Bogotá Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D. C. and known as Santa Fe de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, as well as the capital of the department of Cundinamarca. Bogotá is a territorial entity of the first order, with the same administrative status as the departments of Colombia, it is the political, economic and industrial center of the country. Bogotá was founded as the capital of the New Kingdom of Granada on 6 August 1538, by Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada after a harsh expedition into the Andes conquering the Muisca; the Muisca were the indigenous inhabitants of the region, they called the place of the foundation "Thybzaca" or "Old Town". The name of Bogotá corresponds to the Spanish pronunciation of the Muisca Bacatá, the name of a neighboring settlement located between the modern towns of Funza and Cota. There are different opinions about the meaning of the word Bacatá, the most accepted being that it means "walling of the farmland" in the Chibcha language.

Another popular translation argues that it means "The Lady of the Andes". Further, the word'Andes' in the Aymara language means "shining mountain", thus rendering the full lexical signification of Bogotá as "The Lady of the shining mountain". Others suggest that Bacatá was the name of the Muisca cacique who governed the land before the Spaniards arrived. Jiménez de Quesada gave the settlement the name of "Our Lady of Hope" but the Spanish crown gave it the name of Santafé in 1540 when it was appointed as a city. Santafé became the seat of the government of the Spanish Royal Audiencia of the New Kingdom of Granada, after 1717 it was the capital of the Viceroyalty of New Granada. After the Battle of Boyacá on 7 August 1819, Bogotá became the capital of the independent nation of Gran Colombia, it was Simón Bolívar who rebaptized the city with the name of Bogotá, as a way of honoring the Muisca people and as an emancipation act towards the Spanish crown. Hence, since the Viceroyalty of New Granada's independence from the Spanish Empire and during the formation of present-day Colombia, Bogotá has remained the capital of this territory.

The city is located in the center of Colombia, on a high plateau known as the Bogotá savanna, part of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense located in the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes. It is the third-highest capital in South America and in the world after Quito and La Paz, at an average of 2,640 metres above sea level. Subdivided into 20 localities, Bogotá has an area of 1,587 square kilometres and a cool climate, constant through the year; the city is home to central offices of the executive branch, the legislative branch and the judicial branch of the Colombian government. Bogotá stands out for its economic strength and associated financial maturity, its attractiveness to global companies and the quality of human capital, it is the financial and commercial heart of Colombia, with the most business activity of any city in the country. The capital hosts the main financial market in Colombia and the Andean natural region, is the leading destination for new foreign direct investment projects coming into Latin America and Colombia.

It has the highest nominal GDP in the country, responsible for a quarter of the nation's total. The city's airport, El Dorado International Airport, named after the mythical El Dorado, handles the largest cargo volume in Latin America, is third in number of people. Bogotá is home to the largest number of universities and research centers in the country, is an important cultural center, with many theaters and museums. Bogotá ranks 52nd on the Global Cities Index 2014, is considered a global city type "Alpha −" by GaWC; the area of modern Bogotá was first populated by groups of indigenous people who migrated south based on the relation with the other Chibcha languages. The civilisation built by the Muisca, who settled in the valleys and fertile highlands of and surrounding the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, was one of the four great civilisations in the Americas; the name Muisca Confederation has been given to a loose egalitarian society of various chiefs who lived in small settlements of maximum 100 bohíos.

The agriculture and salt-based society of the people was rich in goldworking and mummification. The religion of the Muisca consisted of various gods related to natural phenomena as the Sun and his wife, the Moon, their complex luni-solar calendar, deciphered by Manuel Izquierdo based on work by Duquesne, followed three different sets of years, where the sidereal and synodic months were represented. Their astronomical knowledge is represented in one of the few extant landmarks of the architecture of the Muisca in El Infiernito outside Villa de Leyva to the north of Bogotá; the first populations inhabiting the present-day Metropolitan Area of Bogotá were hunter-gatherer people in the late Pleistocene. The oldest dated evidence thus far has been discovered in El Abra, north of Zipaquirá. Dated excavations in a rock shelter southwest of the city in Soa


Ingen Ryūki was a poet and monk of Linji Chan Buddhism from China. He is most known for founding the Ōbaku school of Zen in Japan. Ingen was born on December 7, 1592, in Fuqing, during China's Ming dynasty. Ingen's father disappeared. At age 20, while searching for him, Ingen arrived at Mount Putuo off Zhejiang province, where he served tea to monks. At 28, after the death of his mother, he was ordained as a monk at his family temple - Wanfu Temple, Mount Huangbo, Fujian. Ingen's teachers there were Feiyin Tongrong. In 1633 he received dharma transmission from the latter, in 1637 served his first term as abbot, his second term as 33rd abbot of the temple began in 1646 and at this time he is credited with helping Mount Huangbo to develop into a thriving Buddhist centre. In 1654, after repeated requests of Itsunen Shoyu, he went to Nagasaki, Japan with around 30 monks and artisans, including his disciple Muyan, he founded the Ōbaku school of Zen. He established the Ōbaku head temple Manpuku-ji at Uji, Kyoto in 1661.

On May 21, 1673, he died at Mampuku-ji. Ingen was a skilled calligrapher. Along with his disciples Muyan and Sokuhi Nyoitsu, he was one of the Ōbaku no Sanpitsu, he is known to have carried paintings by Chen Xian with him to Japan. Ingen's published writings encompass 35 works in 46 publications in 4 languages and 226 library holdings. 1979 — Complete Works of Ingen Egoku Dōmyō Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 251800045.

HTC Rezound

The HTC Rezound is a smartphone by HTC and sold through Verizon. Along with the Galaxy Nexus and Droid RAZR, it was expected to be a major competitor to the iPhone 4S, it was released on November 14, 2011. It is the first phone to use Beats Audio technology, comes with a special pair of the Beats by Dr. Dre's iBeats earphones with black earpieces and red wiring. Before its initial release, the phone was rumored to be the replacement for the ThunderBolt, nicknamed the "Thunderbolt 2" in the enthusiast community; the HTC Rezound is the second Verizon Wireless phone available that allows simultaneous surf and talk on the Verizon Wireless 4G LTE network. This capability is due to the duplication of some functions between the Qualcomm Snapdragon S3 MSM8660 SoC and the Qualcomm MSM9600 modem chip; the Snapdragon SoC provides all CDMA2000 functionality, including voice, while the MSM9600 duplicates CDMA2000 data functionality with the addition of GSM-derived LTE functionality. This gave the HTC Rezound the ability to simultaneous surf and talk in 3G environments.

This arrangement calls for radio antenna redundancy. The phone has a 4.3 inch 1280x720 display and was tied with the Sony Xperia S for the highest pixel density in any smartphone released until the arrival of HTC Butterfly/Droid DNA with a 5-inch 1920x1080 resolution screen. On August 2, 2012, Verizon Wireless announced the Android 4.0 update for the HTC Rezound. The update became available to customers on that day, updating users to Android 4.0.3 with Sense 3.6. On November 13, 2012, Verizon Wireless announced the Droid DNA, a variant of the HTC Butterfly with a 5-inch 1920x1080 display. While not a direct replacement for the Rezound, this device was styled and took its place as HTC's flagship offering for Verizon; the Rezound was discontinued shortly thereafter. HTC Corporation Galaxy Nexus Motorola Droid RAZR HTC Droid DNA