Bolesław III Wrymouth, was a Duke of Lesser Poland and Sandomierz between 1102 and 1107 and over the whole Poland between 1107 and 1138. He was the only child of Prince Władysław I Herman and his first wife Judith, daughter of Vratislaus II of Bohemia. Bolesław began to rule in the last decade of the 11th century, when the central government in Poland was weakened. Władysław I Herman fell under the political dependence of the Count palatine Sieciech, who became the real ruler of the country. Backed by their father and his half-brother Zbigniew expelled Sieciech from the country in 1101, after several years of fighting. After the death of Władysław I Herman in 1102, two independent states were created ruled by Bolesław and Zbigniew. Bolesław sought to gain Pomerania which caused an armed conflict between the brothers, forced Zbigniew to flee the country and seek military help from German King Henry V. Bolesław punished Zbigniew by blinding him; this action caused outrage among supporters of Zbigniew.
Bolesław once again gained the favor of his subjects with public penance, made a pilgrimage to the monastery of his patron, Saint Giles, in Hungary. Bolesław, like Bolesław II the Generous, based his foreign policy on maintaining good relations with neighboring Hungary and Kievan Rus, with whom he forged strong links through marriage and military cooperation in order to break the political dependence on Germany and his vassal, the King of Bohemia, who in moments of weakness of Polish policy was forced to pay tribute in Silesia; these alliances had allowed Bolesław to defend the country from invasion in 1109. Several years Bolesław skillfully took advantage of the dynastic disputes in Bohemia to ensure peace on the south-west border. Bolesław devoted the second half of his rule to the conquest of Pomerania. In 1113 he conquered the northern strongholds along Noteć, which strengthened the border with the Pomeranians. In subsequent years, he took steps toward the conquest of Pomerania; the resolution of the conflict with the Holy Roman Empire allowed Bolesław to subordinate Western Pomerania and incorporate Gdańsk Pomerania.
The military expeditions, carried out in three stages, ended in the 1120s with military and political successes. Integration of the newly annexed lands enabled Bolesław to build churches and began the process of converting Pomerania. Bishop Otto of Bamberg confirmed the Christianization of Pomerania from 1123 onward. In the 1130s Bolesław participated in the dynastic dispute in Hungary. After an unexpected defeat, he was forced to make an agreement with Germany; the Congress of Merseburg of 1135 addressed the issues of Pomerania, Silesian sovereignty and the supremacy of the Archbishopric of Magdeburg over the Polish Church. Bolesław was married twice, his first marriage with the Kievan princess Zbyslava gave him an excuse to intervene militarily in the internal affairs of Russia. After her death, Bolesław married to a German noblewoman, Salomea of Berg, which in some way was the cause of changes in Polish foreign policy: in the second half of his rule, the Prince sought to restore diplomatic relations with his western neighbor.
His last, the most momentous act, was his will and testament known as "The Succession Statute" in which he divided the country among his sons, leading to 200 years of feudal fragmentation of the Polish Kingdom. Bolesław III Wrymouth has been recognized by historiography as a symbol of Polish political aspirations until well into the 19th century, he upheld the independence of the Polish archbishopric of Gniezno, despite a temporary failure in the 1130s. Despite undoubted successes, he committed serious political errors, most notably against Zbigniew of Poland, his half-brother; the crime against Zbigniew and his penance for it show Bolesław's great ambition as well as his ability to find political compromise. In 1086 the coronation of Vratislav II as King of Bohemia, his alignment with László I, King of Hungary, threatened the position of the Polish ruler, Prince Władysław I Herman. Therefore, that same year Władysław I was forced to recall from Hungarian banishment the only son of Bolesław II the Bold and a rightful heir to the Polish throne, Mieszko Bolesławowic.
Upon his return young Bolesławowic accepted the over-lordship of his uncle and gave up his hereditary claim to the crown of Poland in exchange for becoming first in line to succeed him. In return, Władysław I Herman granted his nephew the district of Kraków; the situation was further complicated for Władysław I Herman by a lack of a legitimate male heir, as his first-born son Zbigniew came from a union not recognized by the church. With the return of Mieszko Bolesławowic to Poland, Władysław I normalized his relations with the kingdom of Hungary as well as Kievan Rus; these actions allowed Herman to strengthen his authority and alleviate further tensions in international affairs. The lack of a legitimate heir, remained a concern for Władysław I and in 1085 he and his wife Judith of Bohemia sent rich gifts, among, a life size statue of a child made of gold, to the Benedictine Sanctuary of Saint Giles in Saint-Gilles, Provence begging for offspring; the Polish envoys were led by the personal chaplain of Piotr.
The date of birth of Bolesław is linked with the death of his mother Judith. This fact is evidenced by contemporary sources: Gallus Anonymus in the Cronicae et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum reported that Duchess Judith gave birth to Bolesław on the day of King Saint Stephen of Hungary (wh
Pallithanam Luca Matthai was born in 1880 in Kainady village, British India. His father, Mathai Luca Pallithanam, was among the pioneers of kayal cultivation in Kuttandu; the family estate passed to 18-year-old Luca Matthai on the death of his father. Matthai spearheaded the reclamation activities of more than one-third of the total Kayal Nilam's, his first venture of kayal cultivation was the reclamation of Cherukara Kayal. During 1898-1904, he reclaimed the Pallithanam Moovayiram Kayal and Madathil Kayal but could not progress further because of a ban on reclamation imposed by the Travancore Raja in 1904; that ban was removed in 1914, after which Matthai and some other prominent families in Kuttanadu, reclaimed E-Block Kayal, which covered 2,400 acres. This is the biggest kayal nilam in Kuttanadu. H Block Kayal and R Block Kayal were his other major reclamations. Matthai served as member of the Moolam Thirunal of Travancore's Praja Sabha and is considered to be a pioneer of the cooperative agricultural movement in Kuttanadu.
His life marked the beginning of the epoch of first generation Kayal Raja's of Kuttanad.. In 1931, in order to strengthen the farming community in Kuttanadu, he founded Kuttandu Karshaka Sangham, he spearheaded the debt relief struggle that resulted in the enactment of the Agricultural Debt Relief Act. Our Lady of Dolours Church in Kainady village stands on land donated by him. Using his influence as a member of the Praja Sabha, he established a primary school in Kainady in 1921 and in the initial years he acted as the manager of it; this school was named as A J John Memorial High School. Matthai was among the founders of the All-Kerala Catholic Congress. Though he belonged to an aristocratic and orthodox Syrian Christian family, he supported his contemporary and great social reformer Ayyankali in his efforts in eradicating the social inequalities that were prevalent in the Kerala society, he invited Ayyankali to the ancestral home of Pallithanam. In a great event, accompanied by many boats, along with his followers, reached the Pallithanam Tharavad, as a token of protest against casteism made'Panthi Bhojanam'.
He died on Christmas Day, 1962
Regular Division of the Plane is a series of drawings by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which began in 1936; these images are based on the principle of tessellation, irregular shapes or combinations of shapes that interlock to cover a surface or plane. The inspiration for these works began in 1936 with a visit to the Alhambra, a fourteenth-century Moorish castle near Granada, Spain. Escher had visited the Alhambra once before in 1922 but in this visit he had spent several days studying and sketching the ornate tile designs there. In 1958 Escher published his book The Regular Division of the Plane; this book included several woodcut prints to demonstrate the concept, but the series of drawings continued until the late 1960s, ending at drawing #137. While not Escher’s most artistically important works, some of these patterns are among Escher's most famous, having been used for a number of commercial products, including neckties
No. 193 Squadron RAF was a fighter squadron of the Royal Air Force during World War II. No. 193 Squadron was formed at RAF Harrowbeer, Devon on 18 December 1942 as a fighter/ground attack unit. Although designated to operate the new Hawker Typhoon, the squadron at first used the Hawker Hurricane until the Typhoon was declared operational in April 1943. In November 1943 the squadron was used to attack the German V-1 launch sites; the squadron moved base in the south of England a number of times supporting the buildup for invasion. From 6 June 1944 the squadron was busy supporting the invasion force in the close-support fighter-bomber role, it was based on the Continent from 11 September 1944 as it continued to support the advancing armies in France and Germany. The squadron disbanded on 31 August 1945 at Hildesheim; some of the squadron's Typhoon aircraft were paid for by the Brazilian branch of the Fellowship of the Bellows, which were a loosely organised international groups formed during World War II to collect funds for the purchase of aircraft for the Royal Air Force.
Cap Arcona List of Royal Air Force aircraft squadrons Journals from a World War II pilot in 193 Squadron.
Pantego is a town in Beaufort County, North Carolina, United States. The population was 179 at the 2010 Census. Pantego is located at 35°35′9″N 76°39′35″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.8 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 170 people, 155 households, 6 families residing in the town; the population density was 212.3 people per square mile. There were 78 housing units at an average density of 97.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 80.00% White, 17.65% African American, 1.76% from other races, 0.59% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.76% of the population. There were 65 households out of which 33.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.5% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.6% were non-families. 23.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.06. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 22.4% from 25 to 44, 30.0% from 45 to 64, 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $41,250, the median income for a family was $41,750. Males had a median income of $28,750 versus $25,750 for females; the per capita income for the town was $18,030. About 4.9% of families and 7.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.0% of those under the age of eighteen and 35.7% of those sixty five or over. The town used to have a school named Pantego High School; the town was hit by a tornado 1991, another in October 11, 2002, an F2 tornado, spawned by Hurricane Kyle, destroyed two houses and a farm. The most recent tornado, rated EF2 was on April 7, 2014.
It rolled along Pantego Creek, ran along one of its canals, Cuckold's Creek, hit a railroad bridge and Highway 264, it took a turn, hit through a small marsh, split a house in half, threw a truck over 40 feet high and threw it in a nearby field, the two occurred 5 feet from each other, the tornado curved into a forest, destroying a Hardee's billboard, rolled across the Cuckold's Creek again, it slid along a field, until it curved into four houses on one side of the road, hit another house across the street, hit another field. A man in a plane flew over the field it crossed, he saw curved and grooves in the dirt, revealing "arcs" in the field suggesting it was a multiple-vortex tornado, it hit a 2-story house, taking the top floor right off the house, leaving the bottom floor, continued until it hit a house in Ponzer, about 15 miles from Pantego, leveled that house. Marc Van Essendelf, his seven children, his wife, 8 months pregnant, hid in a ditch. There was a near-miss with another tornado that hit Whichard's Beach and Washington, NC.
The Meleager of Skopas is a lost bronze sculpture of the Greek hero Meleager – host of the Calydonian boar hunt –, associated in modern times with the fourth century BCE architect and sculptor Skopas of Paros. The sculpture escaped mention in any classical writer, it is judged to have been a late work in the sculptor's career, but it is known only through a number of copies that vary in quality and in fidelity to the original, which show it to have been one of the famous sculptures of antiquity: "the popularity of the Meleager during Roman times was great," notes Brunilde Sismondo Ridgway, who reports Andrew F. Stewart's count of 13 statues, 4 torsos, 19 heads busts and herms, a variant with changed stance and attributes, 11 versions adapted for a portrait or a deity. Six or seven of the accepted copies are accompanied by a dog, 12 wear a chlamys, 3, clinching the sculptural type's identification with Meleager, are accompanied by a boar's head trophy, as in the Vatican Meleager. Ms Ridgeway accounts for the sculpture's popularity in part "by the appeal that hunting figures had for the Romans, through their heroizing connotations."
A torso in the Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, is rated among the superior copies, if it is indeed a Meleager. "There are other marble Meleagers," wrote Cornelius Vermeule in 1967, "one or two reaching the level of the Fogg statue but most of them documents of stonecutting devoid of the restless inner life that must have been imparted by the master to the original." Several unfinished copies found in Athens suggest that the city was a center for reproductions for the Roman market. It is not known whether Skopas' original was carried out for the heroon at Calydon where Meleager was venerated and whether the original was carried off as a cultural trophy by one of the Romans "of taste and means"; the lifesize standing Meleager from Palazzo Fusconi-Pighini, sometimes identified in the 16th and 17th centuries as an Adonis, a victim of a boar rather than its master, was recorded in 1546 among the most beautiful in Rome, not excluding the antiquities of the Cortile del Belvedere. The sculpture, engraved in all the anthologies of antiquities, was copied by Pierre Lepautre for Louis XIV at Marly.
The original remained with Fusconi's eventual Pighini heirs until early in 1770, when it was purchased by Pope Clement XIV as one of the founding pieces for his new museum in the Vatican. It was among the select group of sculptures triumphantly removed by Napoleon to Paris, under terms of the Treaty of Tolentino but returned after Napoleon's fall. A variant, discovered in 1838, has been conserved in the Antikensammlung Berlin since 1844. Another early Roman full-size marble copy is at the Art Institute of Chicago. Ms Ridgeway remarks critically on the slenderness of the connection with Skopas, based on the subject of the east pediment of the Temple of Athena Alea at Tegea, in which Skopas was the architect, but not, as Ms Ridgeway observes, accounted directly responsible for the pediment sculptures in any classical reference: "from a narrative pedimental composition in Arkadia— related, moreover, to local families and legends— to a single free-standing sculpture in Kalydon is quite a leap of the imagination."