawal dialect had borrowed a number of words referring to mammals and celestial bodies from Ngarigo, as well as a number of words from Thawa. The Bidhawal called their own dialect mŭk-dhang, and that of the neighbouring Kurnai gūnggala-dhang, the Kurnai, called their own dialect mŭk-dhang, and that of the Bidhawal kwai-dhang. Dixon, R. M. W. Australian Languages, Their Nature, on the Migrations of the Kurnai Ancestors. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, the Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol.15. The Native Tribes of South-East Australia, language of the Birdhawal Tribe, in Gippsland, Victoria.
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, bibliography of Bidawal language and people resources, at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
Maisie Carr was an innovative Australian ecologist and botanist who contributed much to our understanding of the uniqueness of Australian plants and their environmental systems. Maisie Carr was born Stella Grace Maisie Fawcett in Footscray, neither of her parents had a science background but her love of plants was likely fostered by visits to nearby salt-marshes, her grandmothers garden and in nature study classes. Maisie attended Footscrays Hyde Street State School where she was first in her class and Dux in 1924 and attended Melbourne High School. Her diligence was evident at an age, in 1920 she won £2 in a competition for finding the largest number of Australian postal towns within the letters of AUSTRALBA TOOTH PASTE. After graduation she returned to her old school as a junior teacher while at night studying zoology and geology at Austral Coaching College. Maisie attended University of Melbourne being awarded B. Sc.1935, maisies academic abilities won her a number of scholarships. In March 1935, she was awarded the Howitt natural history scholarship, in December 1936, Maisie was awarded the Wyselaskie Scholarship, established by John Dickson Wyselaskie in 1883.
In April 1937, Maisie was awarded the Caroline Kay scholarship in Botany, although her initial research activities focused on coral fungi, she studied fungal and nematode diseases of plants as well. As a student, attending field-trips with the McCoy Society for Field Investigation, in 1936, Maisie participated in one of the societys expeditions to Sir Joseph Banks Islands in the Spencer Gulf of South Australia to undertake a full scientific survey of the islands. Miss Marshall was the mistress of method of English in the School of Education at the University of Melbourne until her death in 1938, miss Marshalls friends raised £500 to fund the scholarship. Permits to graze these high plains commenced in the late 1880s, additional motivation for the studies was prompted by the soil siltation threat to the soon to be constructed Kiewa Hydroelectric Scheme. Maisie was the first research officer of the Soil Conservation Board and was responsible for establishing exclusion fencing on reference plots in Bogong High Plains, having excluded grazing from select high-plains plots and team members recorded changes in regrowth vegetation over decades.
This has evolved into a collection of 100-200 plant specimens from that region of north-east Victoria which is still in use for teaching. Much of this early work was undertaken while she was employed at University of Melbourne in the Botany Department headed at the time by Prof. J. S. Turner. In addition to her interests, she lectured on plant taxonomy as well as ecology becoming a senior lecturer in that department three years later. Their marriage was the start of decades of collaborative efforts studying plant morphology and their studies continued during academic appointments in Belfast and back in Australia where Maisie was a visiting fellow. Their academic contributions together resulted in dozens of articles, often in highly specialist publications, the couple was opposed to any splitting of the genus Eucalyptus into smaller groupings. They did, make significant contributions to descriptions of the morphology of eucalypts, published phylogenetic analyses would show that Eucalyptus was not a particularly uniform genus and that the classification needed to be revised
Ski touring is a form of backcountry skiing where both uphill and downhill travel are possible without needing to remove skis. Typically touring is done off-piste and outside of ski resorts, ski touring cuts across both Nordic and Alpine forms and embraces such sub-disciplines as Telemark and randonnée. A defining characteristic is the skiers heel being free to allow a gliding motion while traversing and ascending terrain which may range from perfectly flat to extremely steep. Ski touring has been adopted by skiers seeking new snow, by alpinists, Touring requires independent navigation skills and may involve route finding through potential avalanche terrain. Ski touring has parallels with hiking and wilderness backpacking, ski mountaineering is a form of ski touring which variously combines the sports of Telemark and backcountry skiing with that of mountaineering. The history of ski touring is unwritten and his deliveries began in 1855 and continued for at least 20 years. Thompsons route of 90 miles took 3 days in and 48 hours back out with a pack that eventually exceeded 100 pounds of mail.
Cecil Slingsby, one of the earliest European practitioners, who crossed the 1,550 m high Keiser Pass, Norway, in particular it requires the knowledge to assess and test snow conditions to minimise the risk of avalanche. As the slope angles increase, the climbing ski-tourer will make switchbacks, using kick turns to change direction, skin tracks can be seen as zig-zags heading up a snowy mountain. Ski-tourers try to maintain the up-tracks in avalanche-safe zones as they head up the mountain, setting a proper and safe skin track requires a great deal of skill and avalanche knowledge as the tourer spends most of their time climbing. Traveling quickly up potential avalanche terrain is important for safety as well, thus physical fitness is a crucial element of safe mountain travel. Nordic ski touring is skiing with bindings that leave the heels free all the time, Nordic skiers do not have to change back and forth between uphill and downhill modes, which can be advantageous in rolling terrain. Backcountry Nordic, heavier than a traditional Nordic setup, but not as big, Telemark, at the heavier end of the Nordic skiing equipment spectrum, for steep backcountry terrain or ski-area use.
Alpine Touring or randonnée equipment is designed for ski touring in steep terrain. Climbing skins are used when either fish scale pattern friction aids embossed on the bottom of skis or sticky ski wax fail to provide sufficient grip for skiing uphill. Ski crampons (also called Harscheisen, couteau, or rampant may be attached when conditions are particularly icy or the grade too steep for skins, ski touring can take place anywhere that has suitable snow and terrain. Some examples include Iceland, Activities center on the Troll Peninsula in northern Iceland, touring in Norway has a long tradition. Skiing was originally a means of winter transportation
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a maximum in elevation. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous, the UIAA definition is that a summit is independent if it has a prominence of 30 metres or more, it is a mountain if it has a prominence of at least 300 metres. This can be summarised as follows, A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top, Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route. In many parts of the western United States, the term refers to the highest point along a road, highway. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit while the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit, geoid Hill List of highest mountains Maxima and minima Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder
Mount Hotham is a mountain in the Victorian Alps of the Great Dividing Range, located in the Australian state of Victoria. The mountain is located approximately 357 kilometres north east of Melbourne,746 kilometres from Sydney, the nearest major road to mountain is the Great Alpine Road. Mt Hothams summit rises to an altitude of 1,862 metres AHD, Hotham Alpine Resort, a commercial ski resort, is located on the slopes of Mount Hotham and adjoining mountains. Alpine National Park List of mountains in Victoria The Official site for Melbourne, Australia, Mount Hotham
Australian Alps Walking Track
The Australian Alps Walking Track is a long distance walking trail through the alpine areas of Victoria, New South Wales and ACT. It is 655 km long, starting at Walhalla and running through to Tharwa, the track weaves mainly through Australian national parks, such as Alpine National Park and Kosciuszko National Park, though it is not exclusively restricted to national parks. It ascends many peaks including Mount Kosciuszko, Mount Bogong, and Bimberi Peak, the AAWT crosses exposed high plains including the Victorian Bogong High Plains and the Main Range in NSW. To walk the trail can take between 5 and 8 weeks. It has been signposted for part of its length in a tri-state agreement, most parts of the Track require hikers to have highly developed navigation skills, particularly in wilderness areas. The Australian Alps Walking Track is an extension of the older Victorian Alpine Walking Track, the Victorian track was extended after many years of promotion by the Federation of Victorian Walking Clubs and various government departments.
The NSW stretch of the walk is less imaginative than the Victorian section, where the Victorian section typically follows spurs and ridges, the NSW section typically follows fire trails/tracks. The route recommended by John Siseman adds some interest to the NSW section of the walk, between Walhalla and Tharwa it passes through these National Parks, Baw Baw National Park Alpine National Park, up to the New South Wales border. Kosciuszko National Park, immediately north of the border, namadgi National Park, adjoining Kosciuszko National Park
Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance. Cross-country skiing is practiced as a sport and recreational activity, however. Variants of cross-country skiing are adapted to a range of terrain which spans unimproved, modern cross-country skiing is similar to the original form of skiing, from which all skiing disciplines evolved, including alpine skiing, ski jumping and Telemark skiing. Skiers propel themselves either by striding forward or side-to-side in a skating motion and it is practised in regions with snow-covered landscapes, including Northern Europe, Canada and regions in the United States. Competitive cross-country skiing is one of the Nordic skiing sports, Cross-country skiing and rifle marksmanship are the two components of biathlon, ski-orienteering is a form of cross-country skiing, which includes map navigation along snow trails and tracks. The word ski comes from the Old Norse word skíð which means stick of wood, Skiing started as a technique for traveling cross-country over snow on skis, starting almost five millennia ago with beginnings in Scandinavia.
It may have practised as early as 600 BCE in Daxinganling. Early historical evidence includes Procopius description of Sami people as skrithiphinoi translated as ski running samis, birkely argues that the Sami people have practiced skiing for more than 6000 years, evidenced by the very old Sami word čuoigat for skiing. Egil Skallagrimssons 950 CE saga describes King Haakon the Goods practice of sending his tax collectors out on skis, the Gulating law stated that No moose shall be disturbed by skiers on private land. Cross-country skiing evolved from a means of transportation to being a world-wide recreational activity and sport. Early skiers used one long pole or spear in addition to the skis, the first depiction of a skier with two ski poles dates to 1741. This combination has a long history among the Sami people, skis up to 280 cm have been produced in Finland, and the longest recorded ski in Norway is 373 cm. Ski warfare, the use of ski-equipped troops in war, is first recorded by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus in the 13th century and these troops were reportedly able to cover distances comparable to that of light cavalry.
The garrison in Trondheim used skis at least from 1675, skis were used in military exercises in 1747. In 1799 French traveller Jacques de la Tocnaye recorded his visit to Norway in his travel diary, Norwegian immigrant Snowshoe Thompson transported mail by skiing across the Sierra Nevada between California and Nevada from 1856. In 1888 Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen and his team crossed the Greenland icecap on skis, Norwegian workers on the Buenos Aires - Valparaiso railway line introduced skiing in South America around 1890. In 1910 Roald Amundsen used skis on his South Pole Expedition, in 1902 the Norwegian consul in Kobe imported ski equipment and introduced skiing to the Japanese, motivated by the death of Japanese soldiers during a snow storm. An early record of a ski competition occurred in Tromsø,1843
Alpine National Park
The Alpine National Park is a national park located in the Central Highlands and Alpine regions of Victoria, Australia. The 646, 000-hectare national park is located northeast of Melbourne, the parks north-eastern boundary is along the border with New South Wales, where it abuts the Kosciuszko National Park. On 7 November 2008 the Alpine National Park was added to the Australian National Heritage List as one of eleven areas constituting the Australian Alps National Parks and Reserves. Ecologically, alpine refers to areas where the environment is such that trees are unable to grow and vegetation is restricted to dwarfed shrubs, alpine grasses, in Victoria this is roughly those areas above 1,800 metres AHD . Below this is the zone, an area of open forest dominated by snow-gums. This zone includes basins where cold air settles, restricting tree growth, in wetter areas these basins form Sphagnum bogs, which play an important role in the water cycle. Water enters the alps as snow or rain and frost hollows collect the water as snow melt and run off.
A key element of these bogs is Sphagnum Moss, which acts as a sponge and these bogs release the water over summer, ensuring creeks flow throughout most of the year maintaining the alps’ creeks and streams. The greatest risk to this system is damage to the Sphagnum bogs, fire can remove riparian vegetation, increasing run-off and erosion. Below the sub-alpine zone is the montane zone, on the alps southern fall, this exists as wet forest and rainforest, a consequence of the higher rainfall on this side of the park. Tall forests of Alpine Ash and Mountain Ash grow in deep soils while species like Mountain Gum are found in soils or drier sites. The understory is usually shrubby, with a dense ground-layer of grasses, ferns, rainforests are areas where the canopy cover is high, greater than 70%. The tree species are specialists, such as Myrtle Beech in Cool Temperate Rainforest. Rainforest species are tolerant and able to regenerate below an undisturbed canopy or in small gaps created when a tree falls.
Rainforest often merges with the surrounding, usually damp or wet and these forests are home to a diverse bird life and many mammals, some of which are restricted to a particular ecological niche within the ecosystem. This can include particular vegetation for foraging, or the presence of trees with their larger hollows. Rainforest species regenerate without fire and may be intolerant to fire, fire can affect the breeding of some mammals. Fire in Spring, for example, is considered to put juvenile Spot-tailed Quolls at risk, the montane zone on the alps drier, northern fall consists of dry forest and woodland with eucalypt species such as stringybarks and peppermints
Great Dividing Range
The Great Dividing Range, or the Eastern Highlands, is Australias most substantial mountain range and the third longest land-based range in the world. The width of the range varies from about 160 km to over 300 km, the Dividing Range does not consist of a single mountain range. It consists of a complex of ranges, upland areas and escarpments with an ancient. The physiographic division name for the landmass is called the East Australian Cordillera, in some places the terrain is relatively flat, consisting of very low hills. Typically the highlands range from 300 m to 1,600 m in height, the mountains and plateaus, which consist of limestones, quartzite and dolomite, have been created by faulting and folding processes. In the north, the rivers on the west side of the drain towards the Gulf of Carpentaria. The higher and more rugged parts of the range do not necessarily part of the crest of the range. At some places it can be up to 400 km wide, notable ranges and other features which form part of the range complex have their own distinctive names.
The Great Dividing Range was formed during the Carboniferous period—over 300 million years ago—when Australia collided with what is now parts of South America, the range has experienced significant erosion since. For tens of thousands of years prior to British colonisation the ranges were home to various Aboriginal Australian nations and clans, evidence remains in some places of their traditional way of life including decorated caves and trails used to travel between the coastal and inland regions. Many descendants of these still exist today and remain the traditional owners. After British colonisation in 1788, the ranges were an obstacle to exploration, although not high, parts of the highlands were very rugged. Towns in the Blue Mountains were named each of these men. This was the start of the development of the districts of inland New South Wales. A road was built to Blaxland by convicts within six months, easier routes to inland New South Wales were discovered towards Goulburn to the southwest, and westwards from Newcastle.
Subsequent explorations were made across and around the ranges by Allan Cunningham, John Oxley, Hamilton Hume, Paul Edmund Strzelecki, Ludwig Leichhardt and these explorers were mainly concerned with finding and appropriating good agricultural land. By the late 1830s the most fertile rangelands adjacent to the ranges had been explored, appropriated from the traditional inhabitants. These included the Gippsland and Riverina regions in the south, up to the Liverpool Plains, various road and railway routes were subsequently established through many parts of the ranges, although many areas remain remote to this day
Victoria is a state in southeast Australia. Victoria is Australias most densely populated state and its second-most populous state overall, most of its population is concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australias second-largest city. Prior to British European settlement, the area now constituting Victoria was inhabited by a number of Aboriginal peoples. With Great Britain having claimed the entire Australian continent east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria was included in the wider colony of New South Wales. The first settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, and much of what is now Victoria was included in the Port Phillip District in 1836, Victoria was officially created as a separate colony in 1851, and achieved self-government in 1855. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate, at state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
Victoria is currently governed by the Labor Party, with Daniel Andrews the current Premier, the personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria, currently Linda Dessau. Local government is concentrated in 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, Victorias total gross state product is ranked second in Australia, although Victoria is ranked fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne is home to a number of museums, art galleries and theatres and is described as the sporting capital of Australia. The Melbourne Cricket Ground is the largest stadium in Australia, and the host of the 1956 Summer Olympics, Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, having been founded in 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, who had been on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851.
The first British settlement in the known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. In the year 1826 Colonel Stewart, Captain S. Wright and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. Victorias next settlement was at Portland, on the south west coast of what is now Victoria, edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, from settlement the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after the now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe. And in 1838 Geelong was officially declared a town, despite earlier white settlements dating back to 1826, days later, still in 1851 gold was discovered near Ballarat, and subsequently at Bendigo. Later discoveries occurred at sites across Victoria