A fungus is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants and some protists is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs. Fungi do not photosynthesize. Growth is their means of mobility, except for spores, which may travel through the water. Fungi are the principal decomposers in ecological systems; these and other differences place fungi in a single group of related organisms, named the Eumycota, which share a common ancestor, an interpretation, strongly supported by molecular phylogenetics. This fungal group oomycetes; the discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology. In the past, mycology was regarded as a branch of botany, although it is now known fungi are genetically more related to animals than to plants.
Abundant worldwide, most fungi are inconspicuous because of the small size of their structures, their cryptic lifestyles in soil or on dead matter. Fungi include symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi and parasites, they may become noticeable when fruiting, either as molds. Fungi perform an essential role in the decomposition of organic matter and have fundamental roles in nutrient cycling and exchange in the environment, they have long been used in the form of mushrooms and truffles. Since the 1940s, fungi have been used for the production of antibiotics, more various enzymes produced by fungi are used industrially and in detergents. Fungi are used as biological pesticides to control weeds, plant diseases and insect pests. Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides, that are toxic to animals including humans; the fruiting structures of a few species contain psychotropic compounds and are consumed recreationally or in traditional spiritual ceremonies.
Fungi can break down manufactured materials and buildings, become significant pathogens of humans and other animals. Losses of crops due to fungal diseases or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies; the fungus kingdom encompasses an enormous diversity of taxa with varied ecologies, life cycle strategies, morphologies ranging from unicellular aquatic chytrids to large mushrooms. However, little is known of the true biodiversity of Kingdom Fungi, estimated at 2.2 million to 3.8 million species. Of these, only about 120,000 have been described, with over 8,000 species known to be detrimental to plants and at least 300 that can be pathogenic to humans. Since the pioneering 18th and 19th century taxonomical works of Carl Linnaeus, Christian Hendrik Persoon, Elias Magnus Fries, fungi have been classified according to their morphology or physiology. Advances in molecular genetics have opened the way for DNA analysis to be incorporated into taxonomy, which has sometimes challenged the historical groupings based on morphology and other traits.
Phylogenetic studies published in the last decade have helped reshape the classification within Kingdom Fungi, divided into one subkingdom, seven phyla, ten subphyla. The English word fungus is directly adopted from the Latin fungus, used in the writings of Horace and Pliny; this in turn is derived from the Greek word sphongos, which refers to the macroscopic structures and morphology of mushrooms and molds. The word mycology is derived from the Greek logos, it denotes the scientific study of fungi. The Latin adjectival form of "mycology" appeared as early as 1796 in a book on the subject by Christiaan Hendrik Persoon; the word appeared in English as early as 1824 in a book by Robert Kaye Greville. In 1836 the English naturalist Miles Joseph Berkeley's publication The English Flora of Sir James Edward Smith, Vol. 5. Refers to mycology as the study of fungi. A group of all the fungi present in a particular area or geographic region is known as mycobiota, e.g. "the mycobiota of Ireland". Before the introduction of molecular methods for phylogenetic analysis, taxonomists considered fungi to be members of the plant kingdom because of similarities in lifestyle: both fungi and plants are immobile, have similarities in general morphology and growth habitat.
Like plants, fungi grow in soil and, in the case of mushrooms, form conspicuous fruit bodies, which sometimes resemble plants such as mosses. The fungi are now considered a separate kingdom, distinct from both plants and animals, from which they appear to have diverged around one billion years ago; some morphological and genetic features are shared with other organisms, while others are unique to the fungi separating them from the other kingdoms: Shared features: With other euka
Frédéric Bataille was a French educator and mycologist. From 1870 to 1884 he was a schoolteacher in the vicinity of Montbéliard, relocating as an instructor to the lycée at Vanves in 1884. In 1905 he settled in the city of Besançon. During his career, he was an accomplished poet, publishing books of poetry with titles such as Délassements, Le Pinson de la mansarde, Le clavier d'or, La veille du péché, Poèmes du soir and Choix de poésies. Around middle-age he developed a passion for mycology, being influenced by naturalist Lucien Quélet. With Quélet, he was co-author of a monograph involving the genera Amanita and Lepiota, titled Flore monographique des Amanites et des Lépiotes. Bataille served as vice-president of the Société mycologique de France and president of the Société d'émulation du Doubs. In mycological taxonomy, he is commemorated with the specific name of bataillei. Les Bolets, classification et détermination des espèces. Bulletin de la Société d'histoire naturelle du Doubs, n° 15, 30 p. – Boletes and determination of species.
Champignons rares des environs de Besançon. Bulletin de la Société d'histoire naturelle du Doubs, n° 16, mai-décembre, 7 p. – Rare mushrooms in the vicinity of Besançon. Flore analytique des morilles et des helvelles. Besançon, l'auteur, 44 p. – Analyses of Morchella and Helvella. Les Réactions macrochimiques chez les champignons, suivies d'indications sur la morphologie des spores. Paris, P. Lechevallier, 172 p. – Macrochemical reactions involving mushrooms, etc
Petter Adolf Karsten
Petter Adolf Karsten was a Finnish mycologist, the foremost expert on the fungi of Finland in his day, known in consequence as the "father of Finnish mycology". Karsten was born in Merimasku near Turku, studied at the University of Helsinki, moved to the inland of Tammela, where he spent most of his life with teaching botany and doing research at the Mustiala Agriculture Institute, he amassed a vast collection, both by his own efforts and those of his correspondents, named about 200 new genera and 2,000 new species. In his mycological studies he extensively used the microscope and can be considered as the pioneer of fungal microscopy. Karstenia, the international journal of mycology published by the Finnish Mycological Society, is dedicated to Karsten. Harri Harmaja. "P. A. Karsten". Archived from the original on 10 May 2006. Retrieved 13 July 2006
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician and philosopher in the Roman Empire. Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen influenced the development of various scientific disciplines, including anatomy, pathology and neurology, as well as philosophy and logic; the son of Aelius Nicon, a wealthy architect with scholarly interests, Galen received a comprehensive education that prepared him for a successful career as a physician and philosopher. Born in Pergamon, Galen travelled extensively, exposing himself to a wide variety of medical theories and discoveries before settling in Rome, where he served prominent members of Roman society and was given the position of personal physician to several emperors. Galen's understanding of anatomy and medicine was principally influenced by the then-current theory of humorism, as advanced by ancient Greek physicians such as Hippocrates, his theories influenced Western medical science for more than 1,300 years.
His anatomical reports, based on dissection of monkeys the Barbary macaque, pigs, remained uncontested until 1543, when printed descriptions and illustrations of human dissections were published in the seminal work De humani corporis fabrica by Andreas Vesalius where Galen's physiological theory was accommodated to these new observations. Galen's theory of the physiology of the circulatory system remained unchallenged. 1242, when Ibn al-Nafis published his book Sharh tashrih al-qanun li’ Ibn Sina, in which he reported his discovery of the pulmonary circulation. Galen saw himself as both a physician and a philosopher, as he wrote in his treatise entitled That the Best Physician Is Also a Philosopher. Galen was interested in the debate between the rationalist and empiricist medical sects, his use of direct observation and vivisection represents a complex middle ground between the extremes of those two viewpoints. Many of his works have been preserved and/or translated from the original Greek, although many were destroyed and some credited to him are believed to be spurious.
Although there is some debate over the date of his death, he was no younger than seventy when he died. In medieval Europe, Galen's writings on anatomy became the mainstay of the medieval physician's university curriculum, but because of the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West they suffered from stasis and intellectual stagnation. However, in the Eastern Roman Empire and the Abbasid Caliphate they continued to be studied and followed; some of Galen's ideas were incorrect. Greek and Roman taboos had meant that dissection was banned in ancient times, but in Middle Ages it changed: medical teachers and students at Bologna began to open human bodies, Mondino de Luzzi produced the ﬁrst known anatomy textbook based on human dissection. Galen's original Greek texts gained renewed prominence during the early modern period. In the 1530s, Belgian anatomist and physician Andreas Vesalius took on a project to translate many of Galen's Greek texts into Latin. Vesalius's most famous work, De humani corporis fabrica, was influenced by Galenic writing and form.
Galen's name Γαληνός, Galēnos comes from the adjective "γαληνός", "calm". Galen describes his early life in On the affections of the mind, he was born in September AD 129. His father, Aelius Nicon, was a wealthy patrician, an architect and builder, with eclectic interests including philosophy, logic, astronomy and literature. Galen describes his father as a "highly amiable, just and benevolent man". At that time Pergamon was a major cultural and intellectual centre, noted for its library, second only to that in Alexandria, attracted both Stoic and Platonic philosophers, to whom Galen was exposed at age 14, his studies took in each of the principal philosophical systems of the time, including Aristotelian and Epicurean. His father had planned a traditional career for Galen in philosophy or politics and took care to expose him to literary and philosophical influences. However, Galen states that in around AD 145 his father had a dream in which the god Asclepius appeared and commanded Nicon to send his son to study medicine.
Again, no expense was spared, following his earlier liberal education, at 16 he began studies at the prestigious local sanctuary or Asclepieum dedicated to Asclepius, god of medicine, as a θεραπευτής for four years. There he came under the influence of men like Aeschrion of Pergamon and Satyrus. Asclepiea functioned as spas or sanitoria to which the sick would come to seek the ministrations of the priesthood. Romans frequented the temple at Pergamon in search of medical relief from disease, it was the haunt of notable people such as Claudius Charax the historian, Aelius Aristides the orator, Polemo the sophist, Cuspius Rufinus the Consul. Galen's father died in 148, leaving Galen independently wealthy at the age of 19, he followed the advice he found in Hippocrates' teaching and travelled and studied including such destinations as Smyrna, Crete, Cilicia and the great medical school of Alexandria, exposing himself to the various schools of thought in medicine. In 157, aged 28, he returned to Pergamon as physician to the gladiators of the High Priest of Asia, one of the most influential and wealt
Leccinum is a genus of fungi in the family Boletaceae. It was the name given first to a series of fungi within the genus Boletus erected as a new genus last century, their main distinguishing feature is the small, rigid projections that give a rough texture to their stalks. The genus name was coined for a type of rough-stemmed bolete; the genus has a widespread distribution in north temperate regions, contains about 75 species. Leccinum species are found in the woodlands of Europe and North America, forming ectomycorrhizal associations with trees. Most Leccinum species are mycorrhizal specialists. Leccinum aurantiacum is an exception, occurring in mycorrhizal association with birch and oak, they have been presumed to be edible for the most part, but there are reports of poisoning after eating as yet unidentified members of the genus in North America after thorough cooking. The orange- to red-capped species, including L. insigne, are suspected. Species of Leccinum cause nausea when consumed raw. There are around 75 species including: Machiel.
"The genus Leccinum in Western and Central Europe". Retrieved 2011-04-04. Includes key. Kuo, M.. "The genus Leccinum". MushroomExpert.com. Retrieved 2011-04-04. Includes key to North American species. Scates, Kit. "Trial field key to the BOLETES in the Pacific Northwest". Pacific Northwest Key Council. Retrieved 2011-04-04. Includes Leccinum species. "Leccinum Gray". Atlas of Living Australia
A Greek–English Lexicon
A Greek–English Lexicon referred to as Liddell & Scott, Liddell–Scott–Jones, or LSJ, is a standard lexicographical work of the Ancient Greek language. The lexicon is now in its ninth edition. Based on the earlier Handwörterbuch der griechischen Sprache by the German lexicographer Franz Passow, which in turn was based on Johann Gottlob Schneider's Kritisches griechisch-deutsches Handwörterbuch, it has served as the basis for all lexicographical work on the ancient Greek language, such as the ongoing Greek–Spanish dictionary project Diccionario Griego–Español, it was edited by Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, Henry Stuart Jones and Roderick McKenzie, published by the Oxford University Press. It is now conventionally referred to as Liddell & Scott, Liddell–Scott–Jones, or LSJ, its three sizes are sometimes referred to as "The Little Liddell", "The Middle Liddell" and "The Big Liddell" or "The Great Scott". According to Stuart Jones's preface to the ninth edition, the creation of the Lexicon was proposed by David Alphonso Talboys, an Oxford publisher.
It was published by the Clarendon Press at Oxford rather than by Talboys because he died before the first edition was complete. The second through sixth editions appeared in 1845, 1849, 1855, 1861, 1869; the first editor of the LSJ, Henry George Liddell, was Dean of Christ Church and the father of Alice Liddell, the eponymous Alice of the writings of Lewis Carroll. The eighth edition is the last edition published during Liddell's lifetime; the LSJ is sometimes compared and contrasted with A Latin Dictionary by Lewis and Short, published by Oxford University Press. For comparisons between the two works, see the article on Lewis and Short's dictionary, it is sometimes compared with the Bauer lexicon, a similar work focused on the Greek of the New Testament. Greek scholars use these books so much that two short memorable clerihews have been written to describe the seminal work: 1. 2. Two condensed editions of LSJ remain in print. In 1843, the same year as the full lexicon's publication, A Lexicon: Abridged from Liddell and Scott's Greek–English Lexicon, sometimes called "the Little Liddell" was published.
Several revised editions followed. For example, a reprint, re-typeset in 2007, of the 1909 edition is available from Simon Wallenberg Press. In 1889, an intermediate edition of the lexicon, An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon, was prepared on the basis of the seventh edition of LSJ. In comparison to the smaller abridgement, this "Middle Liddell" contains more entries covering the essential vocabulary of most read Ancient Greek literature, adds citations of the authors to illustrate the history of Greek usage, provides more help with irregular forms. After the publication of the ninth edition in 1940, shortly after the deaths of both Stuart Jones and McKenzie, the OUP maintained a list of addenda et corrigenda, bound with subsequent printings. However, in 1968, these were replaced by a Supplement to the LSJ. Neither the addenda nor the Supplement has been merged into the main text, which still stands as composed by Liddell, Jones, McKenzie; the Supplement was edited by M. L. West. Since 1981, it has been edited by editor of the Oxford Latin Dictionary.
Since 1988, it has been edited by Anne A. Thompson; as the title page of the Lexicon makes clear, this editorial work has been performed "with the cooperation of many scholars". The Supplement takes the form of a list of additions and corrections to the main text, sorted by entry; the supplemental entries are marked with signs to show the nature of the changes they call for. Thus, a user of the Lexicon can consult the Supplement after consulting the main text to see whether scholarship after Jones and McKenzie has provided any new information about a particular word; as of 2005, the most recent revision of the Supplement, published in 1996, contains 320 pages of corrections to the main text, as well as other materials. Here is a typical entry from the revised Supplement: x ἐκβουτῠπόομαι to be changed into a cow, S.fr. 269a.37 R. The small "x" indicates. Refers to the collected fragmentary works of Sophocles. One interesting new source of lexicographic material in the revised Supplement is the Mycenean inscriptions.
The 1996 revised Supplement's Preface notes: At the time of the publication of the first Supplement it was felt that the Ventris decipherment of the Linear B tablets was still too uncertain to warrant the inclusion of these texts in a standard dictionary. Ventris's interpretation is now accepted and the tablets can no longer be ignored in a comprehensive Greek dictionary; the ninth edition of LSJ has been available in electronic form since 2007, having been digitized by the Perseus Project. Diogenes, a free software package, incorporates the Perseus data and allows easy offline consultation of LSJ on Mac OS X, Linux platforms. Marcion is another open source application that includes the Perseus LSJ. For mobile devices, both the Kindle E-Ink and the iPhone/iPod Touch feature data ported from Perseus; the Android Market currently offers the intermediate LSJ as an offline downloadable app for free or for a small price. A CD-ROM version published and sold by Logos Bible Software incorporates the Supplement's additions to the
Jean Baptiste François Pierre Bulliard
Jean Baptiste François Pierre Bulliard was a French physician and botanist. The standard author abbreviation Bull. is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name. Bulliard studied in Langres, afterwards in Paris. There he practiced as a physician, he tutored the son of General Claude Dupin. Bulliard’s Dictionnaire Elémentaire de Botanique contributed to the spreading and consolidation of botanical terminology and the Linné system, it was important in the area of the mycology, containing descriptions of 393 out of 602 table mushrooms. Significant species he described include the cep, the common inkcap and the poisonous livid pinkgill 1776-80, Flora Parisiensis 1780-93 Herbier de la France 1783 Dictionnaire élémentaire de botanique 1784 Histoire des plantes vénéneuses et suspectes de la France 1791-1812 Histoire des champignons de la France completed by Étienne Pierre Ventenat. 1796 Aviceptologie Works by or about Jean Baptiste François Pierre Bulliard at Internet Archive