Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Halland is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden, on the western coast of Sweden. It borders Västergötland, Småland and the sea of Kattegat; until 1645 and the Second Treaty of Brömsebro, it was part of the Kingdom of Denmark. The provinces of Sweden serve no administrative function. Instead, that function is served by the Counties of Sweden. However, the province of Halland is coextensive with the administrative Halland County, though parts of the province belong to Västra Götaland County and Skåne County, while the county includes parts of Småland and Västergötland; as of December 31, 2016, Halland had a population of 327,093. Of these, 310,536 lived in Halland County. During the Danish era until 1658, the province had no coat of no seal. In Sweden, every province had been represented by heraldic arms since 1560; when Charles X Gustav of Sweden died in 1660 a coat of arms had to be created for the newly acquired province. Each province was to be represented by its arms at the royal funeral.
There are several theories about the choice of a lion. Bengt Algotsson, duke of Halland and Finland in the 14th century, used a lion in his personal arms. Blazon: Azure, a Lion rampant Argent langued and dente Gules; the same coat of arms was granted for the administrative Halland County, which has the same boundaries. The rivers of Lagan, Ätran and Viskan flow through the province and reach the sea in Kattegat. Halland is well known as an agricultural district. Most of the region is made up of a relief unit known as the Sub-Mesozoic hilly peneplain. Around Morup and Tvååker hilltops are remnants of the Sub-Cambrian peneplain, an ancient erosion surface that covers much of eastern Sweden. Loose flint nodules of Cretaceous age have been found around Halland; the flints are remnants of a former cover of sedimentary rock, eroded. At present the sedimentary cover continues to exist in Scania and offshore; the Bronze Age was a period of relative prosperity in Halland. This is shown in the number of the numerous archaeological remains.
Over 1,100 tumuli and grave mounds have been found. The end of the Bronze Age witnessed an over-consumption of resources. Large areas were deforested; this might have been a result of a high demand for charcoal in smelting gold or bronze among the local elites. The worsening climate at the beginning of the Iron Age meant that the local elites no longer could obtain bronze to the same extent as before; as a result, the social structures collapsed. The early Iron Age social structures seem to have been egalitarian, but from around 200 AD there was a trend in which villages formed larger communities and small kingdoms; this is to have been a distant influence from the growing Roman Empire. During the 5th and 6th century large free-standing farms were created. An example of such a farm can be found in Slöinge, it was not just the social structure. New villages were formed; the new centers that were formed became the kernel from which new areas were settled during medieval times. According to information from a trader travelling from Skiringssal, close to the Oslofjord to Hedeby in the 870s it can be concluded that Halland was a Danish area at that time.
It would stay so for most of recorded history. Iron extraction is known to have taken place in Tvååker/Sibbarp during the Iron Age; as part of the Scanian lands Halland came under the Scanian Law and participated in the Scanian Thing, one of three Things electing the Danish king. Local assemblies took place in Getinge. Halland was the scene of considerable military action from the 13th century and on as Sweden, Denmark and to some degree Norway fought for supremacy in Scandinavia; the many wars made the province poor. Not only were material damages caused by military action, but the social impact of the fighting was devastating; the county was the site of combat and plunder three times during the 13th Century: in 1256 Haakon IV of Norway invaded, followed by Magnus III of Sweden in 1277 and Eric VI of Denmark in 1294. The county came to be split in two parts for the next century, with the river Ätran forming a boundary; the lords of the two parts succeeded each other in a high tempo. As the Kalmar Union was formed, Halland came for a brief period of time to be centrally located.
According to the union treaty, the king was to be elected in Halmstad. During the rebellion of Engelbrekt in 1434 the fortress in Falkenberg was burnt down and two years Lagaholm was captured by the Swedes; the Swedo-Danish struggles in the early 16th century came to affect the province as well, as in 1519 when the border regions were sacked by the Swedes as a vengeance for similar Danish action in Västergötland. The Danish civil war called the Count's Feud in 1534–36, the Northern Seven Years' War between Denmark and Sweden in 1563–1570 and the Kalmar War between Denmark and Sweden in 1611–1613 all affected Halland. One of the major battles of the Northern Seven Years' War, the battle of Axtorna, took place in Halland. Halland was temporarily transferred to Sweden in 1645 under the terms of the Second Treaty of Brömsebro; the conquest was made permanent by the ceding of the province in the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658. The last battle in Halland took place in Fyllebro on 17 August 1676, during the Scanian War.
The more peaceful conditions that followed meant that the province could
National Property Board of Sweden
The National Property Board of Sweden is a Swedish State administrative authority, organised under the Ministry of Finance. SFV is responsible for managing a portion of the real property assets owned by the State; the portfolio consists of more than 2,300 properties, or 3,000 buildings. SFV was established in 1993, after the National Board of Public Building split into several smaller units, including Akademiska Hus, Vasakronan and SFV; the agency took over the responsibility for a portion of the State's real estate portfolio. The National Property Board Sweden is organised into seven property areas; the head office is located in Stockholm, the agency is led by Director-General Björn Anderson. Crown palaces in Sweden The National Property Board Sweden – Official site
Akershus Fortress or Akershus Castle is a medieval castle, built to protect and provide a royal residence for Oslo, the capital of Norway. The castle has been used as a military base, is today a museum, open for public, it is not known when the construction of the castle started but it is believed that it took place around the late 1290s, by King Haakon V, replacing Tønsberg as one of the two most important Norwegian castles of the period. It was constructed in response to the Norwegian nobleman, Earl Alv Erlingsson of Sarpsborg’s earlier attack on Oslo that occurred in 1287. In the aftermath of the attack, it became clear that the city’s existing defences weren’t effective and therefore, a stronger defensive centre was needed; the castle is mentioned in written sources for the first time in 1300 in a letter from King Haakon to a church in Oslo. However, the letter does not mention; the fortress has survived all sieges by Swedish forces, including those by forces led by Charles XII in 1716. The fortress was first used in battle in 1308, when it was besieged by the Swedish duke Eric of Södermanland, whose brother won the Swedish throne in 1309.
The siege was broken by a local Norwegian army in a battle. In 1449-1450 the castle was besieged again, this time by the Swedish king Karl Knutsson Bonde, but he had to lift the siege after a while; the castle was not besieged again until 1502 when Scottish soldiers in the service of the Danish king besieged the castle in order to regain it from the hands of the Norwegian nobleman Knut Alvsson. Akershus was besieged yet again in 1523, this time by Swedish soldiers but Oslo’s inhabitants burned down their houses in an attempt to drive them out and the Swedes retreated after a short period. King Christian II besieged the castle from 1531 to 1532 but the siege was lifted by forces from Denmark and Lübeck. After this siege the castle was strengthened. In 1567, during the Northern Seven Years' War, the castle was besieged once more by Swedish forces, but the Danish king's lord lieutenant, Christen Munk, responded by burning down the city in order to deprive the attackers themselves of the means of receiving supplies, the Swedes retreated.
The immediate proximity of the sea was a key feature, for naval power was a vital military force as the majority of Norwegian commerce in that period was by sea. The fortress was strategically important for the capital, therefore, Norway as well. Whoever controlled; the fortress has never been besieged by a foreign enemy. However it surrendered without combat to Nazi Germany in 1940 when the Norwegian government evacuated the capital in the face of the unprovoked German assault on Denmark and Norway. During World War II, people were executed here by the German occupiers, including members of the Pelle group; the fortress was liberated on 11 May 1945, when it was handed over to Terje Rollem on behalf of the Norwegian resistance movement. After the war, eight Norwegian traitors, tried for war crimes and sentenced to death were executed at the fortress. Among those executed were Vidkun Quisling and Siegfried Fehmer. After construction of the castle was finished around 1300, Haakon V started to use the castle as a residential palace, favoring the keep over the Oslo Kongsgard Estate despite the fact that the castle was unsuited as a residence.
The castle becoming a royal residence played a significant role in the process where the capital for Norway was moved from Bergen to Oslo. Several significant figures from the Norwegian middle ages, including Haakon IV, Queen Euphemia, Ingeborg Eriksdottir and Queen Margaret, all resided at the castle, which functioned as the official Norwegian royal residence for several decades; the last Norwegian king prior to the establishment of the Kalmar Union, Olaf II, was born at the castle in 1370. Following the great fire of 1624, King Christian IV made the decision to relocate and rebuild the entire city of Oslo; the king ordered the new city to be located closer to Akershus Fortress, renaming the city Christiania. The fortress was subsequently modernized and remodeled, with the new appearance being that of a renaissance castle with Italian inspired bastions; the castle functioned as a palace until the turn of the 19th century, with new towers, halls and gates being added over time. When the king was absent, the castle functioned as the seat of the Steward of Norway.
Akershus has been a prison, with a section of it known as The Slavery because the prisoners could be rented out for work in the city. It has housed many criminals through Norwegian history. Well-known people to have been imprisoned there include author Gjest Baardsen, the idealized thief Ole Høiland. Many early Norwegian socialists spent time in the cells of Akershus; the prison was a plot element in the film Fante-Anne. Following the 1852 Laestadian Sámi revolt in Guovdageaidnu, all men except the two leaders Aslak Hætta and Mons Somby ended up in Akershus Fortress – the women were imprisoned in Trondheim. Many of the rebels died after a few years in captivity. Among the survivors was Lars Hætta, who during his stay was allowed time and means to write the first translation of the Bible into North Sámi
Hans van Steenwinckel the Elder
Hans van Steenwinckel the Elder was a Flemish-Danish architect and sculptor. He worked on a large number of the most important Danish buildings of his time, although the exact scope of his contributions in many cases remains uncertain and much have been demolished or redesigned later; the father of Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger and Lorenz van Steenwinckel, he founded a dynasty of architects and sculptors in Denmark. Hans van Steenwinckel was born in Antwerp c. 1550. The family fled to Emden, East Frisia, where his father, Lourens van Steenwinckel, became master builder. Later city architect, designed the Town Hall from 1567 onwards destroyed during World War II. Hans van Steenwinckel trained under his father, it is known that he received payment for a design for the Town Hall's stairs and tower in 1574. In 1578 he travelled to Denmark, most as one of the master bricklayers which his countryman Anthonis van Obbergen invited to Denmark to assist him building Fredericj II's Kronborg Castle at Elsinore.
Hans only worked on Kronborg for around a year before he, with royal permission, went on the island of Hven to work for the distinguished astronomer Tycho Brahe, who had for life been granted the island by the King as well as funds for the construction of a house and observatory on the premises. Hans van Steenwinckel worked both on Uraniborg and the subsequent Stjerneborg observatory, both of which were demolished after Brahe's death in 1601. From 1585 he lived and worked in Copenhagen but his presence on Hven is documented several times in the 1580s and last in 1590, he studied Brahe taught him both astronomy and geometry. In 1582 he had been named Royal Building Master and in the 1580s he designed Slangerup Church, he worked on a number of churches in Copenhagen, including St. Peter's Church and also the towers at the Churches of Saint Nicolai and the Church of the Holy Ghost although this remains uncertain. Hans van Steenwinckel built and rebuilt a number of manor houses around the country, including Berritzgaard, Näsbyholm and Orebygård.
In 1588 the new King Christian IV appointed him Government Architect and from this date his main task was to modernize the fortifications in many Danish towns and strongholds in Sweden and Norway. These included Bohus Fortress, Varberg and Akershus, he was responsible for the layout of the new town of Christianopel. According to his gravestone he was himself most proud of the fortifications of Halmstad, where he died in 1601 and is buried at St. Nicolai's Church. Uranienborg Stjerneborg Näsbyholm Berritzgaard Orebygaard Lundehave Slangerup Church Fortifications including Bohus Fortress, Varberg, Akershus Christianopel Hans van Steenwinckel
Kungälv Municipality is a municipality in Västra Götaland County in western Sweden. Its seat is located in the city of Kungälv; the present municipality was formed in 1971 through the amalgamation of the City of Kungälv, the City of Marstrand and territories belonging to four rural municipalities. In 1974 a minor part was transferred to Gothenburg Municipality. Geographically it borders to Gothenburg Municipality, Ale Municipality, Lilla Edet Municipality and Stenungsund Municipality. To the east flows the river Göta älv and to the south, marking the border to Gothenburg, flows the river Nordre älv. On an island in the river, the Bohus Fortress faces the city of Kungälv. Kareby IS, which play their home matches at Skarpe Nord in Kungälv, are the reigning bandy champions for women as of 2016, they won the title in 2011 and 2015. Marstrand, a autonomous island territory as the Marstrand Free Port. It's the location of the stone fortress Carsten. Diseröd Kareby Kode Kungälv Kärna Solberga, where the oldest parts of the church dates back to the 12th century Årsnäs Kungälv Municipality - Official site
Carlsten is a stone fortress located at Marstrand, on the western coast of Sweden. The fortress was built on the orders of King Carl X of Sweden following the Treaty of Roskilde, 1658 to protect the newly acquired province of Bohuslän from hostile attacks; the site of Marstrand was chosen because of its access to an ice free port. A square stone tower was constructed, but by 1680 it was reconstructed and replaced by a round shaped tower. Successive additions to the fortress were carried out, by the inmates sentenced to hard labor, until 1860 when it was reported finished. Carlsten was a prison for men: Metta Fock in 1806-1809 was the only female prisoner to have been kept here; the fortress was decommissioned as a permanent defense installation in 1882, but remained in military use until the early 1990s. The fortress was besieged twice, both times falling into enemy hands. In 1677 it was conquered by Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve, the Danish military commander in Norway during the Battle of Marstrand and in 1719 by the Norwegian Vice-Admiral Tordenskjold.
At both occasions the fortress was returned to Swedish control through treaties. Bohus Fortress Fredriksten Pater Noster Lighthouse Media related to Carlstens fästning at Wikimedia Commons Carlsten Fortress Carlsten lighthouse