Hungarian invasions of Europe
The Hungarian invasions of Europe took place in the ninth and tenth centuries, the period of transition in the history of Europe in the Early Middle Ages, when the territory of the former Carolingian Empire was threatened by invasion from multiple hostile forces, the Magyars from the east, the Viking expansion from the north and the Arabs from the south. The Magyars conquered the Pannonian Basin by the end of the ninth century, launched a number of plundering raids both westward into former Francia and southward into the Byzantine Empire; the westward raids were stopped only with the Magyar defeat of the Battle of Lechfeld of 955, which led to a new political order in Western Europe centered on the Holy Roman Empire. The raids in to Byzantine territories continued throughout the 10th century, until the eventual Christianisation of the Magyars and the establishment of the Christian Kingdom of Hungary in 1000 or 1001; the first supposed reference to the Hungarians in war is in the 9th century: in 811, the Hungarians were in alliance with Krum of Bulgaria against Emperor Nikephoros I at the Battle of Pliska in the Haemus Mountains.
Georgius Monachus' work mentions that around 837 the Bulgarian Empire sought an alliance with the Hungarians. Constantine Porphyrogenitus wrote in his work On Administering the Empire that the Khagan and the Bek of the Khazars asked the Emperor Teophilos to have the fortress of Sarkel built for them; this record is thought to refer to the Hungarians on the basis that the new fortress must have become necessary because of the appearance of a new enemy of the Khazars, no other people could have been the Khazars’ enemy at that time. In the 10th century, Ahmad ibn Rustah wrote that "earlier, the Khazars entrenched themselves against the attacks of the Magyars and other peoples". In 860–861, Hungarian soldiers attacked Saint Cyril's convoy but the meeting is said to have ended peacefully. Saint Cyril was traveling to the Khagan at Chersonesos Taurica, captured by the Khazars. Muslim geographers recorded that the Magyars attacked the neighboring East Slavic tribes, took captives to sell to the Byzantine Empire at Kerch.
There is some information about Hungarian raids into the eastern Carolingian Empire in 862. In 881, the Hungarians and the Kabars invaded East Francia and fought two battles, the former at Wenia and the latter at Culmite. In 892, according to the Annales Fuldenses, King Arnulf of East Francia invaded Great Moravia and the Magyars joined his troops. After 893, Magyar troops were conveyed across the Danube by the Byzantine fleet and defeated the Bulgarians in three battles. In 894, the Magyars invaded Pannonia in alliance with King Svatopluk I of Moravia. Around 896 under the leadership of Árpád, the Hungarians crossed the Carpathians and entered the Carpathian Basin. In 899, these Magyars defeated Berengar's army in the Battle of Brenta River and invaded the northern regions of Italy, they pillaged the countryside around Treviso, Verona, Brescia and Milan. They defeated Braslav, Duke of Lower Pannonia. In 901, they attacked Italy again. In 902, they led a campaign against northern Moravia and defeated the Moravians whose country was annihilated.
Every year after 900 they conducted raids against the Catholic west and Byzantine east. In 905, the Magyars and King Berengar formed an amicitia, fifteen years passed without Hungarian troops entering Italy; the Magyars defeated no fewer than three large Frankish imperial armies between 907 and 910, as follows. In 907 they defeated the invading Bavarians near Brezalauspurc, destroying their army defending Hungary and laying Great Moravia, Germany and Italy open to Magyar raids. On 3 August 908 the Hungarians won the battle of Thuringia. Egino, Duke of Thuringia was killed, along with Burchard, Duke of Thuringia and Rudolf I, Bishop of Würzburg; the Magyars defeated Louis the Child's united Frankish Imperial Army at the first Battle of Lechfeld in 910. Smaller units penetrated as far as Bremen in 915. In 919, after the death of Conrad I of Germany, the Magyars raided Saxony and West Francia. In 921, they defeated King Berengar's enemies at Verona and reached Apulia in 922. Between 917 and 925, the Magyars raided through Basel, Burgundy and the Pyrenees.
Around 925, according to the Chronicle of the Priest of Dioclea from the late 12th century, Tomislav of Croatia defeated the Magyars in battle, however others question the reliability of this account, because there is no proof for this interpretation in other records. In 926, they ravaged Swabia and Alsace, campaigned through present-day Luxembourg and reached as far as the Atlantic Ocean. In 927, brother of Pope John X, called on the Magyars to rule Italy, they imposed large tribute payments on Tuscany and Tarento. In 933, a substantial Magyar army was defeated by Henry I at Merseburg. Magyar attacks continued against Saxony. In 937, they raided France as far west as Reims, Swabia, the Duchy of Burgundy and Italy as far as Otranto in the south, they attacked the Byzantine Empire, reaching the walls of Constantinople. The Byzantines paid them a “tax” for 15 years. In 938, the Magyars attacked Saxony. In 940, they ravaged the region of Rome. In 942, Hungarian raids on Spain in Catalonia, took place, according to Ibn Hayyan's
Merseburg is a town in the south of the German state of Saxony-Anhalt on the river Saale, approx. 14 km south of Halle and 30 km west of Leipzig. It is the capital of the Saalekreis district, it had a diocese founded by Archbishop Adalbert of Magdeburg. The University of Merseburg is located within the town. Merseburg has around 33,000 inhabitants. Merseburg is part of the Central German Metropolitan Region. Czech: Merseburk, Meziboř French: Mersebourg German: Merseburg Latin: Merseburga Polish: Międzybórz Sorbian languages: Mjezybor Venenien was incorporated into Merseburg on 1 January 1949; the parish Kötzschen followed on 1 July 1950. Since 30 May 1994, Meuschau is part of Merseburg. Trebnitz followed later. Beuna was annexed on 1 January 2009. Geusa is a part of Merseburg since 1 January 2010. Merseburg was first mentioned in 850. King Henry the Fowler built a royal palace at Merseburg. Thietmar, appointed in 973, became the first bishop of the newly created bishopric of Prague in Bohemia. Prague had been part of the archbishopric of Mainz for a hundred years before that.
From 968 until the Protestant Reformation, Merseburg was the seat of the Bishop of Merseburg, in addition to being for a time the residence of the margraves of Meissen, it was a favorite residence of the German kings during the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries. Fifteen diets were held here during the Middle Ages, during which time its fairs enjoyed the importance, afterwards transferred to those of Leipzig. Merseburg was the site of a failed assassination attempt on Polish ruler Bolesław I Chrobry in 1002; the town suffered during the German Peasants' War and during the Thirty Years' War. From 1657 to 1738 Merseburg was the residence of the Dukes of Saxe-Merseburg, after which it fell to the Electorate of Saxony. In 1815 following the Napoleonic Wars, the town became part of the Prussian Province of Saxony. Merseburg is where the Merseburg Incantations were rediscovered in 1841. Written down in Old High German, they are hitherto the only preserved German documents with a heathen theme. One of them is a charm to release warriors caught during battle, the other is a charm to heal a horse's sprained foot.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Merseburg was transformed into an industrial town due to the pioneering work done by Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius, who laid down the scientific fundamentals of the catalytic high-pressure ammonia synthesis from 1909 to 1913. Enterprises, blazed a trail in the course of the transformational process. A chemical park emerged at nearby Leuna, one of the most modern sites of its kind in Europe with high ecological standards. Merseburg was badly damaged in World War II. In 23 air raids 6,200 dwellings were or destroyed; the historic town centre was completely destroyed. Part of Saxony-Anhalt after the war, it was administered within the Bezirk Halle in East Germany, it became part of Saxony-Anhalt again after reunification of Germany. Like many towns in the former East Germany, Merseburg has had a general decline in population since German Reunification despite annexing and merging with a number of smaller nearby villages. Population of Merseburg: Data source from 1990: Statistical Office of Saxony Anhalt 1 29 October 2 31 August 3 3 October 4 14 July 2008 Among the notable buildings of Merseburg are the Merseburg Cathedral of St John the Baptist and the episcopal palace.
The cathedral-and-palace ensemble features a palace garden. Other attractions include the Merseburg House of Trades with a cultural stage and the German Museum of Chemistry, Merseburg; the Merseburg Palace Festival with the Historical Pageant, the International Palace-Moat Concerts, Merseburg Organ Days and the Puppet Show Festival Week are events celebrated every year. Merseburg station is located on the Halle–Bebra railway. Leipzig/Halle Airport is just 25 kilometers away. Merseburg is connected with the Halle tramway network. A tram ride from Halle's city centre to Merseburg takes about 50 minutes. Merseburg is twinned with: Châtillon, France Genzano di Roma, Italy Bottrop, Germany Thietmar of Merseburg and chronist Johannes Knolleisen, theological professor Ernst Haeckel, philosopher, physician Lucian Müller, classical scholar Klaus Tennstedt, conductor Elisabeth Schumann, singer Karl Adolph von Basedow, physician Jawed Karim, YouTube co-founder Szymon Bogumił Zug and designer of gardens Uwe Nolte, artist This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Merseburg". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 173–174. Official website
Duchy of Bohemia
The Duchy of Bohemia referred to as the Czech Duchy, was a monarchy and a principality of the Holy Roman Empire in Central Europe during the Early and High Middle Ages. It was formed around 870 by Czechs as part of the Great Moravian realm; the Bohemian lands separated from disintegrating Moravia after Duke Spytihněv swore fidelity to the East Frankish king Arnulf in 895. While the Bohemian dukes of the Přemyslid dynasty, at first ruling at Prague Castle and Levý Hradec, brought further estates under their control, the Christianization initiated by Saints Cyril and Methodius was continued by the Frankish bishops of Regensburg and Passau. In 973 the Diocese of Prague was founded through the joint efforts of Duke Boleslaus II and Emperor Otto I. Late Duke Wenceslaus I of Bohemia, killed by his younger brother Boleslaus in 935, became the land's patron saint. While the lands were occupied by the Polish king Bolesław I and internal struggles shook the Přemyslid dynasty, Duke Vladivoj received Bohemia as a fief from the hands of the East Frankish king Henry II in 1002 and the duchy became an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Duchy of Bohemia was raised to a hereditary Kingdom of Bohemia, when Duke Ottokar I ensured his elevation by the German king Philip of Swabia in 1198. The Přemyslids remained in power throughout the High Middle Ages, until the extinction of the male line with the death of King Wenceslaus III in 1306; the lands encompassed by the Bohemian Forest, the Ore Mountains, the Sudetes and the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands were settled by Bohemian tribes about 550. In the 7th century the local Czech people were part of the union led by the Frankish merchant Samo. Bohemia as a geographical term derived from the Celtic Boii tribes, first appeared in 9th century Frankish sources. In 805 Emperor Charlemagne prepared to conquer the lands, invading Bohemia in 805 and laying siege to the fortress of Canburg. However, the Czech forces shirked from open battle and retired into the deep forests to launch guerilla attacks. After forty days the emperor had to withdraw his forces for the lack of supplies; when the Frankish forces returned the next year burning and plundering the Bohemian lands, the local tribes had to submit and became dependent on the Carolingian Empire.
While the Frankish realm disintegrated in the mid 9th century, Bohemia fell under the influence of the Great Moravian state, established around 830. In 874 the Mojmir duke Svatopluk I reached an agreement with the East Frankish king Louis the German and confirmed his Bohemian dominion. With the fragmentation of Great Moravia under the pressure of the Magyar incursions around 900, Bohemia began to form as an independent principality. In 880, the Přemyslid prince Bořivoj from Levý Hradec a deputy of Duke Svatopluk I, baptised by the Great Moravian archbishop Methodius of Salonica in 874, moved his residence to Prague Castle and started to subjugate the Vltava Basin. Great Moravia regained control over the emerging Bohemian principality upon Bořivoj's death in 888/890 until, in 895, his son Spytihněv together with the Slavník prince Witizla swore allegiance to the East Frankish king Arnulf of Carinthia in Regensburg, he and his younger brother Vratislaus ruled over Central Bohemia around Prague.
They were able to protect their realm from the Magyar forces which crushed an East Frankish army in the 907 Battle of Pressburg during the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin. Cut off from Byzantium by the Hungarian presence, the Bohemian principality existed as independent state though still in the shadow of East Francia. Vratislaus' son Wenceslaus, who ruled from 921, was accepted as head of the Bohemian tribal union. Wenceslaus maintained his ducal authority by submitting to King Henry in 929, whereafter he was murdered by his brother Boleslaus. Assuming the Bohemian throne in 935, Duke Boleslaus conquered the adjacent lands of Moravia and Silesia, expanded farther to Kraków in the east, he offered opposition to Henry's successor King Otto I, stopped paying the tribute, attacked an ally of the Saxons in northwest Bohemia and in 936 moved into Thuringia. After a prolonged armed conflict, King Otto I besieged a castle owned by Boleslaus' son in 950 and Boleslaus signed a peace treaty whereby he recognized Otto's suzerainty and promised to resume the payment of the tribute.
As the king's ally his Bohemian troops together with the Kingdom of Germany forces fought in the 955 Battle of Lechfeld and after the defeat of the Magyars received the lands of Moravia in recognition of his services. Overwhelming marauding Hungarians had the same benefits for Czechs. Less obvious is what Boleslav I the Cruel wanted to gain with his participation in the war against the Obotrite tribes in far north, when he crushed an uprising of two Slavic dukes in the Saxon Billung March. Boleslav wanted to ensure that German neighbors did not interfere with his expansion of Bohemia to the east; the Bishopric of Prague, founded in 973 during the reign of Duke Boleslaus II, was subordinated to the Archbishopric of Mainz. Thus, at the same time that Přemyslid rulers used the German alliance to consolidate their rule against a perpetually rebellious regional nobility, they struggled to retain their autonomy in relation to the empire; the Bohemian principality was definitively consolidated in 995, when the Přemyslids defeated their Slavník rivals, unified the Czech tribes, established a form of centralized rule, however shaken
Knyaz or knez is a historical Slavic title, used both as a royal and noble title in different times of history and different ancient Slavic lands. It is translated into English as prince, duke or count, depending on specific historical context and the known Latin equivalents of the title for each bearer of the name. In Latin sources the title is translated as comes or princeps, but the word was derived from the Proto-Germanic *kuningaz; the female form transliterated from Bulgarian and Russian is knyaginya, kneginja in Slovene and Serbo-Croatian. In Russian, the daughter of a knyaz is knyazhna. In Russian, the son of a knyaz is knyazhich; the title is pronounced and written in different European languages. In Serbo-Croatian and West Slavic languages, such as Polish, the word has come to denote "lord", in Czech and Slovak came to mean "priest" as well as "duke". In Sorbian it means "Mister". Today the term knez is still used as the most common translation of "prince" in Bosnian and Serbian literature.
Knez is found as a surname in former Yugoslavia. The etymology is a cognate of the English king, the German König, the Swedish konung; the proto-Slavic form was кънѧѕь, kŭnędzĭ. The meaning of the term changed over the course of history; the term was used to denote the chieftain of a Slavic tribe. With the development of feudal statehood, it became the title of a ruler of a state, among East Slavs, for example, of Kievan Rus'. In medieval Latin sources the title was rendered as either dux. In Bulgaria, Boris I of Bulgaria changed his title to knyaz after his conversion to Christianity, but his son Simeon took the higher title of tsar son in 913. In Kievan Rus', as the degree of centralization grew, the ruler acquired the title Velikii Knyaz, he ruled a Velyke Knyazivstvo, while a ruler of its vassal constituent was called udelny knyaz or knyaz. When Kievan Rus' became fragmented in the 13th century, the title Kniaz continued to be used in East Slavic states, including Kiev, Novgorod, Vladimir-Suzdal', Tver, Halych-Volynia, in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
As noted above, the title knyaz or kniaz became a hereditary noble title in the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Following the union of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, kniaź became a recognised title in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. By the 1630s - apart from the title pan, which indicated membership of the large szlachta noble class - kniaź was the only hereditary title, recognised and used in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Notable holders of the title kniaź include Jeremi Wiśniowiecki; as the Tsardom of Russia gained dominion over much of former Kievan Rus', Velikii Kniaz Ivan IV of Russia in 1547 was crowned as Tsar. From the mid-18th century onwards, the title Velikii Kniaz was revived to refer to sons and grandsons of Russian Emperors. See titles for Tsar's family for details. Kniaz continued as a hereditary title of Russian nobility patrilineally descended from Rurik or Gediminas. Members of Rurikid or Gedyminid families were called princes when they ruled tiny quasi-sovereign medieval principalities.
After their demesnes were absorbed by Muscovy, they settled at the Moscow court and were authorised to continue with their princely titles. From the 18th century onwards, the title was granted by the Tsar, for the first time by Peter the Great to his associate Alexander Menshikov, by Catherine the Great to her lover Grigory Potemkin. After 1801, with the incorporation of Georgia into the Russian Empire, various titles of numerous local nobles were controversially rendered in Russian as "kniazes". Many petty Tatar nobles asserted their right to style themselves "kniazes" because they descended from Genghis Khan. See "Velikiy Knyaz" article for more details. Within the Russian Empire of 1809-1917, Finland was called Grand Principality of Finland. In the 19th century, the Serbian term knez and the Bulgarian term knyaz were revived to denote semi-independent rulers of those countries, such as Alexander Karađorđević and Alexander of Battenberg. In parts of Serbia and western Bulgaria, knez was the informal title of the elder or mayor of a village or zadruga until around the 19th century.
Those are called градоначелник and градоначалник or кмет. Prior to Battenberg, the title knyaz was born by Simeon I during the First Bulgarian Empire. At the height of his power, Simeon adopted the title of tsar, as did the Bulgarian rulers after the country became independent
Battle of Lechfeld (955)
The Battle of Lechfeld was a series of military engagements over the course of three days from 10–12 August 955 in which the German forces of King Otto I the Great annihilated a Hungarian army led by harka Bulcsú and the chieftains Lél and Súr. The complete German victory put an end to the invasions of Latin Europe by Eurasian raiders; the Hungarians invaded the Duchy of Bavaria in late June or early July 955 with 8,000–10,000 horse archers and siege engines, intending to draw the main German army under Otto into battle in the open field and destroy it. The Hungarians laid siege to Augsburg on the Lech river. Otto advanced to relieve the city with an army of 8,000 heavy cavalry, divided into eight legions; as Otto approached Augsburg on 10 August, a Hungarian surprise attack destroyed Otto's Bohemian rearguard legion. The Hungarian force stopped to plunder the German camp and Duke Conrad the Red led a counter-attack with heavy cavalry, dispersing the Hungarians. Otto brought his army into battle against the main Hungarian army that barred his way to Augsburg.
The German heavy cavalry defeated the armed and armored Hungarians in close combat but the latter retreated in good order. Otto did not pursue, returning to Augsburg for the night and sending out messengers to order all local German forces to hold the river crossings in Eastern Bavaria and prevent the Hungarians from returning to their homeland. On 11 and 12 August, the Hungarian defeat was transformed into disaster, as heavy rainfall and flooding slowed down the retreating Hungarians and allowed German troops to hunt them down and kill them all; the Hungarian leaders were taken to Augsburg and hanged. The German victory preserved the Kingdom of Germany and halted nomad incursions into Western Europe for good. Otto was proclaimed emperor and father of the fatherland by his army after the victory and he went on to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 962 on the basis of his strengthened position after Lechfeld; the most important source is Gerhard's monograph Vita Sancti Uodalrici, which describes the series of actions from the German point of view.
Another source is the chronicler Widukind of Corvey. After having put down a rebellion by his son, Duke of Swabia and son-in-law, Duke of Lorraine, Otto I the Great, King of East Francia, set out to Saxony, his duchy. In early July he received Hungarian legates, who claimed to come in peace, but whom the Germans suspected were assessing the outcome of the rebellion. After a few days, Otto let. Soon, couriers from Otto's brother Henry I, Duke of Bavaria, arrived to inform Otto in Magdeburg of a Hungarian invasion; the couriers added. The Hungarians had invaded once before during the course of the rebellion; this occurred after he had put down a revolt in Franconia. Because of unrest among the Polabian Slavs on the lower Elbe, Otto had to leave most of his Saxons at home. In addition, Saxony was distant from Augsburg and its environs, considerable time would have elapsed waiting for their arrival; the battle took place six weeks after the first report of an invasion, historian Hans Delbrück asserts that they could not have made the march in time.
The King ordered his troops to concentrate in the vicinity of Neuburg and Ingolstadt. He did this in order to march on the Hungarian line of communications and catch them in their rear while they were raiding northeast of Augsburg, it was a central point of concentration for all the contingents that were assembling. Strategically, this was the best location for Otto to concentrate his forces before making the final descent upon the Hungarians. There were other troops. On previous occasions, in 932 and 954 for example, there had been Hungarian incursions that had invaded the German lands to the south of the Danube, retreated back to their native country via Lotharingia, to the West Frankish Kingdom and through Italy; that is to say, a wide sweeping U-turn that started westward progressed to the south, finally to the east back to their homeland. The King was aware of the escape of these Hungarians on the above-mentioned occasions, was determined to trap them, he therefore ordered Archbishop Bruno, to keep the Lotharingian forces in Lotharingia.
He did this with the fear that the Hungarians would follow their plan of retreat on the previous occasions. However, with a powerful enough force of knights pressing them in the front from the west, an strong force of knights chasing them from the east, the Hungarians would be unable to escape. Located south of Augsburg, the Lechfeld is the flood plain; the battle appears as the second Battle of Augsburg in Hungarian historiography. The first Battle of Lechfeld happened in the same area forty-five years earlier; the Bishop Ulrich defended a border city of Swabia, with a contingent of soldiers. Motivating them with the 23rd Psalm. While this defense was going on, the King was raising an army to march south. Gerhard writes that the Hungarian forces advanced across the Lech to the Iller River and ravaged the lands in between, they withdrew from the Iller and placed Augsburg under siege. Augsburg had been damaged during a rebellion against Otto in 954; the city was defended by Bishop Ulrich. He ordered his soldiers to not fight the Hungarians in the open and reinforce the main south gate of the fortress instead.
A major action took place on 8 August at the eastern gate, which th
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine, located in the north-central part of the country on the Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974. Kiev is an important industrial, scientific and cultural center of Eastern Europe, it is home to many high-tech industries, higher education institutions, world-famous historical landmarks. The city has an extensive infrastructure and developed system of public transport, including the Kiev Metro; the city's name is said to derive from the name of one of its four legendary founders. During its history, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several stages of great prominence and relative obscurity; the city existed as a commercial centre as early as the 5th century. A Slavic settlement on the great trade route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, Kiev was a tributary of the Khazars, until its capture by the Varangians in the mid-9th century. Under Varangian rule, the city became a capital of the first East Slavic state.
Destroyed during the Mongol invasions in 1240, the city lost most of its influence for the centuries to come. It was a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the territories controlled by its powerful neighbours; the city prospered again during the Russian Empire's Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century. In 1917, after the Ukrainian National Republic declared independence from the Russian Empire, Kiev became its capital. From 1921 onwards Kiev was a city of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, proclaimed by the Red Army, from 1934, Kiev was its capital. During World War II, the city again suffered significant damage, but recovered in the post-war years, remaining the third largest city of the Soviet Union. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and Ukrainian independence in 1991, Kiev remained the capital of Ukraine and experienced a steady migration influx of ethnic Ukrainians from other regions of the country. During the country's transformation to a market economy and electoral democracy, Kiev has continued to be Ukraine's largest and richest city.
Kiev's armament-dependent industrial output fell after the Soviet collapse, adversely affecting science and technology. But new sectors of the economy such as services and finance facilitated Kiev's growth in salaries and investment, as well as providing continuous funding for the development of housing and urban infrastructure. Kiev emerged as the most pro-Western region of Ukraine where parties advocating tighter integration with the European Union dominate during elections. Kiev is the traditional and most used English name for the city; the Ukrainian government however uses Kyiv as the mandatory romanization where legislative and official acts are translated into English. As a prominent city with a long history, its English name was subject to gradual evolution; the early English spelling was derived from Old East Slavic form Kyjevŭ. The name is associated with that of the legendary eponymous founder of the city. Early English sources use various names, including Kiou, Kiew, Kiovia. On one of the oldest English maps of the region, Moscoviae et Tartariae published by Ortelius the name of the city is spelled Kiou.
On the 1650 map by Guillaume de Beauplan, the name of the city is Kiiow, the region was named Kÿowia. In the book Travels, by Joseph Marshall, the city is referred to as Kiovia; the form Kiev is based on Russian orthography and pronunciation, during a time when Kiev was in the Russian Empire. In English, Kiev was used in print as early as in 1804 in the John Cary's "New map of Europe, from the latest authorities" in "Cary's new universal atlas" published in London; the English travelogue titled New Russia: Journey from Riga to the Crimea by way of Kiev, by Mary Holderness was published in 1823. By 1883, the Oxford English Dictionary included Kiev in a quotation. Kyiv is the romanized version of the name of the city used in modern Ukrainian. Following independence in 1991, the Ukrainian government introduced the national rules for transliteration of geographic names from Ukrainian into English. According to the rules, the Ukrainian Київ transliterates into Kyiv; this has established the use of the spelling Kyiv in all official documents issued by the governmental authorities since October 1995.
The spelling is used by the United Nations, European Union, all English-speaking foreign diplomatic missions, several international organizations, Encarta encyclopedia, by some media in Ukraine. In October 2006, the United States Board on Geographic Names unanimously voted to change its standard transliteration to Kyiv, effective for the entire U. S. government, although'Kiev' remains the BGN conventional name for this city. The alternate romanizations Kyyiv and Kyjiv are in use in English-language atlases. Many major English-language news sources like the BBC, The New York Times continue to prefer Kiev, but others have adopted Kyiv in their style guides, including The Economist and The Guardian. Kiev, one of the oldest cities of Eastern Europe, played a pivotal role in the development of the medieval East Slavic civilization as well as in the modern Ukrainian nation. Scholars debate as to period of the foundation of the city: some date the founding to the late 9th century, other historians
Doubravka of Bohemia
Doubravka of Bohemia was a Bohemian princess of the Přemyslid dynasty and by marriage Duchess of the Polans. She was the daughter of Boleslaus I the Cruel, Duke of Bohemia, whose wife may have been the mysterious Biagota. According to earlier sources, Doubravka urged her husband Mieszko I of Poland to accept baptism in 966, the year after their marriage. Modern historians believe, that the change of religion by Mieszko was one of the points discussed in the Polish-Bohemian agreement concluded soon before his marriage with Doubravka, her role in his conversion is not considered now to be as important as it is represented in medieval chronicles. Doubravka's date of birth is not known; the only indication is communicated by the chronicler Cosmas of Prague, who stated that the Bohemian princess at the time of her marriage with Mieszko I was an old woman. The passage is regarded as tendentious and of little reliability, some researchers believe that the statement was made with malicious intent, it is possible that in the statement about Doubravka's age, Cosmas was making a reference to the age difference between her and her sister Mlada.
That would give him a basis for determining Doubravka as "old.". It found that Cosmas confuses Doubravka with Mieszko I's second wife Oda, who at the time of her marriage was around 19–25 years old, a advanced age for a bride according to the customs of the Middle Ages; some researchers have taken up speculative views, such as Jerzy Strzelczyk, who assumed that in the light of contemporary concepts and habits of marriage of that time is assumed that Doubravka had passed her early youth, so, it's probable that she was in her late teens or twenties. Nothing is known about Doubravka's youth. In 1895 Oswald Balzer refuted reports that previous to her marriage with Mieszko I, Doubravka was married to Gunther, Margrave of Merseburg and they had a son, Gunzelin; this view is based on the fact that Thietmar of Merseburg in his chronicles named Gunzelin, Gunther's son, brother of Bolesław I the Brave, Doubravka's son. Historians believed that Gunzelin and Bolesław I are in fact cousins or brothers-in-law.
In the second half of 964 an alliance between Boleslav I the Cruel, Duke of Bohemia, Mieszko I of Poland was concluded. In order to consolidate the agreement, in 965 Boleslav I's daughter Doubravka was married to Mieszko I. There was a difference of religion between the spouses. Two independent sources attribute to Doubravka an important role in the conversion to Christianity of Mieszko I and Poland; the first is the chronicles of Thietmar, born two years before the death of Doubravka. He wrote. In the end, she obtained the conversion of Mieszko I and with him, of all Poland. In turn, the 12th century chronicler Gallus Anonymus says that Doubravka came to Poland surrounded by secular and religious dignitaries, she agreed to marry Mieszko I providing. The Polish ruler accepted, only was able to marry the Bohemian princess. However, modern historians allege that the baptism of Mieszko I was dictated by political benefits and should not be attributed to any action of Doubravka, who according to the modern view had no role in the conversion of her husband.
They note that the conversion of Mieszko I thanks to Doubravka formed part of the tradition of the Church which stressed the conversion of Pagan rulers through the influence of women. On the other hand, literature doesn't refuse to give Doubravka a significant role in the Christianization of the Poles. In her wedding procession, she arrived in Poland with Christian clergymen, among them Jordan, ordained the first Bishop of Poland in 968. Tradition attributes to Doubravka the establishment of the Holy Trinity and St. Wit Churches in Gniezno and the Church of the Virgin Mary in Ostrów Tumski, Poznań. Doubravka marriage cemented the alliance of Mieszko I with Bohemia, which continued after her death. On 21 September 967 Mieszko I was assisted by Bohemians in the decisive battle against the Wolinians led by Wichmann the Younger. When, after the death of Emperor Otto I in 973, a struggle for the supremacy in Germany began, both Doubravka husband and brother Boleslaus II the Pious, Duke of Bohemia, supported the same candidate for the German throne, Duke Henry II of Bavaria.
The marriage of Mieszko I and Doubravka produced three children: Bolesław I the Brave. A daughter, Świętosława, Sigrid the Haughty, married firstly with Eric the Victorious, King of Sweden, wife of Sweyn Forkbeard, King of Denmark, by whom the mother of Canute the Great, King of Denmark and England. Gunhilda of Poland, who married Swyen I "Forkbeard", King of Denmark and England, is identified with Sigrid. There is an hypothesis asserting the existence of another daughter of Mieszko I, married to a Pomeranian Slavic Prince, she could have been one of Mieszko's previous pagan wives. A theory has been advanced that Vladivoj, who ruled as Duke of Bohemia during 1002–1003, was another son of Doubravka and Mieszko I. Although modern historians have rejected this hypothesis, Czech historiography has supported the notion of mixed Piast-Přemyslid parentage for Vladivoj. Doubravka died in 977. In his study of 1888, Józef Ignacy Krasze