Bolt action is a type of firearm action where the handling of cartridges into and out of the weapon's barrel chamber is operated by manually manipulating the bolt directly via a handle, most placed on the right-hand side of the weapon. When the handle is operated, the bolt is unlocked from the receiver and pulled back to open the breech, allowing the spent cartridge case to be extracted and ejected, the firing pin within the bolt is cocked and engages the sear upon the bolt being pushed back, a new cartridge is loaded into the chamber, the breech is closed tight by the bolt locking against the receiver. Bolt-action firearms are most repeating rifles, but there are some bolt-action variants of shotguns and a few handguns as well. Examples of this system date as far back as the early 19th century, notably in the Dreyse needle gun. From the late 19th century, all the way through both World Wars, the bolt-action rifle was the standard infantry firearm for most of the world's military forces. In modern military and law enforcement use, the bolt action has been replaced by semi-automatic and selective-fire firearms.
The first bolt-action rifle was produced in 1824 by Johann Nikolaus von Dreyse, following work on breechloading rifles that dated to the 18th century. Von Dreyse would perfect his Nadelgewehr by 1836, it was adopted by the Prussian Army in 1841. While it saw limited service in the German Revolutions of 1848, it was not fielded until the 1864 victory over Denmark; the United States purchased 900 Greene rifles in 1857, which saw service at the Battle of Antietam in 1862, during the American Civil War. During the American Civil War, the bolt-action Palmer carbine was patented in 1863, by 1865, 1000 were purchased for use as cavalry weapons; the French Army adopted its first bolt-action rifle, the Chassepot rifle, in 1866 and followed with the metallic-cartridge bolt-action Gras rifle in 1874. European armies continued to develop bolt-action rifles through the latter half of the nineteenth century, first adopting tubular magazines as on the Kropatschek rifle and the Lebel rifle, a magazine system pioneered by the Winchester rifle of 1866.
The first bolt-action repeating rifle was patented in Britain in 1855 by an unidentified inventor through the patent agent Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford using a gravity-operated tubular magazine in the stock. Another more well-known bolt action repeating rifle was the Vetterli rifle of 1867 and the first bolt-action repeating rifle to use centerfire cartridges was the weapon designed by the Viennese gunsmith Ferdinand Fruwirth in 1871; the military turned to bolt-action rifles using a box magazine. World War I marked the height of the bolt-action rifle's use, with all of the nations in that war fielding troops armed with various bolt-action designs. During the buildup prior to World War II, the military bolt-action rifle began to be superseded by semi-automatic rifles and fully-automatic rifles, though bolt-action rifles remained the primary weapon of most of the combatants for the duration of the war; the bolt action is still common today among sniper rifles, as the design has potential for superior accuracy, lesser weight, the ability to control loading over the faster rate of fire that alternatives allow.
There are, many semi-automatic sniper rifle designs in the designated marksman role. Today, bolt-action rifles are chiefly used as hunting rifles; these rifles can be used to hunt anything from vermin to deer and to large game big game caught on a safari, as they are adequate to deliver a single lethal shot from a safe distance. Bolt-action shotguns are considered a rarity among modern firearms but were a used action for.410 entry-level shotguns, as well as for low-cost 12 gauge shotguns. The M26 Modular Accessory Shotgun System is the most advanced and recent example of a bolt-action shotgun, albeit one designed to be attached to an M16 rifle or M4 carbine using an underbarrel mount. Mossberg 12 gauge bolt-action shotguns were popular in Australia after the 1997 changes to firearms laws, but the shotguns themselves were awkward to operate and only had a three-round magazine, thus offering no practical and real advantages over a conventional double-barrel shotgun; some pistols utilize a bolt action, although this is uncommon, such examples are specialized target handguns.
Most of the bolt-action designs use turn-bolt design, which involves the shooter doing an upward "turn" movement of the handle to unlock the bolt from the breech and cock the firing pin, followed by a rearward "pull" to open the breech, extract the spent cartridge case reverse the whole process to chamber the next cartridge and relock the breech. There are three major turn-bolt action designs: the Mauser system, the Lee–Enfield system, the Mosin–Nagant system. All three differ in the way the bolt fits into the receiver, how the bolt rotates as it is being operated, the number of locking lugs holding the bolt in place as the gun
Francis Henry Taylor was an English Cricketer who played for Derbyshire County Cricket Club between 1908 and 1911. Taylor was born at Wirksworth, Derbyshire the son of Walter Taylor of Fern House and his wife Alice, his father was a manufacturer of artificial fertilizer. Taylor made his debut for Derbyshire in the 1908 season, in a match against Lancashire, when batting in the middle order he made 10 in his first innings, he played again in one match in the 1909 season. He played four matches in the 1910 season, completed his career with a single match in the 1911 season. After his first game, he invariably scored a duck in his first innings and a double figure score in his second innings, his last, 18 against Lancashire in 1911, being his top score. Taylor was a right-hand batsman, his top score was 18 and his average 6.33. Taylor died at California, Derby at the age of 73. Taylor's brother William Taylor played cricket for Derbyshire although they never played in the same game
Politically Re-Active is a political comedy podcast from First Look Media and Panoply hosted by comedians W. Kamau Bell and Hari Kondabolu. Bell and Kondabolu worked together on Totally Biased with W. Kamau Bell, with Bell hosting and Kondabolu serving as writer and correspondent. Politically Re-Active was First Look Media's first podcast, produced in collaboration with Slate's podcasting division, Panoply; the show grew out of conversations the two hosts were having by telephone and backstage at shows over the course of their careers as stand-up comedians. The podcast debuted in June 2016. Early episodes focused on the U. S. presidential campaign of 2016, with weekly episodes from June through the election in November. Politically Re-Active aired two post-election episodes in November 2016 went on hiatus. Season 2 began on March 15, 2017 and ended on October 5, 2017; as of December 2018, the show remains on hiatus. The show consists of political comedy. Bell and Kondabolu "host guests each week to try to understand the different ideologies that are shaping this election."
Wired described Politically Reactive as "mostly reasonable discussions with guests." Topics of discussion have included dog-whistling, private prisons, presidential debates and the Olympics. Interviews are edited to insert occasional explanations from Bell and Kondabolu to give additional context. ColorLines called it a "hilarious new politics podcast" and The Guardian said of the debut, "Bell and Kondabolu are two of the sharpest, funniest political minds around, based on the first episode, Politically Re-Active will be a great addition to the podcast roster." In July The A. V. Club said the series had "start off strong," praising the interview with Kathleen Hanna: "an altogether enjoyable episode that’s a nice primer on both feminism and mansplaining. If the first three episodes are any indication and Kondabolu are going to be a podcasting force to be reckoned with." AlterNet called it "a great podcast series...easily one of the most binge-worthy things I’ve listened to in recent memory, a runaway hit."In the first six episodes, Politically Re-Active made iTunes' top 15 chart