Zynoviy Bohdan Khmelnytsky was a Ukrainian Hetman of the Zaporozhian Host in the Polish Crown of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. He led an uprising against the Commonwealth and its magnates that resulted in the creation of a state led by the Cossacks. In 1654, he concluded the Treaty of Pereyaslav with the Russian Tsardom and thus allied the state with Russia. Although there is no definite proof of the date of Khmelnytsky's birth, Ukrainian historian Mykhaylo Maksymovych suggests that it is 27 December 1595; as was the custom in the Orthodox Church, he was baptized with one of his middle names, translated into Ukrainian as Bohdan. A biography of Khmelnytsky by Smoliy and Stepankov, suggests that it is more he was born on 9 November and was baptized on 11 November. Khmelnytsky was born in the village of Subotiv, near Chyhyryn in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland at the estate of his father Mykhailo Khmelnytsky, he was born into the Ukrainian lesser nobility. His father, a courtier of Great Crown Hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski, was of noble birth and belonged to the Clan Massalski, Abdank or Syrokomla, but there has been controversy as to whether Bohdan belonged to the szlachta.
Some sources state that in 1590 his father Mykhailo was appointed as a sotnyk for the Korsun-Chyhyryn starosta Jan Daniłowicz, who continued to colonize the new Ukrainian lands near the Dnieper river. According to the above-mentioned-source, Mykhailo established Chyhyryn and his own family estates of Subotiv and Novoseltsi. Khmelnytsky identified as a noble, his father's status as a deputy Starosta of Chyhyryn helped him to be considered as such by others. During the Uprising, Khmelnytsky would stress his mother's Cossack roots and his father's exploits with the Cossacks of the Sich. Khmelnytsky's early education cannot be documented, however it is speculated that he received his elementary education in Ukrainian. Several historians believe he received his elementary schooling from a church clerk until he was sent to one of Kiev's Orthodox fraternity schools, he continued his education in Polish at a Jesuit college in Jarosław, but more in Lviv in the school founded by hetman Żółkiewski. He completed his schooling by 1617, acquiring a broad knowledge of world history and learning Polish and Latin.
He learned Turkish and French. Unlike many of the other Jesuit students, he did not embrace Roman Catholicism but remained Orthodox. Bohdan Khmelnytsky married a daughter of a rich Pereyaslavl Cossack. By the second half of the 1620s, they had three daughters: Stepanyda and Kateryna, his first son Tymish was born in 1632, another son Yuriy was born in 1640. Upon completion of his studies in 1617, Khmelnytsky entered into service with the Cossacks; as early as 1619, he was sent together with his father to Moldavia, when the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth entered into war against the Ottoman Empire. His first military engagement was a tragic one. During the battle of Cecora on 17 September 1620, his father was killed, young Khmelnytsky, among many others including future hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski, was captured by the Turks, he spent the next two years in captivity in Constantinople as a prisoner of an Ottoman Kapudan Pasha. Other sources claim that he spent his slavery in Ottoman Navy on galleys as an oarsman, where he picked up a knowledge of Turkic languages.
While there is no concrete evidence as to his return to Ukraine, most historians believe Khmelnytsky either escaped or was ransomed. Sources vary as to his benefactor – his mother, the Polish king – but by Krzysztof Zbaraski, ambassador of the Commonwealth to the Ottomans. In 1622 he paid 30,000 thalers in ransom for all prisoners of war captured at the Battle of Cecora. Upon return to Subotiv, Khmelnytsky took over operating his father's estate and became a registered Cossack in the Chyhyryn Regiment, he was promoted to pysar. From 1625, he participated in several sea raids on Constantinople together with Zaporozhian Cossacks. In those raids he earned his title of sotnyk. During this period his widowed mother remarried, to Belarusian noble Vasyl Stavetsky, moved to his estate, leaving Khmelnytsky in charge of Subotiv. Within year she gave birth to another son, Hryhoriy. For a short time, the senior Khmelnytsky served as a koniuszy to hetman Mikołaj Potocki but departed quickly after a personal conflict.
Khmelnytsky advanced in rank in his regiment. He first became a sotnyk and advanced to the rank of a regiment scribe, he commanded respect of his fellow Cossacks. On 30 August 1637, he was included in a delegation to Warsaw to plead the Cossacks' case before the Polish King Władysław IV. Serving in the army of a Polish magnate and respected commander, hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski, he participated in a successful campaign when the Commonwealth army scored a decisive victory over the Crimean Khanate in 1644. According to archival documents, he had a meeting in Warsaw with the French ambassador Count De Bregie, during which he discussed the possibility of Cossack participation in war in France. Sources vary
The XV Racquetball European Championships were held in Nanterre, near Paris, from August 3 to 9 2009, with seven men's national teams and three women's national teams in competition. On August 6 started the individual, doubles and junior competitions; the venue was the Forest-Hill City Form, in Nanterre, with 4 regulation racquetball courts. The 7 men's teams were Belgium, France, Ireland and The Netherlands and the 3 women's teams were Catalonia and Ireland. More than 50 players were in the singles, doubles and senior competitions; the opening ceremony was on August 2 with the president of European Racquetball Federation, Erik Meyer, the president of Paris Racquetball Association, Jean-Pierre Boudart. August 4, 2009 Semifinals - 09:30 5th to 7th places - 09:30 5th and 6th places - 13:30 3rd and 4th places - 13:30 FINAL - 18:00 European Racquetball Championships Results for the teams competition ERF website Men's singles results Women's singles results Men's doubkes results Women's doubles results
Ammophila arenaria is a species of flowering plant in the grass family Poaceae. It is known by European beachgrass, it is one of two species of the genus Ammophila. It is native to the coastlines of Europe and North Africa where it grows in the sands of beach dunes, it is a perennial grass forming stiff, hardy clumps of erect stems up to 1.2 metres in height. It grows from a network of thick rhizomes which give it a sturdy anchor in its sand substrate and allow it to spread upward as sand accumulates; these rhizomes can grow laterally by 2 metres in six months. One clump can produce 100 new shoots annually; the rhizomes tolerate submersion in sea water and can break off and float in the currents to establish the grass at new sites. The leaves are up to 1 metre long and pointed; the cylindrical inflorescence is up to 30 centimetres long. It is adapted to habitat made up of shifting, accreting sand layers, as well as that composed of stabilised dunes. A. arenaria is recognised as one of the most problematic noxious weeds of coastal California.
This sand-adapted grass was introduced to the beaches of western North America during the mid-19th century to provide stabilization to shifting sand dunes. It grew and it can now be found from California to British Columbia; the grass is invasive in the local ecosystems, forming dense monotypic stands that crowd out native vegetation, reduce species diversity of native arthropods, cover vital open stretches of sand used for nesting by the threatened western snowy plover. The plant's spread has changed the topography of some California beach ecosystems in sand dunes; the presence of this grass was a major cause of the destruction of native dune habitat in Oregon and Washington during the 20th century, where it was planted for its dune-stabilizing effect. Several methods have been employed in attempts to eradicate the grass in California, including manual pulling, mechanical removal followed by salt water irrigation, glyphosate application. Studies to find the best methods are ongoing. Not only is it invasive in California, it is a invasive weed in coastal areas of New Zealand and Western Australia, where it was introduced for the same purpose in California to stabilise dunes.
Ammophila arenaria is a perennial plant. It grows in spring and leaf production exceeds lead senescence, but the condition in autumn is contrast that it nearly stop growth while its leaves become senescence. In winter, since the temperature is so cold, the growth is slow but rather than stopping growth; this plant is adaptive in sand, which can withstand burial for more than one year. Unlike the other plant which will die in sand, this plant will elongate its leaves when it buries by sand, its inflorescences are initiated in autumn of the second year after germination and mature in May or June, its flowers are always produced from May to August. But this is changed to May in Europe because of the different climates, and it is always mature in September, the seeds germinate in the next spring. Though the plant is strong in live, it has a low viability for seeds, the seeds are in low survival ability too because of desiccation and erosion; the main organ for its production is rhizomes, dispersed along the shore by wind and water.
Ammophila arenaria is a North African native plant. It occurs in Australia, Chile, Falkland Islands, New Zealand, South Africa and United States. Occurs on sand dunes, sometimes in inland sites with low fertility, it extends from to 55 to 32 degrees south latitude. In the Northern Hemisphere, it grows between 63 degrees north latitude. Occurs in Chatham Islands, Otago Region, Doughboy Bay and Mason Bay. Ammophila arenaria grows in sediment low in organic matter and with good drainage on mobile or semi-stable sand dunes, it is suited for sandy habitats and grows fast, avoiding senescence with continuous supply of fresh sand. The soil range suit for the Ammophila arenaria grows from 4.5 - 9.0 and the temperature range from 10 - 40 degrees, salt concentrations of no more than 1 - 1.5%. In inland situation, other species establish habitat when the sand is stable and Ammophila arenaria displaces other native plants along the coast. Marram grass plants on coastal sand dunes all over the world, it windward side of foredune.
It should be planted on well-drained soils with different kinds of mineral compositions. The best soil condition for marram grass is the soil pH range from 4.5-9.0, soil temperature from 10-40 degrees Celsius. Marram grass can be found on a high alkaline which pH around 9.1 and found on acid lands which pH less than 4.5. Adult plants tolerate has a large range of chemical issues. Marram grass has a well ability to adapt dry sand. Leaves tight when the moisture levels are low. Marram grass do not record serious main disease in New Zealand, because only 3 pathogenic fungi are present on the island; these three fungi result in ergot and leaf spot and are found both on flower-heads and leaves. However, in European countries, there are a lot of pests known to feed on marram grass; those pests killed 30%-40% of the tillers, damaged other species. Those fungi, always found in soil, may decrease the vigour on the stabilized sand. Marram grass can be useful for medical uses and other uses. People use the flowering stems and leaves for thatching and making brooms.
Fiber from the stem is used for maki