Boloria dia, the Weaver's fritillary or violet fritillary, is a butterfly in the family Nymphalidae. The name Weaver's fritillary is in honor of Richard Weaver, an English insect dealer who captured this species in the 19th century at Sutton Park, Tamworth. However, B. dia is uncommon in England and the few specimens known from there are thought to be from accidental introductions. The adult is a small fritillary with chequered orange-brown upperside and a submarginal row of triangles and dots; the forewing is 16–17 mm long. The underside of the hindwing has a distinctive purplish band. B. dia differs from the pearl-bordered fritillary in having a sharp angle to its hindwing. The similar Titania's fritillary has a less sharply-angled hindwing and only occurs at high altitude. In Europe the larvae feed on Viola species, outside Europe on Prunella vulgaris and Rubus idaeus. B. dia is found over the Caucasus up to Mongolia. It is common across southern France. In Europe it occurs from northern Spain and Greece to Poland, the Balkans and Turkey.
It is not found in Britain. Clossiana dia dia western Europe Clossiana dia alpina Clossiana dia calida Clossiana dia disconota central Europe and western Siberia Clossiana dia semota Tuzov, 2000 Clossiana dia setania Vlindernet Lepidoptera of Belgium Butterflies of Europe
Boloria titania, the Titania's fritillary or purple bog fritillary, is a butterfly of the subfamily Heliconiinae of the family Nymphalidae. The adult is a small fritillary with chequered orange-brown upperside and a marginal row of triangles and dots; the length of the forewings is 21–23 mm. The underside has brown pearly spots and triangular markings at the edge of the hindwings; the butterfly flies from June to August depending on the location. The larvae feed on Viola species, Vaccinium uliginosum, Bistorta major, Filipendula ulmaria and Trollius asiaticus; this species is present in the Palearctic ecozone. Clossiana titania titania Clossiana titania bivina central and southern Europe Clossiana titania miyakei Sakhalin, Amur Clossiana titania staudingeri southern Siberia Guide des papillons d'Europe et d'Afrique du Nord, Delachaux et Niestlé, Tom Tolman, Richard Lewington Butterflies of Europe euro butterflies butterfly guide
Insects or Insecta are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum. Definitions and circumscriptions vary; as used here, the term Insecta is synonymous with Ectognatha. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body, three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae. Insects are the most diverse group of animals; the total number of extant species is estimated at between ten million. Insects may be found in nearly all environments, although only a small number of species reside in the oceans, which are dominated by another arthropod group, crustaceans. Nearly all insects hatch from eggs. Insect growth is constrained by the inelastic exoskeleton and development involves a series of molts; the immature stages differ from the adults in structure and habitat, can include a passive pupal stage in those groups that undergo four-stage metamorphosis. Insects that undergo three-stage metamorphosis lack a pupal stage and adults develop through a series of nymphal stages.
The higher level relationship of the insects is unclear. Fossilized insects of enormous size have been found from the Paleozoic Era, including giant dragonflies with wingspans of 55 to 70 cm; the most diverse insect groups appear to have coevolved with flowering plants. Adult insects move about by walking, flying, or sometimes swimming; as it allows for rapid yet stable movement, many insects adopt a tripedal gait in which they walk with their legs touching the ground in alternating triangles, composed of the front & rear on one side with the middle on the other side. Insects are the only invertebrates to have evolved flight, all flying insects derive from one common ancestor. Many insects spend at least part of their lives under water, with larval adaptations that include gills, some adult insects are aquatic and have adaptations for swimming; some species, such as water striders, are capable of walking on the surface of water. Insects are solitary, but some, such as certain bees and termites, are social and live in large, well-organized colonies.
Some insects, such as earwigs, show maternal care, guarding their eggs and young. Insects can communicate with each other in a variety of ways. Male moths can sense the pheromones of female moths over great distances. Other species communicate with sounds: crickets stridulate, or rub their wings together, to attract a mate and repel other males. Lampyrid beetles communicate with light. Humans regard certain insects as pests, attempt to control them using insecticides, a host of other techniques; some insects damage crops by feeding on sap, fruits, or wood. Some species are parasitic, may vector diseases; some insects perform complex ecological roles. Insect pollinators are essential to the life cycle of many flowering plant species on which most organisms, including humans, are at least dependent. Many insects are considered ecologically beneficial as predators and a few provide direct economic benefit. Silkworms produce silk and honey bees produce honey and both have been domesticated by humans.
Insects are consumed as food in 80% of the world's nations, by people in 3000 ethnic groups. Human activities have effects on insect biodiversity; the word "insect" comes from the Latin word insectum, meaning "with a notched or divided body", or "cut into", from the neuter singular perfect passive participle of insectare, "to cut into, to cut up", from in- "into" and secare "to cut". A calque of Greek ἔντομον, "cut into sections", Pliny the Elder introduced the Latin designation as a loan-translation of the Greek word ἔντομος or "insect", Aristotle's term for this class of life in reference to their "notched" bodies. "Insect" first appears documented in English in 1601 in Holland's translation of Pliny. Translations of Aristotle's term form the usual word for "insect" in Welsh, Serbo-Croatian, etc; the precise definition of the taxon Insecta and the equivalent English name "insect" varies. In the broadest circumscription, Insecta sensu lato consists of all hexapods. Traditionally, insects defined in this way were divided into "Apterygota" —the wingless insects—and Pterygota—the winged insects.
However, modern phylogenetic studies have shown that "Apterygota" is not monophyletic, so does not form a good taxon. A narrower circumscription restricts insects to those hexapods with external mouthparts, comprises only the last three groups in the table. In this sense, Insecta sensu stricto is equivalent to Ectognatha. In the narrowest circumscription, insects are restricted to hexapods that are either winged or descended from winged ancestors. Insecta sensu strictissimo is equivalent to Pterygota. For the purposes of this article, the middle definition is used; the evolutionary relationship of insects to other animal groups remains unclear. Although traditionally grouped with millipedes and centiped
Boloria chariclea, the Arctic fritillary or purplish fritillary, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae. It is found in the northern part of the Nearctic ecozone; the uppersides of the wings are orange brown with small dark markings in neat rows. The underside of the forewing is orange with dark markings; the underside of the hindwing has a margin of small white spots topped with brown. Inside this are black inwardly pointing triangles with scant white areas; the median band is pale yellow brown to rusty brown mottled with white and with wavy, sometimes broken, black lines. The length of the forewings is about 17 mm; the butterfly flies from July to August depending on the location. The Arctic fritillary has a Holarctic distribution. In Europe it is found in northern Russia. In North America it is found in Alaska and much of Canada, the north Cascades, the Rocky Mountains southwards to Utah and northern New Mexico, northern Minnesota, northern Maine and the White Mountains of New Hampshire, its typical habitat is tundra, alpine meadows, stream verges and acid bogs.
The males patrol in valleys and wait for the arrival of females. The eggs are laid singly underneath the leaves of the host plant. In North America the larvae feed on viola species, dwarf willows and blueberries while in Europe it is believed to feed on yellow wood violet and Arctic white heather. Depending on location, the larvae take one or two years to develop into adults, newly hatched caterpillars hibernate during the first winter and fourth-stage caterpillars hibernate during the second. B. c. chariclea Arctic Europe B. c. arctica Arctic Asia, Wrangel Island, Chukotka B. c. butleri Arctic America, Kamchatka B. c. boisduvalii Alaska, Labrador, Minnesota, British Columbia B. c. rainieri Washington B. c. grandis North British Columbia, Ontario B. c. montina B. c. helena Rocky Mountains Media related to Boloria chariclea at Wikimedia Commons Butterflies of Europe Butterflies and Moths of North America
Boloria caucasica is a butterfly found in the East Palearctic that belongs to the browns family. List of butterflies of Russia Russian insects
The Heliconiinae called heliconians or longwings, are a subfamily of the brush-footed butterflies. They can be divided into 45–50 genera and were sometimes treated as a separate family Heliconiidae within the Papilionoidea; the colouration is predominantly reddish and black, though of varying wing shape, the forewings are always elongated tipwards, hence the common name. Most longwings are found in the Tropics in South America. Tropical species feed on poisonous plants, characteristically Passifloraceae vines, as larvae, becoming poisonous themselves; the adult butterflies announce their acquired toxicity with strong aposematic colours, warning off would-be predators. There are several famous cases of Batesian and Müllerian mimicry both within this group and with other butterflies. Other seen food plants are Fabaceae, among northerly species of Violaceae. Four or five tribes are recognized in the Heliconiinae. There have been numerous attempts to sort out the phylogenetic sequence and delimitation of these, but while the former has made good progress, the latter has hitherto only achieved limited results.
Several phylogenies have been proposed, but though looking reasonable each and every one of them is only weakly supported. Cladistic analyses of the same type of data yield contradicting results depending on the exact method of evaluation; the reason is that just a fraction of the evolutionary diversity of Heliconiinae has been sampled. What appears certain is that the Argynnini and Vagrantini are closer relatives than any other two tribes of Heliconiinae; the Acraeini and Heliconiini are more basal lineages, but the exact placement of each respective to the other tribes cannot be considered well resolved at all. Some tribes are distributed among several continents, resulting in a confusing phylogeography pattern, but as it seems, the apparent contradictions between systematics and biogeography are due the premature classifications based on insufficient taxon sampling. With studies becoming more and more comprehensive, the apparent anomalies seem to sort themselves out at least for the most part.
For example, the confusing distribution pattern of Acraea in the wide circumscription is simply due to the bulk of this morphologically conservative group warranting recognition as genus Telchinia – it stands to note that this group has on occasion been allied with Actinote rather than Acraea, this indeed appears to be correct. In addition, the genus Pardopsis placed in the Acraeini, does certainly not belong there; the relationships of the genus Cethosia are more mysterious, it is that some other genera will also be moved to a different tribe as they are studied in detail. Some, like the Argynnini Argynnis and Issoria, might be overlumped and non-monophyletic and thus some genera presently considered junior synonyms of them might be validated like Telchinia. Genera are presented in the presumed phylogenetic sequence. Notable species are given if no genus article exists. Acraeini Abananote Potts, 1943 Actinote Altinote Potts, 1943 Acraea Bematistes Miyana Pardopsis Trimen, 1887Heliconiini Agraulis Agraulis vanillae – Gulf fritillary Cethosia – lacewings Dione Dryadula Michner, 1942 – banded orange Dryas Hübner, – Julia heliconian Eueides Eueides isabella – Isabella's heliconian Heliconius Kluk, 1780 – brush-foot butterflies Laparus Billberg, 1820 - Doris longwing Neruda Turner 1976 Philaethria Podotricha Vagrantini Lachnoptera Phalanta Smerina Vindula – cruisers Cirrochroa Algiachroa Algia Terinos Cupha Vagrans Vagrans egista – vagrantArgynnini Duponchel, 1835 Euptoieta Doubleday 1848 Yramea Reuss 1920 Boloria Moore, 1900 Issoria Hübner 1819 Brenthis Hübner 1819 Argynnis Fabricius 1807 Speyeria Scudder, 1872 Brown, Keith S. Jr..
The biology of Heliconius and related genera. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 26: 427-456. Doi:10.1146/annurev.en.26.010181.002235 PDF fulltext Miller, L. D. & Miller, J. Y.. The Butterfly Handbook: 130. Barron's Inc.. Hauppauge, New York. ISBN 0-7641-5714-0 Savela, Markku. Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and some other life forms – Heliconiinae. Version of 2008-FEB-09. Retrieved 2008-AUG-14. Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas. & Freitas, André V. L.. Phylogenetic relationships of butterflies of the tribe Acraeini and the evolution of host plant use. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 46: 515-531. Doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.11.024 Wahlberg, Niklas. Nymphalidae.net – The higher classification of Nymphalidae. Retrieved 2008-AUG-14. Van Zandt Brower, A.. Phylogeny of Heliconius butterflies inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 3:159-174. And other papers. Glassberg, Jeffrey Butterflies through The West. Guppy, Crispin S. and Shepard, Jon H. Butterflies of British Columbia. James, David G. and Nu
Boloria bellona, the meadow fritillary, is a North American butterfly in the brushfoot family, Nymphalidae. The common name, meadow fritillary, is used for a European butterfly species, Melitaea parthenoides; the upperside of the wings is yellow orange with dark spots and zigzagged bands. The forewing is squared off just below the apex. A dark border on the hindwing margin is lacking on most individuals, it has long palps. The underside of the wings are mottled with purplish-brown. There is a yellowish band, it lacks. The forewing is smudged with brown near the apex; the wingspan of the meadow fritillary is 3.5 - 5.1 cm. Similar species in the meadow fritillary's range include the silver-bordered fritillary, the bog fritillary, the purplish fritillary; the silver-bordered fritillary has rounder wings than the meadow fritillary, has a dark hindwing margin border, has silver spots on the underside of the hindwing. The bog fritillary is a bit smaller than the meadow fritillary, its wing bases are hairy, on the underside of the hindwing are a series of bands and patches which are rust red and white.
The purplish fritillary is a bit smaller than the meadow fritillary, the underside of the hindwings are a deep, rusty red. The meadow fritillary is encountered in wet, open places, including pastures and streamsides; the female is the active flight partner. Females deposit greenish-yellow eggs near the host plant on twigs or leaves. Mature larvae are black with small, light colored spines; the chrysalis is yellow brown. The meadow fritillary overwinters as a larva, it has two broods per year. Host plants used by the meadow fritillary: Northern white violet, Viola pallens Common blue violet, Viola sororia Brock, Jim P. and Kenn Kaufman.. Butterflies of North America. Houghton Mifflin, New York. ISBN 0-618-15312-8 Shull, Ernest M; the Butterflies of Indiana. By Indiana Academy of Science. ISBN 0-253-31292-2 Cech and Guy Tudor. Butterflies of the East Coast. Princeton University Press, New Jersey. ISBN 0-691-09055-6 Wagner, David L.. Caterpillars of Eastern North America. Princeton University Press, New Jersey.
ISBN 0-691-12143-5 Glassberg, Jeffrey Butterflies through Binoculars: The West. Guppy, Crispin S. and Shepard, Jon H. Butterflies of British Columbia. James, David G. and Nunnallee, David Life Histories of Cascadia Butterflies. Pelham, Jonathan Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada. Pyle, Robert Michael The Butterflies of Cascadia. Butterflies and Moths of North America - Boloria bellona Butterflies of America - Boloria bellona