Engineer Rabi'u Musa popularly known as Rabiu Kwankwaso is a Nigerian politician from Kano state. He was two times Governor of Kano State from 1999–2003 and 2011–2015. Rabiu was the first governor of Kano State in the fourth republic, elected under the platform of People's Democratic Party. Kwankwaso lost re-election bid in 2003 to Ibrahim Shekarau and was in July same year appointed defense minister by President Olusegun Obasanjo. In 2015, Kwankwaso unsuccessfully contested the presidential primaries nomination under the opposition All Progressive Congress, but lost to Muhammad Buhari, he swap to contest the senatorial seat for Kano Central Senatorial District. Kwankwaso was born on 21 October 1956 in Kwankwaso village of Madobi Local Government Area of Kano State. Rabiu attended Kwankwaso Primary School, Gwarzo Boarding Senior Primary School, Wudil Craft School and Kano Technical College before proceeding to Kaduna Polytechnic where he did both his National Diploma, Higher National Diploma.
Kwankwaso did his postgraduate studies in the United Kingdom a Middlesex Polytechnic and Loughborough University of Technology where he got his master's degree in water engineering. Kwankwaso was an active student leader during his school days and was an elected official of the Kano State Students Association. Kwankwaso started work in 1975 at the Kano State Water Resources and Engineering Construction Agency, serving as a civil servant for 17 years in various capacities and rising through the ranks as the principal engineer. In 1992, Kwankwaso was elected as a member of House of Representatives representing Madobi Federal Constituency, his subsequent election as deputy speaker in the House brought him to the limelight of national politics. He belonged to the People's Front faction of the SDP led by General Shehu Yar'adua. During the 1995 Constitutional Conference, Kwankwaso was elected as one of the delegates from Kano, as a member of the People's Democratic Movement led by Yar'adua. Kwankwaso joined the PDP in 1998 under the platform of People's Democratic Movement in Kano led by Mallam Musa Gwadabe, Senator Hamisu Musa and Alhaji Abdullahi Aliyu Sumaila.
He defected to the People's Democratic Party on July 24, 2018. Kwankwaso was elected as the executive governor of the northern Nigerian state of Kano between 1999 and 2003, under the flag of the People's Democratic Party, he contested the PDP's primaries in 1999 against Engr. Mukthari Zimit, Alhaji Kabiru Rabiu; the Santsi/P. S. P. Were behind the candidature of Abdullahi Umar Ganduje but they lost to Kwankwaso in the primaries; the committee that conducted the primaries included Tony Momoh as Chairman other members were Abdullahi Aliyu Sumaila and Senator Bala Tafidan Yauri. He lost re-election to Malam Ibrahim Shekarau whom he removed from the highest civil service position of permanent secretary to a lecturer in a higher institution, his tenure as the governor of Kano State was eventful because of several other groups who were opposed to his high-handed governorship and his attempt at supportinging president Obasanjo, who hails from a different tribal group. His party the PDP became split between his supporters and those who opposed him.
Kwankwaso was subsequently appointed as the Minister of Defence in President Olusegun Obasanjo's cabinet in 2003. In 2007, he was appointed as the Presidential Special Envoy to Somalia and Darfur by the Obasanjo administration after losing the bid from his party to contest the 2007 general governorship election. Rabiu continued to use his influence at the Federal level to undermine his opponents the Kano State Government. Kwankwaso resigned his ministerial position to contest the election in 2007 but he lost because he had been indicted by a Government White Paper; the deputy gubernatorial candidate of the party Alhaji Ahmed Garba Bichi replaced him as the gubernatorial candidate of the party in the 2007 elections while Engr. Abubakar Jibrin Mohammed contested for the deputy gubernatorial post. Kwankwaso was reelected for a second term as Kano state Governor on 26 April 2011 and sworn in on 29 May, 2011. Rabiu won with a difference of sixty three thousand plus votes, his party won three quarters of the house of assembly seats, by winning 30 out of the total 40 seats in the state.
During his time as the governor, he sponsored over 7000 students to study abroad across different discipline and level from undergraduates and postgraduate. On 26 November he was among five PDP governors who defected to the new opposition party APC, formed a PDP splinter group in August known as the G-7. In 2015, Kwankwaso lost to Muhammadu Buhari. Kwankwaso was elected as a Senator for Kano State Central Senatorial District Seat on 2nd March, 2015. On March 9, 2004, the chief judge of Kano state swore in the six-member commission of inquiry, headed by Hon. Justice Ahmed Badamasi as chairman to inquire the activities of Kwankwaso; the commission commenced sitting March 19, 2004 and made its report available and for the government to issue the white paper by November, 2004, when he was indicted. On July 2, 2015, justice Mohammed Yahaya of the Kano High Court had restrained the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission, from arresting or restraining Kwankwaso in its investigation for alleged misappropriation of N10 billion pension funds while serving as Kano State governor.
But two weeks on July 16, 2015, the same judge in the Kano High Court voided his earlier order and granted the EFCC a judgement to enable the commission to investigate and prosecute Kwankwaso. Justice Muhammed Yahaya fined N50,000 against Kwankwaso for "time-wasting." Justice Yahaya Muhammed directed the Nigerian Bar Association to investi
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom. Tribal societies with social stratification under a single leader emerged in the Neolithic period out of earlier tribal structures with little stratification, they remained prevalent throughout the Iron Age. In the case of indigenous tribal societies existing within larger colonial and post-colonial states, tribal chiefs may represent their tribe or ethnicity in a form of self-government; the most common types are the chairman of a council and/or a broader popular assembly in "parliamentary" cultures, the war chief, the hereditary chief, the politically dominant medicineman. The term is distinct from chiefs at lower levels, such as village chief or clan chief; the descriptive "tribal" requires an ethno-cultural identity as well as some political expression. In certain situations, in a colonial context, the most powerful member of either a confederation or a federation of such tribal, clan or village chiefs would be referred to as a paramount chief.
This term has fallen out of use and such personages are now called kings. A woman who holds a chieftaincy in her own right or who derives one from her marriage to a male chief has been referred to alternatively as a chieftainess, a chieftess or in the case of the former, a chief. Anthropologist Elman Service distinguishes two stages of tribal societies: simple societies organized by limited instances of social rank and prestige, more stratified societies led by chieftains or tribal kings. Tribal societies represent an intermediate stage between the band society of the Paleolithic stage and civilization with centralized, super-regional government based in cities. Stratified tribal societies led by tribal kings thus flourished from the Neolithic stage into the Iron Age, albeit in competition with civilisations and empires beginning in the Bronze Age. An important source of information for tribal societies of the Iron Age is Greco-Roman ethnography, which describes tribal societies surrounding the urban, imperialist civilisation of the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, tribal kingdoms were again established over much of Europe in the wake of the Migration period. By the High Middle Ages, these had again coalesced into super-regional monarchies. Tribal societies remained prevalent in much of the New World. Exceptions to tribal societies outside of Europe and Asia were Paleolithic or Mesolithic band societies in Oceania and in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. Europeans forced centralized governments onto these societies during colonialism, but in some instances tribes have retained or regained partial self-government. Lonco among the Mapuche Morubixaba — tribal Cacique of the Tupi people Oubutu Rajiv Tyee, a tribal chief of the Chinookan peoples in the Pacific Northwest of the present-day United States Cacique, a term used among the Taino Nation of the Caribbean islands adopted by the Spanish to refer to all heads of chiefdoms whom they encountered: Cuauhtémoc, Tecun Uman, Atlacatl, Nicarao, Tupac Amaru II Sachem, term of chiefdom of the Algonquian nations of present-day New England in the United States Afro Bolivian king Eze Gbong Gwon Jos Kgosi Mogho Naba Nkosi Oba and Oloye.
Obai Omanhene Orkoiyot Sarkin Obong Tor Tiv of the Tiv people of Central Nigeria Aliʻi and Aliʻi nui were the chiefs and high chiefs of the islands of Hawaii Islands Ariki,'ariki henua Grade-taking systems of northern Vanuatu Ibedul Meena means Chief of tribals in South Asia. Iroijlaplap Matai, in the Samoan fa'amatai system Nahnmwarki, Lepen Palikir Rangatira, a chief of Māori in New Zealand Ratu, Fijian Chief, Malay for Queen Datu and Filipino Chief Arabs, in particular peninsular Arabs and nomadic Bedouins, are organized in tribes, many of whom have official representatives in governments. Tribal chiefs are known as Sheikhs, though this term is sometimes applied as an honorific title to spiritual leaders of Sufism; the Afro-Bolivian people, a recognized ethnic constituency of Bolivia, are led by a king whose title is recognized by the Bolivian government. In Botswana, the reigning chiefs of the various tribes are empowered to serve as advisers to the government as members of the Ntlo ya Dikgosi, the national House of Chiefs.
In addition to this, they serve as the ex officio chairs of the tribal kgotlas, meetings of all of the members of the tribes, where political and social matters are discussed. The band is the fundamental unit of governance among the First Nations in Canada. Most bands have elected chiefs, either directly elected by all members of the band, or indirectly by the band council, these chiefs are recognized by the Canadian state under the terms of the Indian Act; as well, there may be traditional hereditary or charismatic chiefs, w
Borgu is a region in north-west Nigeria and in the northern Republic of Benin. It was partitioned between Great Britain and France by the Anglo-French Convention of 1898. People of Borgu were known as Borgawa. According to the Kisra legend known all over Borgu, the petty kingdoms of the country were founded by Kisra, a hero who according to an oral tradition immigrated from Birnin Kisra in Arabia, his brothers are said to have been the founders of the kingdoms of Illo and Nikki. Other descendants are believed to have constituted the ruling aristocracy of the Wasangari. During the British colonial era, the area was within the territory claimed by the Royal Niger Company, but rivalry between Britain and France for control of the trade on the River Niger led to occupation of areas by the French, for instance at Illo, the stationing of the British West African Frontier Force at Yashikera and elsewhere in the region; the matter was settled by the Anglo-French Delineation Agreement and the British Government divided Nigeria into Northern and Southern Protectorates.
Borgu became part of the Northern Nigeria Protectorate. British posts were established along the Niger River and at Jebba, Zungeru and Illo, a mail route was established between them for communication with Britain. In spite of their separation by the colonial border there are still many exchanges between the petty kingdoms of Borgu situated in Benin and Nigeria; the three major kingdoms are Bussa and Nikki. Bussa is traditionally considered to be the spiritual centre of Borgu, Nikki the centre of political power and Illo the commercial emporium. Rulers of the Bariba state of Kandi Rulers of the Bariba state of Kwande Rulers of the Bariba state of Nikki Rulers of the Bariba state of Paraku References SourcesKuba, Richard: Wasangari und Wangara: Borgu und seine Nachbarn in historischer Perspektive, Hamburg 1996. Lombard, Jacques: Structures de type féodal en Afrique noire: Étude des relations sociales chez les Bariba, Paris 1965. Stewart, Marjorie: Borgu and its Kingdoms, Lewiston 1993
Muhammadu Buhari is a Nigerian politician serving as the President of Nigeria, in office since 2015. He is a retired major general in the Nigerian Army and served as the nation's head of state from 31 December 1983 to 27 August 1985, after taking power in a military coup d'état; the term Buharism is ascribed to the Buhari military government. He unsuccessfully ran for the office of president of Nigeria in the 2003, 2007, 2011 general elections. In December 2014, he emerged as the presidential candidate of the All Progressives Congress for the March 2015 general elections. Buhari won the election; this marked the first time in the history of Nigeria that an incumbent president lost to an opposition candidate in a general election. He was sworn in on 29 May 2015. In February 2019, Buhari was re-elected President, defeating his closest rival Atiku Abubakar by over 3 million votes. Buhari has stated that he takes responsibility for anything over which he presided during his military rule, that he cannot change the past.
He has described himself as a "converted democrat". Muhammadu Buhari was born to a Fulani family on 17 December 1942, in Daura, Katsina State, to his father Hardo Adamu, a Fulani chief, mother Zulaihat, he is the twenty-third child of his father. Buhari was raised by his mother. Buhari enrolled at age 19 in the Nigerian Military Training College in 1962. In February 1964, the college was upgraded to an officer commissioning unit of the Nigerian Army and renamed the Nigerian Defence Academy. From 1962 to 1963, Buhari underwent officer cadet training at Mons Officer Cadet School in Aldershot in England. In January 1963, at age 20, Buhari was commissioned a second lieutenant and appointed Platoon Commander of the Second Infantry Battalion in Abeokuta, Nigeria. From November 1963 to January 1964, Buhari attended the Platoon Commanders' Course at the Nigerian Military Training College, Kaduna. In 1964, he facilitated his military training by attending the Mechanical Transport Officer's Course at the Army Mechanical Transport School in Borden, United Kingdom.
From 1965 to 1967, Buhari served as commander of the Second Infantry Battalion and appointed brigade major, Second Sector, First Infantry Division, April 1967 to July 1967. In July 1966 Lieutenant Muhammadu Buhari was one of the participants in the "July Rematch" or so called "Counter-Coup", led by Lt-Col Murtala Muhammed, that overthrew and assassinated Nigeria's first self-appointed military Head of State General Aguiyi Ironsi, who had assumed leadership of the Nigerian government after a failed coup attempt on 15 January 1966, which overthrew the elected parliamentary government of Nigeria. Other participants in the coup on 28 July 1966 included 2nd Lieutenant Sani Abacha, Lieutenant Ibrahim Babangida, Major Theophilus Danjuma, Lieutenant Ibrahim Bako among others; the coup was a reaction to the January coup where a group of Igbo officers led by Major Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu overthrew the democratically elected government of Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. Many Northern soldiers were aggrieved by the murder of senior politicians, Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, northern regional premier, Ahmadu Bello, four senior officers from northern Nigeria: Brigadier Zakariya Maimalari, Colonel Kur Mohammed, Lt-Cols Abogo Largema and James Pam.
The counter-coup was bloody leading to the murder of Igbo officers. Among the casualties were the first military head of state General Aguiyi Ironsi and Lt Colonel Adekunle Fajuyi, the military governor of the Western Region. Buhari was assigned to the 1st Division under the command of Lt. Col Mohammed Shuwa, the division had temporarily moved from Kaduna to Makurdi at the onset of the Nigerian Civil War; the 1st division was divided into sectors and battalions with Shuwa assisted by sector commanders Martin Adamu and Sule Apollo, replaced by Theophilus Danjuma. Buhari's initial assignment was as Adjutant and Company Commander 2 battalion unit, Second Sector Infantry of the 1st Division; the 2 battalion was one of the units that participated in the first actions of the war, they started from Gakem near Afikpo and moved towards Ogoja with support from Gado Nasko's artillery squad. They reached and captured Ogoja within a week with the intention of advancing through the flanks to Enugu, the rebel capital.
Buhari was the 2 battalion's Commander and led the battalion to Afikpo to link with the 3rd Marine Commando and advance towards Enugu through Nkalagu and Abakaliki. However, before the move to Enugu, he was posted to Nsukka as Brigade Major of the 3rd Infantry Brigade under Joshua Gin who would become battle fatigued and replaced by Isa Bukar. Buhari stayed with the infantry for a few months as the Nigerian army began to adjust tactics learnt from early battle experiences. Instead of swift advances, the new tactics involved securing and holding on to the lines of communications and using captured towns as training ground to train new recruits brought in from the army depots in Abeokuta and Zaria. In 1968, he was posted to the 4 Sector called the Awka sector, charged to take over the capture of Onitsha from Division 2; the sector's operations was within the Awka-Abagana-Onitsha region, important to Biafran forces because it was a major source of food supply. It was in the sector that Buhari's group suffered a lot of casualties trying to protect food supplies route of the rebels along Oji River and Abagana.
From 1970 to 1971, Buhar
Action Congress of Nigeria
The Action Congress of Nigeria known as Action Congress, was a Nigerian political party formed via the merger of a faction of Alliance for Democracy, the Justice Party, the Advance Congress of Democrats, several other minor political parties in September 2006. The party controlled Lagos, it was regarded as a natural successor to the progressive politics more associated with the Action Group and Unity Party of Nigeria led by Chief Obafemi Awolowo in the First and Second Republics respectively. However, criticism of the party's more pragmatic and less ideological political outlook associated with AG and UPN, has made many argue it was less of a worthy political heir; the Party had strong presence in Mid-West and North Central Regions. Lagos, Ekiti, Ondo, Plateau, Adamawa and Osun states by far accounts for majority of the party's presence and discernible power base. In February 2013 the party merged with the Congress for Progressive Change, the All Nigeria Peoples Party, the All Progressives Grand Alliance to form the All Progressives Congress.
The party was formed in 2006 in order to form a larger political opposition to the federally dominant centrist People's Democratic Party and the Northern-based All Nigeria Peoples Party. On May 12, 2006, the provisional officers of the party were replaced at the Kaduna convention by ballot; the party ran Vice President Atiku Abubakar, who defected from the People's Democratic Party, as its presidential candidate in the 2007 presidential election. Abubakar was disqualified from the election by the Independent National Electoral Commission, but the disqualification was overturned by the Supreme Court; the party's most prominent elected official was former member, Governor Babatunde Fashola of Lagos State. Prominent in the party was the political brain behind the party, Asiwaju Ahmed Tinubu, the former Governor of Lagos State and erstwhile Senator in the Third Republica. Tinubu is noted for his astute Pro-Democracy credentials and progressive Federalist Principles that saw him clash severally with former President Olusegun Obasanjo of the more conservative unitarian school of thought.
In the 21 April 2007 Nigerian National Assembly election, the party won 32 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives and 6 out of 109 seats in the Senate. Following the victory of PDP candidate Umaru Yar'Adua in the 2007 presidential election, the AC has been pursuing a legal challenge to the results. On July 6, 2007, the party announced its rejection of an offer to join Yar'Adua's government, with a spokesman saying that "there is no compelling moral, legal or political reason for us to join a government that we have told the whole world stole its mandate" and that participating in the government would mean "partaking in stolen goods". However, on August 7, 2007, the National Secretary, Bashir Dalhatu, resigned over the refusal of the Action Congress to take up Yar'adua's offer, he was replaced by Usman Bugaje. Most of the Party's success came in 2008 via judicial challenges to the maligned 2003 General Elections, judged to be rigged by international observers and the ruling party in favor of the PDP.
In 2008, the Party's candidate in Edo State, former Labor leader Comrade Adams Oshiomhole won a decisive victory and took the mantle of power in that state. In Ekiti state, the Party's candidate- Dr. Fayemi emerged victorious over the PDP Candidate Engr. Oni in court, secured a cancellation of results of 63 wards, with the Appeals Court ordering rerun. Heading into this rerun, AC had an over 12 000 votes advantage; the current Acting Speaker of the Ekiti State House of Assembly was an AC member. AC Governorship candidates still have cases pending in Osun and Ogun states where analysts have given them better than chance to secure a rerun or emerge outright victors; the Ekiti State Guber Rerun election saw some form of alliance between the Labour Party Governor in Ondo State, Dr. Mimiko and the Action Congress under the perceived leadership of Asiwaju Bola Tinubu; the Action Congress changed their name to the Action Congress of Nigeria. The March 2010 rerun of the Ekiti Guber polls resulted in PDP Candidate and Ex-Governor, Engineer Oni being returned as winner despite widespread allegations of voter intimidation and pressures on INEC officials to release the falsified result to favor the ruling party.
AC Candidate proceeded to challenge these results at the Elections Tribunal, where he lost 3-2. Pinning his appeal on the minority judgement, he sought to be installed as Governor based on the cancellation of results from two local governments where PDP perpetrated fraud and violence. A ruling from the Appeal Court on September 14, 2010 returned Dr. Fayemi of Action Congress as the 3rd Executive Governor of Ekiti State after three and half years of protracted court battles and occupancy by the usurper PDP government in the state. On November 26, 2010, the AC Candidate in Engr. Aregbesola was declared the duly elected governor of Osun State by the Court of Appeals sitting in Ibadan; this brings the number of AC seats recovered via the judicial process to four out of five states controlled. Only one of those seats, was up for contest in the 2011 cycle i.e. Lagos State. On December 2010, the Act
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London. Continuous publication began under its founder James Wilson in September 1843. In 2015, its average weekly circulation was a little over 1.5 million, about half of which were sold in the United States. Pearson PLC held a 50% shareholding via The Financial Times Limited until August 2015. At that time, Pearson sold their share in the Economist; the Agnelli family's Exor paid £287m to raise their stake from 4.7% to 43.4% while the Economist paid £182m for the balance of 5.04m shares which will be distributed to current shareholders. Aside from the Agnelli family, smaller shareholders in the company include Cadbury, Schroder and other family interests as well as a number of staff and former staff shareholders. A board of trustees formally appoints the editor. Although The Economist has a global emphasis and scope, about two-thirds of the 75 staff journalists are based in the London borough of Westminster.
For the year to March 2016, the Economist Group declared operating profit of £61m. The Economist takes an editorial stance of classical and economic liberalism that supports free trade, free immigration and cultural liberalism; the publication has described itself as "a product of the Caledonian liberalism of Adam Smith and David Hume". It targets educated, cultured readers and claims an audience containing many influential executives and policy-makers; the publication's CEO described this recent global change, first noticed in the 1990s and accelerated in the beginning of the 21st century as a "new age of Mass Intelligence". The Economist was founded by the British businessman and banker James Wilson in 1843, to advance the repeal of the Corn Laws, a system of import tariffs. A prospectus for the "newspaper" from 5 August 1843 enumerated thirteen areas of coverage that its editors wanted the publication to focus on: Original leading articles, in which free-trade principles will be most rigidly applied to all the important questions of the day.
Articles relating to some practical, agricultural, or foreign topic of passing interest, such as foreign treaties. An article on the elementary principles of political economy, applied to practical experience, covering the laws related to prices, rent, exchange and taxes. Parliamentary reports, with particular focus on commerce and free trade. Reports and accounts of popular movements advocating free trade. General news from the Court of St. James's, the Metropolis, the Provinces and Ireland. Commercial topics such as changes in fiscal regulations, the state and prospects of the markets and exports, foreign news, the state of the manufacturing districts, notices of important new mechanical improvements, shipping news, the money market, the progress of railways and public companies. Agricultural topics, including the application of geology and chemistry. Colonial and foreign topics, including trade, produce and fiscal changes, other matters, including exposés on the evils of restriction and protection, the advantages of free intercourse and trade.
Law reports, confined chiefly to areas important to commerce and agriculture. Books, confined chiefly, but not so to commerce and agriculture, including all treatises on political economy, finance, or taxation. A commercial gazette, with prices and statistics of the week. Correspondence and inquiries from the news magazine's readers. Wilson described it as taking part in "a severe contest between intelligence, which presses forward, an unworthy, timid ignorance obstructing our progress", a phrase which still appears on its masthead as the publication's mission, it has long been respected as "one of the most competent and subtle Western periodicals on public affairs". The publication was a major source of financial and economic information for Karl Marx in the formulation of socialist theory. In January 2012, The Economist launched a new weekly section devoted to China, the first new country section since the introduction of a section about the United States in 1942. In August 2015, The Economist Group bought back 5 million of its shares from Pearson.
Pearson's remaining shares would be sold to Exor. The editors of The Economist have been: James Wilson 1843–1857 Richard Holt Hutton 1857–1861 Walter Bagehot, 1861–1877 Daniel Conner Lathbury, 1877–1881 Robert Harry Inglis Palgrave, 1877–1883 Edward Johnstone, 1883–1907 Francis Wrigley Hirst, 1907–1916 Hartley Withers, 1916–1921 Sir Walter Layton, 1922–1938 Geoffrey Crowther, 1938–1956 Donald Tyerman, 1956–1965 Sir Alastair Burnet, 1965–1974 Andrew Knight, 1974–1986 Rupert Pennant-Rea, 1986–1993 Bill Emmott, 1993–2006 John Micklethwait, 2006–2014 Zanny Minton Beddoes, 2015–present When the news magazine was founded, the term "economism" denoted what would today be termed "economic liberalism"; the Economist supports free trade and free immigration. The activist and journalist George Monbiot has described it as neo-liberal while accepti