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Bomb

A bomb is an explosive weapon that uses the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an sudden and violent release of energy. Detonations inflict damage principally through ground- and atmosphere-transmitted mechanical stress, the impact and penetration of pressure-driven projectiles, pressure damage, explosion-generated effects. Bombs have been utilized since the 11th century starting in East Asia; the term bomb is not applied to explosive devices used for civilian purposes such as construction or mining, although the people using the devices may sometimes refer to them as a "bomb". The military use of the term "bomb", or more aerial bomb action refers to airdropped, unpowered explosive weapons most used by air forces and naval aviation. Other military explosive weapons not classified as "bombs" include shells, depth charges, or land mines. In unconventional warfare, other names can refer to a range of offensive weaponry. For instance, in recent Middle Eastern conflicts, homemade bombs called "improvised explosive devices" have been employed by insurgent fighters to great effectiveness.

The word comes from the Latin bombus, which in turn comes from the Greek βόμβος, an onomatopoetic term meaning "booming", "buzzing". Explosive bombs were used by a Jurchen Jin army against a Chinese Song city. Bombs built using bamboo tubes appear in the 11th century. Bombs made of cast iron shells packed with explosive gunpowder date to 13th century China; the term was coined for this bomb during a Jin dynasty naval battle of 1231 against the Mongols. The History of Jin 《金史》 states that in 1232, as the Mongol general Subutai descended on the Jin stronghold of Kaifeng, the defenders had a "thunder-crash bomb" which "consisted of gunpowder put into an iron container... when the fuse was lit there was a great explosion the noise whereof was like thunder, audible for more than thirty miles, the vegetation was scorched and blasted by the heat over an area of more than half a mou. When hit iron armour was quite pierced through." The Song Dynasty official Li Zengbo wrote in 1257 that arsenals should have several hundred thousand iron bomb shells available and that when he was in Jingzhou, about one to two thousand were produced each month for dispatch of ten to twenty thousand at a time to Xiangyang and Yingzhou.

The Ming Dynasty text Huolongjing describes the use of poisonous gunpowder bombs, including the "wind-and-dust" bomb. During the Mongol invasions of Japan, the Mongols used the explosive "thunder-crash bombs" against the Japanese. Archaeological evidence of the "thunder-crash bombs" has been discovered in an underwater shipwreck off the shore of Japan by the Kyushu Okinawa Society for Underwater Archaeology. X-rays by Japanese scientists of the excavated shells confirmed. Explosive shock waves can cause situations such as body displacement, internal bleeding and ruptured eardrums. Shock waves produced by explosive events have two distinct components, the positive and negative wave; the positive wave shoves outward from the point of detonation, followed by the trailing vacuum space "sucking back" towards the point of origin as the shock bubble collapses. The greatest defense against shock injuries is distance from the source of shock; as a point of reference, the overpressure at the Oklahoma City bombing was estimated in the range of 28 MPa.

A thermal wave is created by the sudden release of heat caused by an explosion. Military bomb tests have documented temperatures of up to 2,480 °C. While capable of inflicting severe to catastrophic burns and causing secondary fires, thermal wave effects are considered limited in range compared to shock and fragmentation; this rule has been challenged, however, by military development of thermobaric weapons, which employ a combination of negative shock wave effects and extreme temperature to incinerate objects within the blast radius. This would be fatal to humans. Fragmentation is produced by the acceleration of shattered pieces of bomb casing and adjacent physical objects; the use of fragmentation in bombs dates to the 14th century, appears in the Ming Dynasty text Huolongjing. The fragmentation bombs were filled with iron pieces of broken porcelain. Once the bomb explodes, the resulting fragments are capable of piercing the skin and blinding enemy soldiers. While conventionally viewed as small metal shards moving at super-supersonic and hypersonic speeds, fragmentation can occur in epic proportions and travel for extensive distances.

When the SS Grandcamp exploded in the Texas City Disaster on April 16, 1947, one fragment of that blast was a two-ton anchor, hurled nearly two miles inland to embed itself in the parking lot of the Pan American refinery. To people who are close to a blast incident, such as bomb disposal technicians, soldiers wearing body armor, deminers, or individuals wearing little to no protection, there are four types of blast effects on the human body: overpressure, fragmentation and heat. Overpressure refers to the sudden and drastic rise in ambient pressure that can damage the internal organs leading to permanent damage or death. Fragmentation can include sand and vegetation from the area surrounding the blast source; this is common in anti-personnel mine blasts. The projection of materials poses a lethal threat caused by cuts in soft tissues, as well as infections, injuries to the internal organs; when the overpressure wave impacts the body it can induce violent levels of blast-in

Granigyra tenera

Granigyra tenera is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk, unassigned in the superfamily Seguenzioidea. The shell grows to a height of 1.8 mm. The thin shell is narrowly umbilicated, it is semitransparent, with nearly microscopic spiral stride, which are wanting on the base and replaced by a rugose or fretted appearance. The color of the shell is pale yellowish white, with a faint greenish tinge; the four whorls are convex. The suture is deep; the aperture is circular. The thin peristome is expanded; this species occurs in the Atlantic Ocean off Portugal. Gofas, S.. Mollusca, in: Costello, M. J. et al.. European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 180–213

Mandeville Gallery

The Mandeville Gallery is an art gallery, located on the second floor of the Nott Memorial at Union College, New York, USA. The gallery opened in 1995 and is dedicated to exhibiting work by nationally recognized, contemporary artists exploring modern themes. Due to the unusual architecture of the Nott Memorial, the Mandeville Gallery provides a unique environment for viewing exhibitions; the Gallery is a mezzanine, open to the floors above and below, consists of two semi-circular areas of viewing, creating an atypical but creative gallery venue. The Permanent Collection houses over 3,000 works of material culture. Access to the collection is available to students and researchers by appointment. Artwork from the Permanent Collection is on display in public and administrative areas across the college campus; the Wikoff Student Gallery is located on the third floor of the Nott Memorial and exhibits work by current, full-time Union College students. The Castrucci Gallery is located on the ground floor of the Peter Irving Wold Center, features exhibitions that explores intersections of the visual arts and the sciences.

The Mandeville Gallery presents an annual Art Installation Series in partnership with the Schaffer Library. The Art Installation Series features contemporary artists who visit campus and create a site-specific installation for the library's Learning Commons. Https://www.timesunion.com/entertainment/article/Inquiring-minds-at-Union-s-Mandeville-Gallery-12510861.php https://dailygazette.com/article/2018/01/11/union-college-exhibit-a-fusion-of-science-history https://www.timesunion.com/entertainment/article/Union-College-exhibit-examines-Katrina-s-legacy-12275869.php https://cpb-us-w2.wpmucdn.com/muse.union.edu/dist/2/88/files/2017/03/SR_Times-U