Bombardier Transportation is the rail equipment division of the Canadian multinational firm Bombardier Inc.. Bombardier Transportation is one of the world's largest companies in the rail vehicle and equipment manufacturing and servicing industry. Bombardier Transportation is headquartered in Berlin. There are many regional offices and development facilities worldwide. Bombardier Transportation produces a wide range of products including passenger rail vehicles, bogies and controls. Danny Di Perna is the chief operating officer of Bombardier Transportation. In February 2020, the company had 36,050 employees, 63 manufacturing and engineering locations around the world. A year Bombardier reached an agreement with Alstom SA, a train manufacturer in France, for the latter to purchase the entire transportation division. Bombardier Transportation's first order for mass transit rolling stock was in 1974 for the Société de transport de Montréal to build metro trains for the Montreal Metro; the core of the Transportation group was formed with the purchase of Montreal Locomotive Works in 1975.
With the 1975 purchase, Bombardier acquired MLW's LRC tilting train design which it produced in the 1980s. In 1987, Bombardier bought the assets of US railcar manufacturers Pullman-Standard. In the late 1980s Bombardier Transportation gained a manufacturing presence in Europe with the acquisition of a 45% share in BN Constructions Ferroviaires et Métalliques in 1986, the acquisition of ANF-Industries in 1989. In 1990, Procor Engineering Ltd. of Horbury near Wakefield, UK. In 1991 the group purchased Urban Transportation Development Corporation from the Government of Ontario, which had acquired Hawker Siddeley Canada. MLW was sold to General Electric in 1988. GE ended railcar operations in Canada in 1993. Bombardier Transportation continues to operate the railcar operations in Thunder Bay. In 1991 the grouping Bombardier Eurorail was formed consisting of the company's European subsidiaries. In 1992, the company acquired Mexico's largest railway rolling-stock manufacturer, from the Mexican government.
In 1995 Waggonfabrik Talbot KG in Aachen, in 1998, Deutsche Waggonbau AG, Ateliers de Constructions Mécaniques de Vevey in Vevey, were acquired. DWA encompassed the major portion of the railway equipment industry of the former East Germany, had its principal sites in Bautzen and Görlitz. In 2001 Bombardier Transportation acquired Adtranz from DaimlerChrysler, became by many measurements the Western world's largest rail-equipment manufacturer; the takeover was approved by the EU competition commission subject to a number of minor clauses including the divestment of Bombardier's stake in Adtranz/Stadler joint venture Stadler Pankow GmbH, an agreement to retain Kiepe as a supplier, ELIN as a partner for a number of years after the acquisition. The addition of ADtranz made Bombardier a manufacturer of locomotives along with its existing product lines of passenger carriages, multiple-unit trains, trams. With the acquisition of ADtranz, Bombardier gained competence in the electrical propulsion components business.
After the Adtranz acquisition in 2001, Bombardier Transportation moved its core manufacturing strategy for Europe with a few legacy plants in North America for the smaller North American market: three sites for bogie manufacture were to be at Siegen in Germany, at the former ANF plant in Crespin. Vehicle body manufacturing was to be done at Bautzen and Görlitz, at the former Kalmar Verkstad plant, at the Bombardier's Derby carriage plant, the former BN Constructions Ferroviaries et Métalliques in Brugge. For final assembly, the company chose the former Waggonfabrik Talbot plant in Aachen and the former LEW Hennigsdorf in Germany, the former Sorefame plant in Amadora and its plants in Derby, Brugge and Pratteln, Switzerland. Additionally a number of plants would have specialised manufacturing roles, including Česká Lípa and the Pafawag facility in Poland which would supply parts and welded structures, sites in Vienna and Bautzen which would specialise in light rail vehicle manufacture whilst double deck trains for the German market would be manufactured in Görlitz.
Other sites were closed. In 2004 due to overcapacity in the European passenger train industry, Bombardier announced a restructuring program resulting in the closure of several plants. In late 2012 Bombardier announced the closure of the Bombardier Talbot plant in Aachen, a reduction in workforce in the transportation division of 1,200 people; the company obtained two major orders in 2014: San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District ordered an additional 365 rail cars from Bombardier in early 2014, to be assembled at Bombardier's plant in Plattsburgh, New York.
Ewan Morrison is a Scottish author and screenwriter, described as "the most fluent and intelligent writer of his generation here in Scotland" by Booker judge Stuart Kelly. Morrison was born in Wick, Caithness in 1968, son of the singer Edna Morrison and the poet and librarian David Morrison. In interviews and essays Morrison has talked about his unorthodox childhood as part of a ‘hippie experiment’, the childhood bullying he endured and the difficulties he experienced, growing up as a cultural outsider with a stutter, he claims. Morrison graduated from Glasgow School of Art in 1990, overcame his stutter and began work as an art critic and filmmaker before turning to fiction writing. Morrison became a full-time writer in 2005 and has since published six novels and one collection of short stories, his seventh book, Nina X, will be published in April, 2019. Morrison’s first book, The Last Book You Read and Other Stories, is a short story collection which explores modern relationships in the era of globalisation and was described by The Times as “the most compelling Scottish literary debut since Trainspotting”.
Bertold Schoene in The Edinburgh Companion to Contemporary Scottish Literature, said “Morrison is concerned with the indispensable necessity of personal relationships, the heroic effort it takes to initiate and maintain them as well as the common everyday trials inherent in being human in our globalised twenty first-century world…undeniably Morrison’s collection of short stories makes a contribution to contemporary world literature.” The Last Book You Read and Other Stories led Morrison to being short-listed for the Arena Magazine Man of the Year Award in 2006. One of the short stories within it was made into the short film None of the Above, starring Holli Dempsey. Distance is Morrison’s second novel – “exploring the issue of long-distance relationships, through this, phone sex, paranoia and despair.” The Telegraph said, “ narrative voice is original. His prose feels utterly contemporary, with a readable texture, it is an unusual stylistic shorthand as much influenced by text messaging and emails as literary fiction.”
The Times called it “utterly compelling... On this form, Morrison is one of the finest novelists around”. However, other reviewers found the book depressing. “A death would liven things up,” said The Scotsman, “…too much verbiage, conversational psychotherapy”. Morrison’s third novel Menage, is about three dysfunctional artists living a life of debauched squalor within a bisexual ménage à trois in the artistic subculture of'90s London. Scotland on Sunday said, “Menage is an accomplished poignant, novel… strives to go beyond corrosive irony and world-weary cynicism to recapture a sense of the possibilities of love.” The novel innovates with the form of the triad, alternating between the formats of art reviews, past tense confessional memoir and third person present tense. Morrison based the novel on his experiences within the fashionable nihilistic circles of the New British Art Scene in his years after art school. Close Your Eyes became Morrison’s most acclaimed novel to date; the story concerns a woman, brought up in a hippie commune in the 1960s and 1970s, returning twenty-five years to search for the mother who abandoned her.
Bestselling author Christos Tsioklas said, “It takes us right to the heart of the turbulent social changes that defined our last quarter century and it is a revealing honest, searing novel about mothers and children, about what it means to be part of a family. The story, the writing, the moral intelligence: all of it is a knockout.’ The Daily Record called it a “mesmerising saga of survival. Disturbing. Outstanding. Written with exquisite emotional perception.” While the Guardian described it as “A powerful, moving exploration of New Age life that charts a woman's struggle to look after her child while searching for her own mother.”Close Your Eyes won Morrison the Scottish Book of the Year Fiction Prize in 2014 and brought him the Writer of the Year Award of the Glenfiddich Spirit of Scotland Awards in 2012. Morrison has, in interview and articles, described the book as a autobiographical reaction to ‘coming to terms with a hippy childhood’ and being raised by political extremists. In the same year Morrison published Tales from the Mall – “‘a mash-up of fact, fiction and multi-format media that tells of the rise of the shopping mall, an iconic symbol of our age”.
Douglas Coupland said “Morrison continues Ballard's tradition of locating menace beneath the sleekness and shine of post industrial life. A interesting book.” James Frey called it a “new form of literary storytelling”. Irvine Welsh called it "truly Zeitgeist writing.” Tales from the Mall won the Guardian Not the Booker Prize in 2012 and was a finalist in the Saltire Society Book of the Year Award and the Creative Scotland Writer of the Year Award in the same year. Morrison was described by Greg Gordon in The Times as the “Chronicler of the broken dreams and spiritual desolation that lies beneath the surface gloss of advanced capitalist society.”According to scholar Marie-Odile Pittin-Hedon, Morrison’s fiction and essays "show the author’s overwhelming, constant concern with the place of the human in a Globalised world. Morrison defines the globalised world as a world taken over by American-style consumerism and its attendant rampant commodification of everything including the human." Pittin-Hedon claims that Morrison’s writing "raises issues not only related to the creative process, or the process of writing fiction, but to anthropology and sociology."
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Common names: Bulgardagh viper. The Mount Bulgar viper is a venomous viper species endemic to the mountains of southern Turkey. No subspecies are recognized, it grows to a maximum total length of about 78 cm. It is found in Nigde Province, south central Anatolia, Turkey; the type locality given is "south central Anatolia, Turkey. This species is classified as Least Concern according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, it is listed as a protected species under the Berne Convention. This species was considered by Golay et al. to be a subspecies of M. xanthina, was subsequently moved to the genus Montivipera by Nilson et al. who considered it to be a synonym of Montivipera xanthina. List of viperine species and subspecies Viperinae by common name Viperinae by taxonomic synonyms Snakebite Montivipera xanthina at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 21 October 2013