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Boise State University

Boise State University is a public research university in Boise, Idaho. Founded in 1932 by the Episcopal Church, it became an independent junior college in 1934, has been awarding baccalaureate and master's degrees since 1965. Boise State offers more than 100 graduate programs, including the MBA and MAcc programs in the College of Business and Economics. Boise State has invested in the future over the past decade, including spending over $300 million since 2003 on academic and athletics facilities across campus; the university's intercollegiate athletic teams, the Broncos, have participated in NCAA Division I since 1978. The school became Idaho's third state university in 1974, after the University of Idaho and Idaho State University. Boise State now awards associate, bachelor's, master's, doctoral degrees, is accredited by the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities; as of 2010, the university has over 75,000 living alumni. The 285-acre campus is located near downtown Boise, on the south bank of the Boise River, opposite Julia Davis Park.

With more than 170 buildings, the campus is at an elevation of 2,700 feet above sea level, bounded by Capitol Boulevard on the west and Broadway Avenue to the east. Boise State broke ground in May 2017 on a $42 million Center for the Fine Arts, which will house sculpture, painting, graphic design and other visual arts, as well as gallery space and a digital “World Museum” devoted to high-tech arts experiences; the school's library is named for longtime Boise resident Joe Albertson. It houses more than 650,000 books, over 100,000 periodicals, 107 public terminals for student use, access to over 300 online databases; the physical structure features a Starbucks and public lounge area, houses the College of Innovation and Design, including the fast growing degree program in Gaming, Interactive Mobile and Media. The "Velma V. Morrison Center for the Performing Arts" has 2,000 seats in its primary performance hall, hosts a wide variety of fine arts performances, including the Broadway in Boise series and other events.

The venue opened its doors in April 1984. The computer science department moved away from the main campus to a new building in downtown Boise; the CS department occupies 53,549 gross square feet, the full second and third floors of the building. The university's CS program is now located in the same building as Clearwater Analytics and within short walking distance of about 20 more of Boise's top technology companies; the Micron Center for Materials Research was established with a $25 million gift from Micron Technology, headquartered in Boise. Scheduled for completion in 2020, the building was designed by Hummel Architects and Anderson Mason Dale Architects, with Hoffman Construction as lead contractor; the building is designed with one research wing, planned to house sensitive equipment, state of the art research laboratories and a second wing, to hold classrooms, office space. This latest donation by Micron marks a total of $40 million invested in materials science and engineering programs and associated research at Boise State University, resulting in a full complement of degrees in materials science and engineering including bachelors and doctoral programs.

Extended Studies at Boise State offers regional programming at the College of Western Idaho in Nampa, Idaho, at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Gowen Field, Twin Falls, Lewiston and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. Boise State offers 29 degrees and certificates online. Beginning in 2016, Boise State began partnering with the Harvard University Business School to offer the Harvard Business School Online business fundamentals program to Idaho students and the business community; this collaboration is the only such Harvard collaboration with a public U. S. university. Boise State's more than 190 fields of study are organized these colleges: Arts and Sciences Business and Economics Education Engineering Graduate Studies Health Sciences School of Public Service Innovation and DesignBoise State's fall enrollment in 2016 was 23,886 students. 76 percent of these students were Idaho residents, with the remaining 24 percent coming from out of state or out of country. More than 90 percent of Boise State's first-year students come directly from high school.

In the 2015-2016 school year, Boise State awarded diplomas to 3,916 distinct graduates, including 18 doctorates, 10 education specialists, 670 master's and 2,998 bachelor's degrees. The university has "Moderate Research Activity" as scored by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. Since 1971 the university has published the Western Writers Series, monographs focusing on authors of the American Frontier and American West; the university maintains an on-line library of publications and documents related to Idaho history through the Albertsons Library. A not-for-profit literary publisher, Ahsahta was founded in 1974 at Boise State University to preserve the best works by early poets of the American West, its name, ahsahta, is the Mandan word meaning “Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep,” and was first recorded by members of the Lewis and Clark expedition. The Center for Idaho History and Politics offers a nine-credit place-based field school called "Investigate Boise" which focuses on heritage and urban affairs.

Each series of classes results in faculty edited publication. Boise State's athletic nickname is the Broncos; the offici

French immigration to Puerto Rico

French immigration to Puerto Rico came about as a result of the economic and political situations which occurred in various places such as Louisiana, Saint-Domingue and in Europe. Other important factors which encouraged French immigration to the island was the revival of the Royal Decree of Graces of 1815 in the 19th century; the Spanish Crown decided that one of the ways to discourage pro-independence movements in Puerto Rico was to allow Europeans who were not of Spanish origin and who swore loyalty to the Spanish Crown to settle in the island. Therefore, the decree was printed in three languages: the Spanish language, the English language, the French language and circulated through ports and coastal cities throughout Europe; the French who immigrated to Puerto Rico became part of the Island immigrant communities, which were predominantly Catholic also. They settled in various places in the island, they were instrumental in the development of Puerto Rico's tobacco and sugar industries and distinguished themselves as business people, tradesmen and writers.

In the 17th century, the French settled an area of North America in what was referred to as the "New World" which they named New France. New France included an expansive area of land along both sides of the Mississippi River between the Appalachian Mountains and the Rocky Mountains, including the Ohio Country and the Illinois Country. "Louisiana" was the name given to an administrative district of New France. Upon the outbreak of the French and Indian War known as the Seven Years' War, between the Kingdom of Great Britain and its North American Colonies against France. Many of the French settlers fearing the English-speaking intruders who were invading the former French and Spanish territory of Louisiana fled to the Caribbean islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico to re-establish their commercial and agricultural enterprises; these islands were part of the Spanish and New World Catholic Empire, which welcomed and protected the French from their English and Protestant enemy. When the British attempted to invade Puerto Rico in 1797 under the command of Sir Ralph Abercromby, many of the newly arrived French immigrants offered their services to the Spanish colonial government in Puerto Rico in defense of the Island that had taken them in when they fled from the Louisiana "Territory" of the United States.

Among them was Corsair Captain and former Royal Naval officer of the French Navy, Capt. Antoine Daubón, owner and captain of the ship "L'Espiégle" and another Frenchman named Captain Lobeau of the ship "Le Triomphant". Capt. Daubón, who had acquired a "Letter of Marque" from France was in the San Juan Bay area after having captured the American ship "Kitty", of Philadelphia, was holding captive a crew of American soldiers. French Capt. Daubón, son of Jacobin French Revolutionary activist, Raymond Daubón, was one of three registered corsairs in the Caribbean's Commercial Tribunal of Basse-Terre, licensed to seize and capture enemy vessels on behalf of France. Daubón offered his services and the use of his vessel and men to the Spanish Colonial Governor of Puerto Rico and together with the French Consul on the island, M. Paris, gathered a group of French immigrants in Puerto Rico and sent these troops to protect the entrance of San Juan at Fort San Gerónimo. Among the French surnames of those who fought on the Island were: Bernard, Chateau, Roussell and Mallet.

It is worthy of note to mention that the British attempted to land in San Juan harbor with a force of 400 French prisoners, who were forced to fight against their will the other French troops defending Puerto Rico. French Consul M. Paris, sent a letter addressed to the French soldiers being forced to fight for England, promising them a safe haven in San Juan, signed by Governor Castro. Due in part to this successful effort, the British forces were further weakened when the French prisoners agreed to accept the offer from the French Consul in Puerto Rico and become settlers on the Island; the English invasion floundered and the British retreated on April 30, from the Island to their ships and on May 2, set sail northward out of San Juan Harbor without their 400 French prisoners, who were to become part of the established immigrant French community in Puerto Rico. These Frenchmen were accepted and joined the other French immigrants who had fought against the English invasion with the French prisoners.

The newly arrived 400 Frenchmen all stayed and thrive in Puerto Rico. They soon sent for their families; the descendants of these 18th century French immigrant arrivals in Puerto Rico and their families continued as those before them to establish themselves as tradesmen, traders, community leaders and established innumerable entrepreneurial enterprises with France and other French colonial trading ports and today continue to live in Puerto Rico where they have distinguished themselves among all the aspects of Puerto Rican Insular life. In 1796, the Spanish Crown ceded the western half of the island of Hispaniola to the French; the Spanish part of the island was named Santo Domingo and the French named their part Saint-Domingue. The French settlers dedicated themselves to the cultivation of the sugar cane and owned plantations, which required a huge amount of manpower, they imported people from Africa to work in the fields. However, soon the population of the enslaved outgrew those of the colonizers.

The enslaved were treated cruelly. In 1791, the enslaved African people were organiz


Ránquil is a Chilean commune in Itata Province, Ñuble Region. The communal capital is the town of Ránquil. According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute Ránquil had 5,683 inhabitants. Of these, 1,337 lived in 4,346 in rural areas; the population fell by 11.3 % between the 2002 censuses. As a commune, Ránquil is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde, directly elected every four years; the 2008-2012 alcalde is Carlos Garrido Carcamo. Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Ránquil is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Jorge Sabag and Frank Sauerbaum as part of the 42nd electoral district; the commune is represented in the Senate by Alejandro Navarro Brain and Hosain Sabag Castillo as part of the 12th senatorial constituency

African finfoot

The African finfoot is an aquatic bird from the family Heliornithidae. The species lives in the rivers and lakes of western and southern Africa; the African finfoot is an underwater specialist with a long neck, a striking sharp beak, bright red, lobed feet. The plumage varies by race pale underneath and darker on top; the males are darker than the females. It superficially resembles South America's torrent duck; the African finfoot can be found in a range of habitats across Africa, where there are rivers and lakes with good cover on the banks. This range includes forest, wooded savannah, flooded forest, mangrove swamps; the finfoot feeds on aquatic invertebrates, including both adults and larval mayflies, crustaceans snails and amphibians. They are thought to be opportunistic and take some of their prey directly off the waters surface, they are adept out of water and will forage on the banks as well, unlike the grebes, which they resemble but are not related to. Finfoots are seen singly or in pairs.

They are secretive. Experienced ornithologists see them rarely, making them a prized sighting for birders and twitchers; because they are so elusive, it is not known if they spend most of their time in the water, where they are always seen, or on land. Their time of breeding varies by area coinciding with the rainy season, they build a nest, nothing more than a mess of reeds, on a fallen tree above the water. Two eggs are laid and incubated by the female; the chicks leave the nest a few days after hatching. The African finfoot belongs to a family, whose only other members are the masked finfoot and the sungrebe, their relationships between this family and other birds are poorly understood. The African finfoot's conservation status is hard to determine, given its elusive nature, it is not considered threatened, as it is not persecuted or targeted by hunters, while scarce, it is widespread. However, there is concern that it may become threatened, as wetlands are cleared and watercourses altered and polluted.

It is thought to tolerate only minimal disturbance. This and increased habitat fragmentation mean that the species needs to be monitored to safeguard it. There are no African finfoots in captivity. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Volume Three, Hoatzin to Auks.

Hokitika & Kanieri Tramway

The Hokitika & Kanieri Tramway was an 3.5 kilometres long owned light railway with a gauge of 3 ft 6 in between Hokitika and Kaniere in the Westland District on the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand, which operated from 1866 to 1914 as a horse-drawn tram and from the 1920s to 1950s as a logging railway. In 1866, the Hokitika & Kanieri Tramway Company built a tram with wooden rails from the Hokitika jetty to the Hotel Terminus in Kanieri. In November 1866, the tenders for the construction of the route were published, the track was laid in sections; the first tramway advert was published in the West Coast Times in May 1867 offering five round trips on working days and six on Sundays. The tram company leased its operation soon after completion to Co.. These resigned from the lease in April 1874, whereupon the tram company had difficulty finding a new tenant, with nobody being interested by February 1875. In late 1876, the company decided to cease operations and offered for sale the tram line, all rail vehicles and the 17-acre lot between the tram line and the Kantiere Road.

John Mc Fadyen ran the tram until 1885, when he was declared bankrupt. John Maher, a contractor from Hokitika bought the tram line and leased its operation to Richard Heyward. In 1886 Heyward published a tender for route maintenance work. Heyward only ran the route for a year. In 1887, Mr. O'Malley took over the lease, he seems to have operated the tram until 1896, when Michael Meyer a relative of John Maher, took over as owner. Michael Meyer sold the tram line and associated buildings. At this time there were two tram halls, one at Gibson Quay and one in Kaniere, a station building at the terminus in Hokitika, as well as horses and other materials and plants; the tram was acquired by Owen McGuigan, joined by his son Thomas. McGuigan built a more spacious station at the Hokitika terminus upstream of the bridge over the Hokitika River, but this was demolished as early as 1909; the McGuigans continued to operate the tram until 1914, when the passenger operation was terminated. The route remained out of use until the 1920s, when the Kaniere Hokitika sawmill was built on the site of today's Christian church on Kaniere Road.

This sawmill was owned by Stuart & Chapman. The sawmill owners renovated the track to transport logs from the bush to Hokitika and built logging railroad branches that linked their sawmill with the Kaniere forestry operations at Mackay's Creek. A second-hand NZR D class steam locomotive was used on the tramway by the Kanieri-Hokitika Sawmilling Co. 1928-1951. A Barclay steam locmomitive with works No 1299 of 1912 was used from 1924 to 1950 by the Kanieri Hokitika Timber Co, it was an'Improved Meyer' design with a 0-4-4-0T wheel arrangement and a weight of 24 tons used on the May Morn Estates Tramway. It proved quite satisfactory; the frame of the locomotive was last seen at Kaniere about 1973. A petrol or petrol/TVO driven 10/20 or 15/30 sled unit operated around 1962; the tramway was used to transport logs to the Stuart & Chapman sawmill, until it was replaced by road transport in the 1950s. It continued to transport sawn timber by rail to the railway station of Hokitika, until the sawmill was destroyed by fire on 8 May 1966, 100 years after the construction of the first tram.

Part of the route is still in service as a siding along the Gibson Quay of Westland Milk Products. On the remainder of the right-of-way a cycleway/walkway was created. Photograph: Crane 199 recovering Dj 1244 after it derailed, 1974-75. West Coast New Zealand History Timetable. West Coast Times, 2 February 1870 Timetable. West Coast Times, 1 March 1870

Venus Lux

Venus Lux is an American pornographic actress, director and educator. Lux was born and raised in San Francisco, is of Chinese and Mongolian descent, she was an only child. She worked as an escort and bartender prior to her porn career. Lux entered the adult film industry in 2012 after receiving an email from a talent scout. Her first scene was with Kaylee Hilton for When she first chose her stage name, Venus referred to the ruling planet for Libra while Lux was short for luxury, she began to consider her stage name's original meaning to be "a bit tacky" and decided to change it. She now states that her stage name is Latin/Greek for illumination. Lux owns. In December 2014, she signed an exclusive three-year distribution deal with Pulse Distribution. In 2012, she began writing a column titled "Venus Rising", she compiled some of those columns into a book titled Venus Lux Diaries, released in March 2015. In October 2015, she launched TransGlobal Magazine. In 2016, Venus Lux founded Syren Network and the website TS Fetishes, both of which launched in the spring.

She is featured in the sequel of the documentary After Porn Ends titled After Porn Ends 2. In March 2009, Lux decided to transition from male-to-female, she began by cross-dressing for a few weeks before undergoing hormone replacement therapy and breast augmentation surgery. She is half deaf in her right ear. Official website Venus Lux on IMDb Venus Lux at the Internet Adult Film Database Venus Lux at the Adult Film Database