Eastern Norway is the geographical region of the south-eastern part of Norway. It consists of the counties Telemark, Vestfold, Østfold, Oslo, Oppland, eastern Norway is by far the most populous region of Norway. It contains the capital, which is Norways most populous city. In Norwegian, the region is called Østlandet and Austlandet in contrast to Vestlandet, as of 2010, the region had 2,454,700 inhabitants. In 2014, Norways population was 5,156,450, the region is bounded by mountains in the north and west, the Swedish border to the east and by Viken and Skagerrak to the south. The border towards Sørlandet is less obvious, the mountains reach a height of 2469 metres in the Jotunheimen mountain range, the highest point in the Nordic countries. Other prominent mountain ranges include part of the Dovrefjell in the far north of the region, the high plateau of Hardangervidda extends into Western Norway. Valleys cut deep into the mountains, from east to west the valleys are Østerdal, Valdres, Numedal. Østerdalen is surrounded by mostly flat areas of forests.
The population density in the flatlands is the highest in the nation, numerous islands shelter the coasts, creating a paradise for swimmers and boaters in the summer. The Norwegian dialects spoken in the south-east share a common intonation, the dialects of the interior mountainous areas are all distinct. The dialects of the areas are more similar to the written language. The eastern forests of Finnskogen were the home of an ethnic minority and their language and culture was preserved into the 20th century, but now only folk tunes and food specialities remain. The southernmost group of Norways Sami population is to be found in the north-eastern corner, the culture of mountain valleys is preserved to a greater degree than the more urbanized metropolitan areas. The area is distinguished with traditional architecture, like churches and lafting, folk music. Some are concerned for the loss of culture in the face of modernization. It is common to see moose warning signs missing from their posts and this is of course illegal, and can result in a fine.
The coastal region is populated both by Norwegian and European standards
Aftenposten is Norways largest printed newspaper by circulation. It had a circulation of 211,769 in 2015 and estimated 1.2 million readers and it converted from broadsheet to compact format in March 2005. Aftenpostens online edition is at Aftenposten. no, Aftenposten is a private company wholly owned by the public company Schibsted ASA. Norways second largest newspaper, VG, is owned by Schibsted. At least 30% of Schibsted is owned by English and American investment banks such as Goldman Sachs, the paper has around 740 employees. Espen Egil Hansen is editor-in-chief and CEO as of 2016, Aftenposten was founded by Christian Schibsted on 14 May 1860 under the name Christiania Adresseblad. The following year, it was renamed Aftenposten, since 1885, the paper has printed two daily editions. A Sunday edition was published until 1919, and was reintroduced in 1990, the Friday-morning edition carries the A-magasinet supplement, featuring articles on science and the arts. In 1886, Aftenposten bought a press, being the first Norwegian newspaper in this regard.
Historically, Aftenposten labelled itself as independent, most closely aligning their editorial platform with the Norwegian Conservative Party and this manifested itself in blunt anticommunism during the interwar era. During World War II, due to its circulation, was put under the directives of the German occupational authorities. In the late 1980s, Egil Sundar served as the editor-in-chief, however, he was forced to resign from his post due to his attempt. In addition to the edition, Aftenposten publishes a separate evening edition called Aften. This edition was published on weekdays and Saturdays until the Sunday morning edition was reintroduced in 1990, the evening edition is only circulated in the central eastern part of Norway, i. e. Oslo and Akershus counties. Thus, it focuses on news related to this area, in contrast with the morning edition, the evening edition was converted to tabloid format in 1997. From April 2006, the Thursday edition of Aften includes an edition with news specific to a part of Oslo or Akershus.
This edition has eight versions, with each subscriber receives the version which is most relevant to the area in which he or she lives, in areas not covered by any of the eight versions, the version for central Oslo is distributed. From May 2009, Aften is only printed and distributed Tuesday through Thursday, the publication of Aften ended on 20 December 2012
Low German or Low Saxon is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands. It is descended from Old Saxon in its earliest form, as an Ingvaeonic language, Low German is quite distinct from the Irminonic languages like Standard German. It is closely related to Anglo-Frisian group of languages and more distantly to Dutch and this difference resulted from the High German consonant shift, with the Uerdingen and Benrath lines being two notable linguistic borders. Dialects of Low German are widely spoken in the area of the Netherlands and are written there with an orthography based on Standard Dutch orthography. Small portions of northern Hesse and northern Thuringia are traditionally Low Saxon-speaking too, Low German was spoken in formerly German parts of Poland as well as in East Prussia and the Baltic States of Estonia and Latvia. Under the name Low Saxon, there are speakers in the Dutch north-eastern provinces of Groningen, Stellingwerf, German speakers in this area fled the Red Army or were forcibly expelled after the border changes at the end of World War II.
Today, there are still speakers outside Germany and the Netherlands to be found in the areas of present-day Poland. In some of these countries, the language is part of the Mennonite religion, there are Mennonite communities in Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia and Minnesota which use Low German in their religious services and communities. The type of Low German spoken in communities and in the Midwest region of the United States has diverged since emigration. The survival of the language is tenuous in many places and has died out in places where assimilation has occurred. Mennonite colonies in Paraguay and Chihuahua, Mexico have made Low German a co-official language of the community, in Germany, native speakers of Low German call it Platt, Plattdüütsch or Nedderdüütsch. In the Netherlands, native speakers refer to their language as dialect, nedersaksies, or the name of their village, Low German is called Niederdeutsch by the German authorities and Nedersaksisch by the Dutch authorities. Plattdeutsch/Niederdeutsch and Platduits/Nedersaksisch are seen in texts from the German.
In Danish it is called Plattysk, Nedertysk or, Mennonite Low German is called Plautdietsch. Etymologically Platt meant clear in the sense of a language the people could understand. In Dutch, the word Plat can mean improper, or rude, the ISO 639-2 language code for Low German has been nds since May 2000. The question of whether Low German should be considered a separate language, linguistics offers no simple, generally accepted criterion to decide this question. Scholarly arguments have been put forward in favour of classifying Low German as a German dialect, as said, these arguments are not linguistic but rather socio-political and build mainly around the fact that Low German has no official standard form or use in sophisticated media
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in being a form of information storage. The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script, the general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category, in the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters represent speech sounds. In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora, in a logography, each character represents a word, morpheme, or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads, which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, alphabets typically use a set of 20-to-35 symbols to fully express a language, whereas syllabaries can have 80-to-100, and logographies can have several hundreds of symbols.
Systems will enable the stringing together of these groupings in order to enable a full expression of the language. The reading step can be accomplished purely in the mind as an internal process, writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, which used pictograms and other mnemonic symbols. Proto-writing lacked the ability to capture and express a range of thoughts. Soon after, writing provided a form of long distance communication. With the advent of publishing, it provided the medium for a form of mass communication. Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that a system is always associated with at least one spoken language. In contrast, visual representations such as drawings and non-verbal items on maps, such as contour lines, are not language-related. Some other symbols, such as numerals and the ampersand, are not directly linked to any specific language, every human community possesses language, which many regard as an innate and defining condition of humanity.
However, the development of writing systems, and the process by which they have supplanted traditional oral systems of communication, have been sporadic, once established, writing systems generally change more slowly than their spoken counterparts. Thus they often preserve features and expressions which are no current in the spoken language. One of the benefits of writing systems is that they can preserve a permanent record of information expressed in a language. In the examination of individual scripts, the study of writing systems has developed along partially independent lines, the terminology employed differs somewhat from field to field
The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the Kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land, until 1814, the kingdom included the Faroe Islands and Iceland. It included Isle of Man until 1266, Shetland and Orkney until 1468, Norway has a total area of 385,252 square kilometres and a population of 5,258,317. The country shares a long border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea. King Harald V of the Dano-German House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway, erna Solberg became Prime Minister in 2013, replacing Jens Stoltenberg. A constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the Parliament, the Cabinet and the Supreme Court, as determined by the 1814 Constitution, the kingdom is established as a merger of several petty kingdoms. By the traditional count from the year 872, the kingdom has existed continuously for 1,144 years, Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels and municipalities.
The Sámi people have an amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament. Norway maintains close ties with the European Union and the United States, the country maintains a combination of market economy and a Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system. Norway has extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber, the petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the countrys gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the worlds largest producer of oil, the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World Bank and IMF lists. On the CIAs GDP per capita list which includes territories and some regions, from 2001 to 2006, and again from 2009 to 2017, Norway had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world. It has the highest inequality-adjusted ranking, Norway ranks first on the World Happiness Report, the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity and the Democracy Index.
Norway has two names, Noreg in Nynorsk and Norge in Bokmål. The name Norway comes from the Old English word Norðrveg mentioned in 880, meaning way or way leading to the north. In contrasting with suðrvegar southern way for Germany, and austrvegr eastern way for the Baltic, the Anglo-Saxon of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. This was the area of Harald Fairhair, the first king of Norway, and because of him
Nynorsk, literally New Norwegian or New Norse, is one of the two written standards of the Norwegian language, the other being Bokmål. From 1885, when the parliament declared them official and equal, until new voting in 1929, the official standard of Nynorsk has since been significantly altered. A minor purist fraction of the Nynorsk populace has stayed firm with the Aasen norm, in local communities, one-fourth of Norwegian municipalities have declared Nynorsk as their official language form, and these municipalities account for about 12% of the Norwegian populace. Of the remaining municipalities, half are neutral and half have adopted Bokmål as their official language form, four of Norways nineteen counties, Hordaland, Sogn og Fjordane and Møre og Romsdal, have Nynorsk as their official language form. These four together comprise the region of Western Norway, the word Nynorsk has another meaning. Nynorsk was the written Norwegian in use until it died out in the early 1600s during the period of Danish rule, a major source of old written material is Diplomatarium Norvegicum in 22 printed volumes.
Written Nynorsk is found in all the types of places. Bokmål has, however, a larger basis in the cities. Most Norwegians do not speak either Nynorsk or Bokmål as written, Nynorsk shares many of the problems that minority languages face. In Norway, each municipality and county can choose to one of the two languages as its official language, or it can remain language neutral. As of 2015, 26% of the 428 municipalities have declared Nynorsk as their language, while 36% have chosen Bokmål and another 36% are neutral. At least 128 of the municipalities are in areas where Bokmål is the prevailing form. As for counties, three have declared Nynorsk, Sogn og Fjordane and Møre og Romsdal, two have declared Bokmål, Østfold and Vestfold. The remaining fourteen are officially language neutral, there are few municipalities in language neutral counties that use nynorsk. The main language used in schools is decided by referendum within the local school district. The number of districts and pupils using primarily Nynorsk has decreased from its height in the 1940s.
As of 2016,12. 2% of pupils in school are taught Nynorsk as their primary language. The prevailing regions for Nynorsk are the areas of the western counties of Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane and Møre og Romsdal
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association as a representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of language, phonemes, intonation. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a letter, or with a letter plus diacritics. Often, slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription, thus, /t/ is less specific than, occasionally letters or diacritics are added, removed, or modified by the International Phonetic Association. As of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters,52 diacritics and these are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA.
In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, for example, the sound was originally represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, the idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After major revisions and expansions in 1900 and 1932, the IPA remained unchanged until the International Phonetic Association Kiel Convention in 1989, a minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives. The alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap, apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted largely in renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces.
Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990, the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do hard, the IPA does not usually have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as selectiveness. These are organized into a chart, the chart displayed here is the chart as posted at the website of the IPA. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet, for this reason, most letters are either Latin or Greek, or modifications thereof. Some letters are neither, for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a question mark
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Oslo is the capital and the most populous city in Norway. It constitutes both a county and a municipality, founded in the year 1040, and established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814, after being destroyed by a fire in 1624, the city was moved closer to Akershus Fortress during the reign of Christian IV of Denmark and renamed Christiania in his honour. It was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838, following a spelling reform, it was known as Kristiania from 1877 to 1925, at which time its original Norwegian name was restored. Oslo is the economic and governmental centre of Norway, the city is a hub of Norwegian trade, banking and shipping. It is an important centre for industries and maritime trade in Europe. The city is home to companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the worlds largest shipping companies, shipbrokers.
Oslo is a city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme. Oslo is considered a city and ranked Beta World City in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group. It was ranked one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine. A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo. In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, as of January 1,2016, the municipality of Oslo has a population of 658,390, while the population of the citys urban area was 942,084. The metropolitan area had an population of 1.71 million. The population was during the early 2000 increasing at record rates and this growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing faster than the Norwegian population.
As of January 1,2016, the municipality of Oslo has a population of 658,390, the urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus, the total population of this agglomeration is 942,084. To the north and east, wide forested hills rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre. The urban municipality of Oslo and county of Oslo are two parts of the entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated
The Nordic Council is a geo-political inter-parliamentary forum for co-operation between the Nordic countries. It was formed after the Second World War in 1952 to promote co-operation between the five Nordic countries and its first concrete result was the introduction in 1952 of a common labour market and free movement across borders without passports for the countries citizens. The Council consists of 87 representatives from Denmark, Iceland and Sweden as well as the areas of the Faroe Islands, Greenland. The representatives are members of parliament in their respective country/area and are elected by those parliaments, the Council holds ordinary sessions each year in October/November and usually one extra session per year with a specific theme. Since 1991 Estonia and Lithuania participate with observer status, in 1971, the Nordic Council of Ministers, an intergovernmental forum, was established to complement the Council. During World War II, Denmark and Norway were occupied by Germany, Finland fought a war with the Soviet Union, while Sweden, though neutral.
Following the war, the Nordic countries pursued the idea of a Scandinavian defence union to ensure their mutual defence, Finland, due to its Paasikivi-Kekkonen policy of neutrality and FCMA treaty with the USSR, could not participate. It was proposed that the Nordic countries would unify their foreign policy and defence, remain neutral in the event of a conflict and not ally with NATO, which some were planning at the time. As Denmark and Norway sought US aid for their post-war reconstruction, further Nordic co-operation, such as an economic customs union, failed. This led Danish Prime Minister Hans Hedtoft to propose, in 1951 and this proposal was agreed by Denmark, Iceland and Sweden in 1952. The Councils first session was held in the Danish Parliament on 13 February 1953, when Finnish-Soviet relations thawed following the death of Joseph Stalin, Finland joined the council in 1955. On 2 July 1954, the Nordic labour market was created and in 1958, building upon a 1952 passport-free travel area and these two measures helped ensure Nordic citizens free movement around Scandinavia.
A Nordic Convention on Social Security was implemented in 1955, there were plans for a single market but they were abandoned in 1959 shortly before Denmark and Sweden joined the European Free Trade Area. Finland became a member of EFTA in 1961 and Denmark. This move towards the EEC led to desire for a formal Nordic treaty, further advancements on Nordic cooperation were made in the following years, a Nordic School of Public Health, a Nordic Cultural Fund and Nordic House in Reykjavík. Danish Prime Minister Hilmar Baunsgaard proposed full economic cooperation in 1968, nordek was agreed in 1970, but Finland backtracked, stating that its ties with the Soviet Union meant it could not form close economic ties with potential members of the EEC. As a consequence and Norway applied to join the EEC, in 1970 representatives of the Faroe Islands and Åland were allowed to take part in the Nordic Council as part of the Danish and Finnish delegations. Norway turned down EEC membership in 1972 while Denmark acted as a builder between the EEC and the Nordics
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages. Phonology includes the study of equivalent organizational systems in sign languages, the word phonology can refer to the phonological system of a given language. This is one of the systems which a language is considered to comprise, like its syntax. Phonology is often distinguished from phonetics, note that this distinction was not always made, particularly before the development of the modern concept of the phoneme in the mid 20th century. The word phonology comes from Ancient Greek φωνή, phōnḗ, sound, according to Clark et al. it means the systematic use of sound to encode meaning in any spoken human language, or the field of linguistics studying this use. The history of phonology may be traced back to the Ashtadhyayi, Baudouin de Courtenays work, though often unacknowledged, is considered to be the starting point of modern phonology. He worked on the theory of alternations, and may have had an influence on the work of Saussure according to E. F. K.
Koerner. An influential school of phonology in the period was the Prague school. One of its members was Prince Nikolai Trubetzkoy, whose Grundzüge der Phonologie. Directly influenced by Baudouin de Courtenay, Trubetzkoy is considered the founder of morphophonology, Trubetzkoy developed the concept of the archiphoneme. Another important figure in the Prague school was Roman Jakobson, who was one of the most prominent linguists of the 20th century, in 1968 Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle published The Sound Pattern of English, the basis for generative phonology. In this view, phonological representations are sequences of segments made up of distinctive features and these features were an expansion of earlier work by Roman Jakobson, Gunnar Fant, and Morris Halle. The features describe aspects of articulation and perception, are from a fixed set. There are at least two levels of representation, underlying representation and surface phonetic representation, ordered phonological rules govern how underlying representation is transformed into the actual pronunciation.
An important consequence of the influence SPE had on phonological theory was the downplaying of the syllable, the generativists folded morphophonology into phonology, which both solved and created problems. Natural phonology is a based on the publications of its proponent David Stampe in 1969. In this view, phonology is based on a set of phonological processes that interact with one another, which ones are active. Rather than acting on segments, phonological processes act on distinctive features within prosodic groups, prosodic groups can be as small as a part of a syllable or as large as an entire utterance