SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Boiling point

The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor. The boiling point of a liquid varies depending upon the surrounding environmental pressure. A liquid in a partial vacuum has a lower boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure. A liquid at high pressure has a higher boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure. For example, water at 93.4 °C at 1,905 metres altitude. For a given pressure, different liquids will boil at different temperatures; the normal boiling point of a liquid is the special case in which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the defined atmospheric pressure at sea level, one atmosphere. At that temperature, the vapor pressure of the liquid becomes sufficient to overcome atmospheric pressure and allow bubbles of vapor to form inside the bulk of the liquid; the standard boiling point has been defined by IUPAC since 1982 as the temperature at which boiling occurs under a pressure of one bar.

The heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance from a liquid into a gas at a given pressure. Liquids may change to a vapor at temperatures below their boiling points through the process of evaporation. Evaporation is a surface phenomenon in which molecules located near the liquid's edge, not contained by enough liquid pressure on that side, escape into the surroundings as vapor. On the other hand, boiling is a process in which molecules anywhere in the liquid escape, resulting in the formation of vapor bubbles within the liquid. A saturated liquid contains as much thermal energy. Saturation temperature means boiling point; the saturation temperature is the temperature for a corresponding saturation pressure at which a liquid boils into its vapor phase. The liquid can be said to be saturated with thermal energy. Any addition of thermal energy results in a phase transition. If the pressure in a system remains constant, a vapor at saturation temperature will begin to condense into its liquid phase as thermal energy is removed.

A liquid at saturation temperature and pressure will boil into its vapor phase as additional thermal energy is applied. The boiling point corresponds to the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the surrounding environmental pressure. Thus, the boiling point is dependent on the pressure. Boiling points may be published with respect to the NIST, USA standard pressure of 101.325 kPa, or the IUPAC standard pressure of 100.000 kPa. At higher elevations, where the atmospheric pressure is much lower, the boiling point is lower; the boiling point increases with increased pressure up to the critical point, where the gas and liquid properties become identical. The boiling point cannot be increased beyond the critical point; the boiling point decreases with decreasing pressure until the triple point is reached. The boiling point cannot be reduced below the triple point. If the heat of vaporization and the vapor pressure of a liquid at a certain temperature are known, the boiling point can be calculated by using the Clausius–Clapeyron equation, thus: T B = − 1, where: T B is the boiling point at the pressure of interest, R is the ideal gas constant, P is the vapour pressure of the liquid at the pressure of interest, P 0 is some pressure where the corresponding T 0 is known, Δ H vap is the heat of vaporization of the liquid, T 0 is the boiling temperature, ln is the natural logarithm.

Saturation pressure is the pressure for a corresponding saturation temperature at which a liquid boils into its vapor phase. Saturation pressure and saturation temperature have a direct relationship: as saturation pressure is increased, so is saturation temperature. If the temperature in a system remains constant, vapor at saturation pressure and temperature will begin to condense into its liquid phase as the system pressure is increased. A liquid at saturation pressure and temperature will tend to flash into its vapor phase as system pressure is decreased. There are two conventions regarding the standard boiling point of water: The normal boiling point is 99.97 °C at a pressure of 1 atm. The IUPAC recommended standard boiling point of water at a standard pressure of 100 kPa is 99.61 °C. For comparison, on top of Mount Everest, at 8,848 m elevation, the pressure is about 34 kPa and the boiling point of water is 71 °C; the Celsius temperature

ƌshima District, Yamaguchi

Ōshima is a district located in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. As of 2003, the district has an estimated population of 22,070 and a density of 159.86 persons per km². The total area is 138.06 km². The entire territory of the district is an island called Suō-Ōshima; the district is connected with Honshū by a bridge. The area is about 138 square kilometres. There are 22,000 people on the island; the whole island is set aside as a national park. The special product is a mandarin orange called "Ōshima mikan". There are 500 orange groves. Katazoegahama beach is one of the more popular beaches in the west of Japan; this is famous for camping. There is a roller skate rink, near the beach. Furthermore, there is a resort hotel; the Ōshima Bridge was erected in 1976. It is the second longest span in Japan of this style of bridge; the span of the bridge is 1020m. Its color is pale green; the tide in the strait under the bridge is known as one of the fastest in Japan. Suō-Ōshima is the home of the emigrants from the beginning of the history of the island.

The island people go everywhere around the western area of Japanese Archipelago. In late 19th and early 20th centuries, thousands of the islanders went to Hawaiʻi and worked at sugar plantation. Suō-Ōshima is the home of the seagoing people. In the ancient and Middle Ages, sea rovers called Ochi Suigun, Kōno Suigun, Murakami Suigun inhabits in the western area of the Inland Sea, they had disbanded at 16th century but their descendants became the skilled fisherfolks. They became the foundation stone of the modern fishery of Hawaiʻi; the town of Suō-Ōshima is a sister city of Hawaiʻi. There is a Hawaiʻi historical museum, built in 1999 in Ōshima. Office workers and bus drivers in town wear colorful aloha shirts as a uniform in summer. In May 2007, Hawaiʻi’s replica ancient voyaging canoe Hōkūle‘a visited this small island to honour the connection between Suō-Ōshima and Hawaiʻi. Tsuneichi Miyamoto, one of the greatest cultural anthropologist in Japan is the native of this island. Suō-Ōshima On October 1, 2004, the towns of Kuka, Ōshima, Tachibana and Tōwa from Oshima District merged to form the new town of Suō-Ōshima.

Since Suō-Ōshima is the sole town in the district

Church of La Soledad, Mexico City

The Church of La Soledad known as the Church of Santa Cruz y La Soledad, is a Roman Catholic parish church of México City. The parish of Santa Cruz y La Soledad was the seventh parish established in Mexico City; the original church was an Augustinians doctrina de indios, secularized by the archbishop in 1750. In the latter 18th century, the church was rebuilt in Neoclassic style; the church deteriorated over time, but despite this was declared a national monument in 1931. In 1982, the building was restored; the church is located in the La Merced neighborhood with the Plaza de la Soledad located in front. This neighborhood is known for prostitution, sex workers have staged commemorations for a National Day of Sexual Workers in front of this church; the current building is the second on the site called Santa Cruz. According to documents from the time, the architecture of the original church was Renaissance style, built with masonry and topped with a vault in sandstone; the church was under the tenure of the Augustinians from 1633 to 1750, with the most important feature being the Virgen de la Soledad.

After the Augustinians left this site, the church was rebuilt by Father Gregorio Pérez Cancio with the help of architects Cayetano de Sigüenza, Ildefonso Iniesta Bejarano, Francisco Antonio de Guerrero y Torres and Ignacio Castera. It was finished in 1787 and consecrated in 1792. Over time, the church lost most of its luster, its annex became a home for indians in the 1930s, a school, leaving the church with about half of its original space. Various thefts from the 1940s to the 1970s caused the loss of candelabras, silver chalices and a reliquary. In 1970, a bus crash damaged the outer fence and cracked an exterior wall; the building was declared a national monument in 1931 and was restored in 1982, allowing it to recover some of its original colonial look. The Merced area of the city now is a well-known area for prostitution. An annual “National Day of Sexual Workers” is observed here to remember the violence, perpetrated against sex workers; the facade of the 18th-century building is Neoclassic, covered in slabs of gray sandstone, with the pilasters of the same material.

It divides into five sections with a main portal that has a crest. The ornamentation of the portal includes symbols of the Passion and figures of John the Baptist, Mary Magdalene and others. At the center of the second level is an image of the Virgen de la Soledad framed by pairs of Ionic pilasters; the other sections of the facade are divided by pilasters and have sculptures of Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea. The entirety is topped by an entablature, which contains two crests and a curved pediment with a relief of a cross. To the sides of the facade are two large circular bell towers, each containing four arches; the interior is rectangular with three naves. Six sculpted Neoclassical columns support the main nave, with arches supporting other parts of the building; the roof is formed by barrel vaults with lunettes in the three main areas of the central nave. The cupola is in the shape of an octagon. Above the presbytery, there is a roof formed by eight small barrel vaults; the floor is done in mosaic and white in the main nave with green and white in the presbytery and a marble staircase.

Eight windows line the side walls and eight are in the cupola, allowing in a large quantity of natural light. The choir area supported by three arches; the area is enclosed by a wrought iron railing with small bells. The tabernacle area is made of wood and contains an image of the Virgen de la Soledad, in a black robe with silver embroidery; the current marble altar was placed here in 1903 and is purely neoclassic as are the pulpit and the balustrade of the choir. Most of the furnishings date from the 19th century. There are paintings in the sacristy, notable one by Miguel Cabrera called “La Santísima Trinidad.” List of colonial churches in Mexico City