The Monash Freeway is a major urban freeway in Victoria, linking Melbournes CBD to its south-eastern suburbs and beyond to the Gippsland region. It carries up to 180,000 vehicles per day and is one of Australias busiest freeways, the entire stretch of the Monash Freeway bears the designation M1. The freeway was originally shown in the 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan as part of the F9, because it is well-used and often slow in peak hours, it is sometimes jokingly referred to as the south-eastern car park. The initial section of the Mulgrave Freeway was opened to traffic in 1972, with interchanges with Heatherton. The Freeway Route 81 designation was dropped in 1988, coinciding with the opening of the South Eastern Arterial, interestingly at this time the Tullamarine Freeway carried the Freeway Route 81 route shield. This was due to the 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan having the two linked to each other from around East Malvern and at Flemington, sweeping through the St Kilda area. The plan never came to fruition, but the two freeways have since been linked by the West Gate Freeway extension and the CityLink project.
1972 - Mulgrave and Eumemmerring Freeways -5.6 km from the Princes Highway, Hallam to Stud Road, Dandenong North,1974 -7.5 km opened 1974 from Springvale Road to Stud Road $9.3 million. 1976 - Opened from Springvale Road to Blackburn Road,15 December 1976,1977 - Opened from Blackburn to Forster Road,5 April 1977, by the Hon J A Rafferty, Minister for Transport. This section along with the section opened in 1976 cost a total of $13m. ‘Opened one week after the 20th anniversary of the opening of Victoria’s first freeway, the Punt Road overpass and elevated section of road over the Yarra River and Gardiners Creek were designed by Melbourne engineer Bruce Day. The first and second stages were completed in 1971, initially designated State Route 80 in the 1960s, it was signed as Freeway Route 80 until 1988, when the South Eastern Arterial was completed. The resulting gap between the Toorak / Burke Road end of the South Eastern Freeway and the Warrigal Road end of the Mulgrave Freeway frustrated drivers for many years, motorists had to rely on inadequate feeder roads to connect between the two freeways.
Construction on a dual-carriageway at-grade road link between the two began in the mid-1980s. The link opened to traffic on 21 December 1988 at a cost of A$152 million, soon after opening, the link, as well as the South Eastern Freeway and the Mulgrave Freeway, were renamed the South Eastern Arterial. This road assumed the National Route 1 route number from the Princes Highway, the project attracted a great deal of controversy just before it opened and well afterwards, in order to save costs, only one freeway-style interchange had been constructed. This led to congestion, frequently kilometres long, on the freeway, fuelling anger and frustration. With a change of government several years and a lot of political showmanship, more money was poured into the road, constructing underpass interchanges at Toorak
Southbank is an inner urban neighbourhood of Melbourne, Australia,1 km south of Melbournes central business district. Its local government area are the Cities of Melbourne and Port Phillip, at the 2011 Census, Southbank had a population of 11,235. Its northernmost area is considered part of the Central Business District, Southbank is bordered to the north by the Yarra River, and to the east by St Kilda Road. Southbanks southern and western borders are bounded by Dorcas Street, Kings Way, Southbank was formerly an industrial area and part of South Melbourne. It was transformed into a populated district of high rise apartment and office buildings beginning in the early 1990s. With the exceptions of the precinct along St Kilda Road. Today, Southbank is dominated by high-rise development and it is one of the most densely populated areas of Melbourne, with a large cluster of apartment towers, including Australias tallest tower measured to its highest floor, the Eureka Tower. Southbank Promenade and Southgate Restaurant and Shopping Precinct, on the bank of the Yarra River.
Southgates landmark Ophelia sculpture by Deborah Halpern has been used to represent Melbourne in tourism campaigns, before European settlement, the area now called South Melbourne was a series of low lying swamps inhabited by Aboriginal tribes. The Arts Centre precinct opened in the 1980s on former parkland, the area was the subject of urban renewal in the 1980s and early 1990s. In part, this was aimed at stimulating development in a period when Melbourne was experiencing an economic downturn during the global recession on 1991–92. Denton Corker Marshall designed and oversaw the original Southbank Promenade in 1990, at the eastern end of the area is the Victorian Arts Centre. Since then, the pylon underneath the award winning Southbank Pedestrian Bridge has been utilised and is now home to Ponyfish Island, further buildings including the Esso headquarters were built between 1992 and 1995. Development expanded along the Yarra westward, with the Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre in 1996 and Crown Casino in 1997, Clarendon Towers attracted the owner occupiers.
Beginning with Southbank Towers in 1997, Central Equity began a swathe of apartment towers, in 2002 the neighbouring Yarras Edge precinct of the new Melbourne Docklands began to kick off. The arts precinct was extended with the construction of the award winning buildings for the Australian Centre for Contemporary Art in 2002, at around the same time a new headquarters for the State Emergency Service was built. Central Equity apartments are aimed at both the owner occupier and rental market with management provided by Melbourne Inner City Management, an owned subsidiary of Central Equity. With a boom in apartment building and the success of the Melburnian, the 91 floor Eureka Tower was begun in 2002, aimed at being the tallest residential tower in the world and was completed in 2006
King Street Bridge (Melbourne)
The King Street Bridge takes King Street over the Yarra River in Melbourne, Australia. The bridge continues south as a viaduct, with the Crown Casino. The bridge was designed in 1959 by Utah Australia for the Country Roads Board and it was of a welded, deck-girder, suspended-span construction with spans up to 160 feet long. Soon after completion, on 10 July 1962, one span collapsed under the weight of a 47-ton semi-trailer, the subsequent Royal Commission found that bridge failed with a brittle fracture on a very cold Melbourne winter day. The Commission identified the cause of failure was due to cracked welds. The fabricator was not familiar with welding steel and the steel supplied was high in carbon making it difficult even for an experienced fabricator. The cracks in the welds were not discovered by inspectors of both the fabricator and the Country Roads Board, the south end of the bridge has been undergoing differential settlement between the approach ramps resting on fill, and the suspended section supported by bored piles.
The embarrassing incident was widely satirised at the time, most notably by the Melbourne TV clowns Zig, the redesign and strengthening of the bridge was undertaken by Melbourne engineer Bruce Day who employed a series of post tension pipes and concrete counter weights. In years the development of Crown Casino closed Yarra Bank Road, transporting of girder through South Melbourne
The Domain Tunnel is a road tunnel located in Melbourne, which carries traffic westbound from the Monash Freeway to the West Gate Freeway, running under the Yarra River and Kings Domain. The tunnel is part of the CityLink Tollway operated by Transurban, the tunnel was constructed between 1996 and 1999 by Transfield-Obayashi Joint Venture. It was officially opened to traffic on 16 April 2000 with a temporary 60 km/h speed limit, on 23 March 2007 just before 10am, three trucks and four cars collided in the Burnley Tunnel. The crash resulted in explosions and a subsequent fire. This forced the evacuation of motorists from the Burnley Tunnel, the Domain Tunnel was closed and any drivers in the Domain Tunnel at the time drove out normally. Cross passage tunnels between the Domain and Burnley Tunnels were used by evacuees to exit from the Burnley Tunnel into the Domain Tunnel. In May 2007 a dramatic incident involving a truck and a sedan was caught by a A Current Affair film crew investigating the safety of the tunnel in light of previous events.
Authorities are currently investigating if the crew, who were driving vehicles in the tunnel, may have contributed in instigating the crash. The Domain Tunnel is 1.6 km long and comprises 460 metres of cut and cover tunnel at the west end,680 metres of tunnel and 500m of cut. The western portal is shared with the longer Burnley Tunnel that carries traffic in the other direction, the tunnel carries three 3.5 metre wide traffic lanes with 0.5 metre wide shoulders, and has two cross tunnels to the Domain Tunnel. The road level is a depth of 40 metres, and has a gradient of less than 2%. Regular radio transmission cannot be received while in the tunnel, commercial stations have installed their own transmitters. A variable speed limit applies in the tunnel, in normal circumstances, the speed limit is 80 km/h. During maintenance, a 60 km/h speed limit applies and normal radio broadcast is interrupted by announcements. Australian Roads portal Burnley Tunnel, the tunnel running parallel to the Domain Tunnel.
CityLink Transurban Australian Underground Construction and Tunnelling Association Project Page
Docklands is an inner-western suburb of Melbourne, Australia,2 km from Melbournes Central Business District. Its local government area is the City of Melbourne, at the 2011 Census, Docklands had a population of 5,791. Docklands occupies an adjacent to the Melbourne central business district, consisting of land. Contemporary Docklands is the product of an urban renewal project to extend the area of the Melbourne CBD by over a third when completed around 2015. It is now home to several of Melbournes modern landmarks, including Etihad Stadium, from the 1880s, the former swamp west of Melbourne became heavily used as a dock, with an extensive network of wharfs, heavy rail infrastructure and light industry. Docklands Stadium was built in 1996 as a centrepiece to kick-start developer interest in Docklands as a renewal area. Urban renewal began in earnest 2000, with several independent privately developed areas overseen by VicUrban, VicUrban promotes its vision of Docklands as being a major tourist attraction and projected over 20 million visitors a year and a future residential population of over 20,000. A handful of significant buildings were retained, generally due to their association with the areas industrial, most of these heritage buildings are intended for adaptive reuse and integrated with new facilities.
Docklands is the home to a number of water sports, before the foundation of Melbourne, Docklands was a wetlands area consisting of a large salt lake and a giant swamp at the mouth of the Moonee Ponds Creek. It was one of the hunting grounds of the Wurundjeri people. At Melbournes foundation, John Batman set up his home on Batmans Hill at Docklands, the rest of the area remained largely unused for decades. The advent of rail infrastructure in the late 1860s saw the Citys industry gradually expand into the area, the plan proposed several gridlike blocks with an ornamental public garden and lake in the shape of the United Kingdom, occupying the site of the salt lake. However, expansion of the westward was abandoned in favour of a northward extension. The dock was lined with wharves and light industry grew around the western rail yards of Spencer Street railway station. During the wars, Victoria Dock was used as the port for naval vessels. By the 1920s, with shipping moved from the Yarra turning basin at Queensbridge, Victoria Dock, Docklands was seen as a large urban blight by the Cain State Government.
Property consultants JLW Advisory carried out the first market demand assessment of the site, the size of the Melbourne Docklands area meant that political influences were inescapable. Nevertheless, the Docklands project stayed on the board
Annual average daily traffic
Annual average daily traffic, abbreviated AADT, is a measure used primarily in transportation planning and transportation engineering. Traditionally, it is the volume of vehicle traffic of a highway or road for a year divided by 365 days. AADT is a useful and simple measurement of how busy the road is, newer advances from traffic data providers are now providing AADT by side of the road, by day of week and by time of day. One of the most important uses of AADT is for determining funding for the maintenance, in the United States the amount of federal funding a state will receive is related to the total traffic measured across its Highway network. Each year on June 15, every state in the United States submits a Highway Performance Monitoring System HPMS report, the HPMS report contains various information regarding the road segments in the state based on a sample of the road segments. In the report, the AADT is converted to Vehicle Miles Traveled, VMT is the AADT multiplied by the length of the road segment.
To determine the amount of traffic a state has, the AADT cannot be summed for all road segments since an AADT is a rate, the VMT is summed and is used as an indicator of the amount of traffic a state has. For federal-funding, formulas are applied to include the VMT and other highway statistics, to measure AADT on individual road segments, traffic data is collected either by an automated traffic counter or hiring an observer to record traffic. There are two different techniques of measuring the AADTs for road segments, one technique is called continuous count data collection method. This is where sensors are embedded into a road and traffic data is measured all 365 days. The AADT would be the sum of the traffic for the entire year divided by 365 days. There is a problem calculating the AADT with this method. The continuous count equipment is not operating for the full 365 days due to being shut down for maintenance or repair, because of this, seasonal or day-of-week biases might skew the calculated AADT.
In 1992, AASHTO released the AASHTO Guidelines for Traffic Data Programs, for every month and day-of-week, a Monthly Average Day of Week is calculated. Each day-of-weeks MADW is calculated across months to calculate an Annual Average Day of Week, the AADWs are averaged to calculate an AADT. The United States Federal Highway Administration has adopted this method as the method in the. While providing the most accurate AADT, installing and maintaining continuous count stations method is costly, most agencies are only able to monitor a very small percentage of the roadway using this method. Most AADTs are generated using data collection methods sometimes known as the coverage count data collection method
Victoria is a state in southeast Australia. Victoria is Australias most densely populated state and its second-most populous state overall, most of its population is concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australias second-largest city. Prior to British European settlement, the area now constituting Victoria was inhabited by a number of Aboriginal peoples. With Great Britain having claimed the entire Australian continent east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria was included in the wider colony of New South Wales. The first settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, and much of what is now Victoria was included in the Port Phillip District in 1836, Victoria was officially created as a separate colony in 1851, and achieved self-government in 1855. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate, at state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
Victoria is currently governed by the Labor Party, with Daniel Andrews the current Premier, the personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria, currently Linda Dessau. Local government is concentrated in 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, Victorias total gross state product is ranked second in Australia, although Victoria is ranked fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne is home to a number of museums, art galleries and theatres and is described as the sporting capital of Australia. The Melbourne Cricket Ground is the largest stadium in Australia, and the host of the 1956 Summer Olympics, Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, having been founded in 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, who had been on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851.
The first British settlement in the known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. In the year 1826 Colonel Stewart, Captain S. Wright and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. Victorias next settlement was at Portland, on the south west coast of what is now Victoria, edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, from settlement the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after the now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe. And in 1838 Geelong was officially declared a town, despite earlier white settlements dating back to 1826, days later, still in 1851 gold was discovered near Ballarat, and subsequently at Bendigo. Later discoveries occurred at sites across Victoria
Within Australia, it is almost always abbreviated with the dollar sign, with A$ or AU$ sometimes used to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is subdivided into 100 cents, in 2011, the Australian dollar was the fifth most traded currency in the world, accounting for 7. 6% of the worlds daily share. It trades in the foreign exchange markets behind the US dollar, the euro, the yen. The currency is referred to by foreign-exchange traders as the Aussie dollar. With pounds and pence to be replaced by decimal currency on 14 February 1966, in 1963, the Prime Minister, Sir Robert Menzies, a monarchist, wished to name the currency the royal. Other proposed names included more exotic suggestions such as the austral, the oz, the boomer, the roo, the kanga, the emu, the digger, the quid, the dinkum and the ming. Menzies influence resulted in the selection of the royal, and trial designs were prepared and printed by the Reserve Bank of Australia, the Treasurer, Harold Holt, announced the decision in Parliament on 5 June 1963.
The royal would be subdivided into 100 cents, but the existing names shilling, the name royal for the currency proved very unpopular, with Holt and his wife even receiving death threats. On 24 July Holt told the Cabinet the decision had been a terrible mistake, on 18 September Holt advised Parliament that the name was to be the dollar, of 100 cents. The Australian pound, introduced in 1910 and officially distinct in value from the pound sterling since devaluation in 1931, was replaced by the dollar on 14 February 1966. The rate of conversion for the new currency was two dollars per Australian pound, or ten Australian shillings per dollar. The exchange rate was pegged to the pound sterling at a rate of $1 =8 shillings, in 1967, Australia effectively left the sterling area, when the pound sterling was devalued against the US dollar and the Australian dollar did not follow. It maintained its peg to the US dollar at the rate of A$1 = US$1.12, on 27 September 2012, the Reserve Bank of Australia stated that they had ordered work on a project to upgrade the current banknotes.
The upgraded banknotes will incorporate a number of new features so that they remain secure into the future, the first new banknotes were issued from the 1st of September 2016, with the remaining denominations to be issued in the coming years. In 1966, coins were introduced in denominations of 1,2,5,10,20 and 50 cents. The initial 50-cent coins contained high silver content and were withdrawn after a year after the value of the silver content was found to exceed the face value of the coins. One-dollar coins were introduced in 1984, followed by two-dollar coins in 1988, the one- and two-cent coins were discontinued in 1991 and withdrawn from circulation. In commemoration of the 40th anniversary of decimal currency, the 2006 mint proof and uncirculated sets included one-, in early 2013, Australias first triangular coin was introduced, to mark the 25th anniversary of the opening of Parliament House
Jeffrey Gibb Kennett AC is a former Australian politician who was the 43rd Premier of Victoria between 1992 and 1999 and a current media commentator. He was the President of Hawthorn Football Club from 2005 -2011 and he is the founding Chairman of beyondblue, a national organisation working to reduce the impact of depression and anxiety in the community. Kennett was born in Melbourne on 2 March 1948, and educated at Scotch College, Kennett was an unexceptional student academically, but did well in Scotchs Cadet Corps Unit. His failure to rise above the middle band academically almost led him to school in Fourth Form. His Fifth and Sixth Forms were an improvement, but he was described in school reports as confident. Sometimes works hard, and keen, though sometimes erratic boy, after leaving school, Kennett was persuaded by his father Ken to attend the Australian National University in Canberra, but lost interest and left after one year of an economics degree. He returned to Melbourne and found work in the department of the retail giant Myer – kindling an interest for advertising that would one day earn him his living.
Kennetts life in the workforce was cut short when, in 1968. Kennett was singled out as officer material early in his career and he was posted to Malaysia and Singapore as Second Lieutenant, commander of 1st Platoon, A Company, 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment. This military career has been noted by biographers as an essential formative influence on the adult Kennetts character. His sense and regard for hierarchical loyalty and general intolerance of dissent or disobedience may be traced to this period, Kennett returned to civilian life in 1970, reentering a divided Australian society, split by the Vietnam War, of which Kennett was a firm supporter. Having returned to Myer, Kennett became impatient with his work, thereafter, in December 1972, Kennett married Felicity Kellar, an old friend whom he had first met on a Number 7 tram on the long trips to school. Their first son, Ed, was born in 1974, followed by a daughter Amy, interested in local politics since the early 1970s, Kennett was elected as a Liberal Member of the Victorian Legislative Assembly for Burwood in 1976.
His preselection for the seat reportedly irritated Premier Dick Hamer, who disliked Kennetts campaigning style, entering Hamers government, Kennett was soon appointed Minister for Housing and Ethnic Affairs in 1981. He retained this post when Hamer was replaced as Liberal leader and Premier by Lindsay Thompson in June of that year and he was an aggressive Leader of the Opposition, and was criticised for his bull-in-a-china-shop style and his anti-government rhetoric. Under his leadership, the Liberals were heavily defeated by Labor in Victorian state election,1985, soon afterward, he faced a challenge to his leadership of the party from Ian Smith. Kennett survived easily, but increasingly, he was seen as an erratic and he faced two more challenges to his leadership in 1986 and 1987 respectively. In 1987, in one notable incident Kennett referred to the Federal Liberal leader John Howard using colourful language in a telephone conversation with Howard rival Andrew Peacock
A cantilever bridge is a bridge built using cantilevers, structures that project horizontally into space, supported on only one end. Engineers in the nineteenth century understood that a bridge that was continuous across multiple supports would distribute the loads among them and this would result in lower stresses in the girder or truss and meant that longer spans could be built. Several nineteenth century engineers patented continuous bridges with hinge points mid-span, the use of a hinge in the multi-span system presented the advantages of a statically determinate system and of a bridge that could handle differential settlement of the foundations. Engineers could more easily calculate the forces and stresses with a hinge in the girder, heinrich Gerber was one of the engineers to obtain a patent for a hinged girder and is recognized as the first to build one. The Hassfurt Bridge over the Main river in Germany with a span of 124 feet was completed in 1867 and is recognized as the first modern cantilever bridge.
The High Bridge of Kentucky by C, the Kentucky River Bridge spanned a gorge that was 275 feet deep and took full advantage of the fact that falsework, or temporary support, is not needed for the main span of a cantilever bridge. The most famous early cantilever bridge is the Forth Bridge and this bridge held the record for longest span in the world for seventeen years, until it was surpassed by the Quebec Bridge. Benjamin Baker illustrated the principles of the suspended span cantilever in the photo on the left. The suspended span, where Kaichi Watanabe sits, is seen in the center, the need to resist compression of the lower chord is seen in the use of wooden poles while the tension of the upper chord is shown by the outstretched arms. The action of the foundations as anchors for the cantilever is visible in the placement of the counterweights. A simple cantilever span is formed by two arms extending from opposite sides of an obstacle to be crossed, meeting at the center. In a common variant, the span, the cantilever arms do not meet in the center, instead.
The suspended span may be built off-site and lifted into place, thus, in a bridge built on two foundation piers, there are four cantilever arms, two which span the obstacle, and two anchor arms which extend away from the obstacle. Because of the need for strength at the balanced cantilevers supports. The Commodore Barry Bridge is an example of type of cantilever bridge. Steel truss cantilevers support loads by tension of the upper members, the structure distributes the tension via the anchor arms to the outermost supports, while the compression is carried to the foundations beneath the central towers. Many truss cantilever bridges use pinned joints and are statically determinate with no members carrying mixed loads. Prestressed concrete balanced cantilever bridges are built using segmental construction
Docklands Stadium is a multi-purpose sports and entertainment stadium in the Docklands precinct of Melbourne, Australia. Construction started in October 1997 under the name, Victoria Stadium. Also headquartered in the precinct is Seven Networks digital broadcast centre. The stadium was announced on 31 October 1996 as a replacement for the much larger Waverley Park as a headquarters for the Australian Football League. Under the terms of the agreement governing construction and operation of the venue, Docklands Stadium, like Waverley Park, was built primarily for Australian rules football, unlike most grounds of a similar size in Australia which were originally designed for cricket. The first match to be played at the ground was between Essendon and Port Adelaide, before a crowd of 43,012, in Round 1 of the 2000 AFL season, Essendon won the match by 94 points. The stadium was the first stadium in Australia to have movable seating, all four level-one tiers of the stadium can be moved up to 18 metres forward into a rectangular configuration.
It was first used for a Melbourne Storm game in July 2001, despite the seating being a key feature of the stadium, it has rarely been used, citing damage to turf, time to deploy the seats and a reduced capacity. Docklands Stadium first featured rugby league football when it was used as the Melbourne Storms home ground for one season in 2001, the Storm continued to play home games at the ground sporadically in the following years. Docklands was the venue for the third and deciding game of the 2006 State of Origin series, in 2015, LED electronic advertising was added around the perimeter of the ground on level 1 and 2. It was the first time Australia had hosted a round of the SGP event since the round of the 2002 season in Sydney. With stadium capacity capped at 42,000 for the event,26,609 fans saw 45 year old American rider Greg Hancock take out his 20th SGP Final, danish rider Niels-Kristian Iversen finished second with Polands Maciej Janowski finishing third. Reigning Australian Champion Jason Doyle qualified for the final but was outed in a crash in the first turn in which he suffered neck, a fully conscious Doyle was transported to the Royal Melbourne Hospital for observation.
The plan was rejected by the AFL, prior to the start of the 2016 AFL season the seats in the Medallion Club were replaced. The old seats in the Medallion Club section were relocated to areas in the ground. On 7 October 2016, the AFL Commission announced that the league had acquired ownership of the stadium. On 16 August 2000, the first indoor One Day International was held when the Australian cricket team played South Africa in the Super Challenge, the following table summarises the ODI centuries scored at Docklands. Events that have held at the Docklands Stadium include concerts by many famous artists