Actions in Inner Mongolia (1933–36)
The Inner Mongolian Campaign in the period from 1933 to 1936 were part of the ongoing invasion of northern China by the Empire of Japan prior to the official start of hostilities in the Second Sino-Japanese War. In 1931, the invasion of Manchuria secured the creation of the puppet state of Manchukuo and in 1933, Operation Nekka detached the province of Jehol from the Republic of China. Blocked from further advance south by the Tanggu Truce, the Imperial Japanese Army turned its attention west, towards the Inner Mongolian provinces of Chahar and Suiyuan, with the goal of establishing a northern China buffer state. In order to avoid overt violation of the Truce, the Japanese government used proxy armies in these campaigns while Chinese resistance was at first only provided by Anti-Japanese resistance movement forces in Chahar; the former included in the Inner Mongolian Army, the Manchukuo Imperial Army, the Grand Han Righteous Army. Chinese government forces were overtly hostile to the anti-Japanese resistance and resisted Japanese aggression only in Suiyuan in 1936.
In February 1933, following the successful Japanese invasion of Jehol, the Kwantung Army left a small Japanese detachment and the much larger Manchukuo Imperial Army to watch the eastern Jehol border, while the balance of the Japanese forces moved south to engage the Chinese on the Great Wall. In April 1933, collaborationist General Liu Guitang, under Japanese orders, crossed into southeastern Chahar province in the Dolonor region, as a diversionary feint to draw off Chinese reinforcements to the Great Wall. Finding little resistance, Liu led his 3,000 troops further east toward Changpei. Although reported at the time as a Japanese operation, Liu's further advance may have been carried out without Japan's explicit approval; the Kuomintang military committee in Peking appointed General Fu Zuoyi as commander of Chinese 7th Army Group, tasked him with providing Jehol border security. At the end of April, when the advancing Japanese forces approached Miyun, He Yingqin anxiously redeployed Fu Zuoyi's troops to strengthen the Peking's defenses eastwards to Changping leaving the defense of the Chahar border empty.
The Japanese and Manchukuo armies seized the opportunity on May 11, following up on Liu Guitang's advance, seized the Dolonnur region, subsequently took Guyuan, just prior to the signing of the Tanggu Truce of May 31, 1933. The terms of the Tanggu Truce enraged public opinion in urban China. Groups of Chinese patriots opposed to Chiang Kai-shek's policies, both within the Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party, as well as overseas Chinese cooperated in organizing and supporting an irregular force, or Anti-Japanese Allied Army to resist further Japanese encroachment. General Feng Yuxiang and his former subordinate Ji Hongchang, were able to recruit many units of former Guominjun soldiers. Fang Zhenwu raised volunteers from the rest of China. Added to this were the local militias driven out of Jehol by the Japanese and Manchurian Anti-Japanese guerrilla forces under Feng Zhanhai, the local Chahar militia, a Mongol army under Demchugdongrub; the Japanese collaborator Liu Guitang switched sides, joining the Anti-Japanese Allied Army as did the Suiyuan bandit leader Wang Ying.
After a meeting of the various commanding officers, on May 26, 1933, the Chahar People's Anti-Japanese Army was formally proclaimed with General Feng Yuxiang was made commander-in-chief, Fang Zhenwu became vice-commander-in-chief and Ji Hongchang the front-line commander. The army was estimated in strength to be between 60,000 and 120,000 men by various sources, with the figure of 100,000 men claimed by Feng Yuxiang. Despite its numbers, most of the volunteers in the army lacked other modern weapons. Order of Battle Anti-Japanese Allied Army Campaign of 1933 By the time the Anti-Japanese Allied Army had been established, the Kwantung Army strengthened its defenses at Dolonnur; the city was garrisoned by over 2,000 men of an artillery unit. Outside the city, the Japanese erected 32 blockhouses connected with trenches, a wire communications network, multiple lines of obstacles; these outer defenses were guarded by Manchukuo troops under the command of Li Shou-hsin. To the south the Japanese 8th Regiment was stationed in Fengning, for mutual support with the forces in Dolonnur.
The Anti-Japanese Allied Army found its situation worsening day-by-day. On June 1, Japanese airplanes bombed Dushikou, on June 4, Baochang fell to the Japanese, as did Kangbao on June 5. On June 21, Feng Yuxiang ordered the Anti-Japanese Allied Army to launch a counteroffensive in three columns to regain the lost territory. On the June 22 its vanguard approached Kangbao, after several hours of fighting, the Manchukuo force under General Cui Xingwu fled, allowing the Chinese forces to re-occupy the town. In late June, a force under Ji Hongchang pushed northeast against Dolonnur with two corps; the Northern corps recaptured Baochang from the now-demoralized Manchukuo force under Cui Xingwu. The Southern corps under Fang Zhenwu advanced on Guyuan, held by the collaborationist General Liu Guitang. Liu was persuaded to change sides, surrendered Guyuan and other places on the Bashang Plateau without battle. On July 8, before dawn, Ji Hongchang began an assault on Dolonnur, capturing the two outer defense lines outside the city before being driven back with heavy casualties.
Some of Ji's soldiers were sent in disguise into the city as covert operatives to gather intelligence for a second attack. This second attack re-captured Dolonnur on July 12 driving the Japanese-Manchukuo armies out of Chahar province. In late July, Feng Yuxiang and Ji Hongchang established the "Committee For Recovering the Four Provinces of the Northeast" at Kalgan, directly cha
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
The Jinzhou Operation was an operation in 1931 during the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, a preliminary, contributing factor to the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937. In late November 1931, Imperial Japanese Army commander in chief General Shigeru Honjō dispatched 10,000 soldiers in 13 armored trains, escorted by a squadron of bombers, in an advance on Jinzhou from Mukden; this force advanced to within 30 kilometers of Chinchow. The operation was cancelled by Japanese War Minister General Jirō Minami, due to the acceptance of modified form of a League of Nations proposal for a "neutral zone" to be established as a buffer zone between the Republic of China proper and Manchuria pending a future China-Japanese peace conference by the civilian government of Prime Minister Wakatsuki Reijirō in Tokyo; however the two sides failed to reach a lasting agreement. The Wakatsuki government soon fell and was replaced by a new cabinet led by Prime Minister Tsuyoshi Inukai. Further negotiations with the Kuomintang government failing, the Japanese government approved an increase in the military forces in Manchuria.
In December, the rest of the 20th Infantry Division, along with the 38th Mixed Brigade of the 19th Infantry Division were sent into Manchuria from Korea while the 8th Mixed Brigade, 10th Infantry Division was sent from Japan. Following the defeat of General Ma Zhanshan in Heilongjiang province, in anticipation of reinforcements, a new Japanese offensive was launched in Manchuria on December 21. General Honjo insisted that his troops were moving out "to clear the country of bandits," and added that the Chinese evacuation of Chinchow was "absolutely imperative". Most of the "bandits" were the organizing Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies but some real bandits were exploiting the chaos following the collapse of the Chinese government and its Northeastern Army following the Mukden Incident and the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. While the other Japanese forces and collaborationist Manchurian troops spread out from their bases along the South Manchurian Railway rail lines to clear the countryside, from Mukden, the Japanese headquarters in Manchuria, the brigades of the 12th Infantry Division advanced southward in the night, supported by squadrons of Japanese bombers to force the Chinese to evacuate Jinzhou.
The Japanese estimated the Chinese at Jinzhou had 84,000 defenders, with 58 artillery pieces placed to support two separate systems of entrenchments defending the city. The Chinese first defensive line, 20 miles north of the city, was a series of trenches aimed to stop the Japanese advance at the Taling River Bridge on the Peiping-Mukden Railway; the Chinese had a second line of earthworks and entrenchments encircling Jinzhou to fall back on if the Japanese forces broke through the first line. Japanese Lieutenant General Jirō Tamon's troops cautiously advanced south from Mukden; the temperature was 30 below zero, Japanese forces were camouflaged in white. Japanese reconnaissance aircraft reported a force of at least 3,000 Chinese "bandits" waiting to defend Panshan County. Brushing aside these Chinese skirmishers in a series of minor clashes, Tamon prepared to meet and crush the first serious Chinese resistance, expected at Goubangzi, 50 kilometers north of Jinzhou. By the evening of December 31, 1931, the Japanese advance guard was fifteen kilometers from Jinzhou on the banks of the Taling river.
General Tamon halted to bring up the rest of his 2nd Division, for the final drive on Jinzhou. The Japanese War Office announced in a radio broadcast "The Battle of the Taling River", setting up microphones behind the Japanese lines, arranging an elaborate hookup to broadcast the sound of firing to Tokyo, but had to call off the broadcast when the Chinese retreated without giving combat. Japanese forces occupied Jinzhou on January 3, 1932, with the local populace waving Japanese flags homemade during the night to appease the conquerors. On the Chinese side confusion reigned; the old government of Chiang Kai-shek at Nanjing had resigned and a new one under Premier Sun Fo had been formed. Additionally, Marshal Zhang Xueliang's defenders were in disorderly retreat toward the Great Wall, leaving only a small garrison to protect the few government functionaries who remained behind. At Nanjing Eugene Chen, the new Kuomintang Foreign Minister, asserted that his government had never ordered evacuation of Jinzhou, but, on the contrary, had ordered Marshal Zhang to stand his ground.
Nine Chinese generals in various parts of China denounced Premier Sun Fo's new government, blaming it for the humiliating loss of Jinzhou without a struggle. The day after the fall of Jinzhou, the Imperial Japanese Army occupied Shanhaiguan, thus completing its military control over south Manchuria. Japanese invasion of Manchuria Pacification of Manchukuo Coogan, Anthony. Northeast China and the Origins of the Anti-Japanese United Front. Modern China, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 282–314: Sage Publications. Matsusaka, Yoshihisa Tak; the Making of Japanese Manchuria, 1904–1932. Harvard University Asia Center. ISBN 0-674-01206-2. "Strong Policy" From the Dec. 28, 1931 issue of TIME magazine The Charleston Gazette Friday Morning, January 1, 1932. Time Magazine, Jan. 4, 1932 Jaunting Juggernaut Fun & Blood From the Jan. 11, 1932 issue of TIME magazine
Battle of Nanking
The Battle of Nanking was fought in early December 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War between the Chinese National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army for control of Nanking, the capital of the Republic of China. Following the outbreak of war between Japan and China in July 1937, the Japanese government at first attempted to contain the fighting and sought a negotiated settlement to the war. However, after victory in the Battle of Shanghai expansionists prevailed within the Japanese military and on December 1 a campaign to capture Nanking was authorized; the task of occupying Nanking was given to General Iwane Matsui, the commander of Japan's Central China Area Army, who believed that the capture of Nanking would force China to surrender and thus end the war. Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek decided to defend the city and appointed Tang Shengzhi to command the Nanking Garrison Force, a hastily assembled army of local conscripts and the remnants of the Chinese units who had fought in Shanghai.
Japanese soldiers marched from Shanghai to Nanking at a breakneck pace defeating pockets of Chinese resistance. By December 9 they had reached the last line of defense, the Fukuo Line, behind which lay Nanking's fortified walls. On December 10 Matsui ordered an all-out attack on Nanking, after less than two days of intense fighting Chiang decided to abandon the city. Before fleeing, Tang ordered his men to launch a concerted breakout of the Japanese siege, but by this time Nanking was surrounded and its defenses were at the breaking point. Most of Tang's units collapsed, their soldiers casting off their weapons and uniforms in the streets in the hopes of hiding among the city's civilian population. Following the capture of the city Japanese soldiers massacred Chinese prisoners of war, murdered civilians, committed acts of looting and rape in an event known as the Nanking Massacre. Though Japan's military victory excited and emboldened them, the subsequent massacre tarnished their reputation in the eyes of the world.
Contrary to Matsui's expectations, China did not surrender and the Second Sino-Japanese War continued for another eight years. The conflict which would become known as the Second Sino-Japanese War started on July 7, 1937, with a skirmish at Marco Polo Bridge which escalated into a full-scale war in northern China between the armies of China and Japan. China, wanted to avoid a decisive confrontation in the north and so instead opened a second front by attacking Japanese units in Shanghai in central China; the Japanese responded by dispatching the Shanghai Expeditionary Army, commanded by General Iwane Matsui, to drive the Chinese Army from Shanghai. Intense fighting in Shanghai forced Japan's Army General Staff, in charge of military operations, to reinforce the SEA, on November 9 an new army, the 10th Army commanded by Lieutenant General Heisuke Yanagawa, was landed at Hangzhou Bay just south of Shanghai. Although the arrival of the 10th Army succeeded at forcing the Chinese Army to retreat from Shanghai, the Japanese Army General Staff had decided to adopt a policy of non-expansion of hostilities with the aim of ending the war.
On November 7 its de facto leader Deputy Chief of Staff Hayao Tada laid down an "operation restriction line" preventing its forces from leaving the vicinity of Shanghai, or more from going west of the Chinese cities of Suzhou and Jiaxing. The city of Nanking is 300 kilometers west of Shanghai. However, a major rift of opinion existed between the Japanese government and its two field armies, the SEA and 10th Army, which as of November were both nominally under the control of the Central China Area Army led by SEA commander Matsui. Matsui made clear to his superiors before he left for Shanghai that he wanted to march on Nanking, he was convinced that the conquest of the Chinese capital city of Nanking would provoke the fall of the entire Nationalist Government of China and thus hand Japan a quick and complete victory in its war on China. Yanagawa was eager to conquer Nanking and both men chafed under the operation restriction line, imposed on them by the Army General Staff. On November 19 Yanagawa ordered his 10th Army to pursue retreating Chinese forces across the operation restriction line to Nanking, a flagrant act of insubordination.
When Tada discovered this the next day he ordered Yanagawa to stop but was ignored. Matsui made some effort to restrain Yanagawa, but told him that he could send some advance units beyond the line. In fact, Matsui was sympathetic with Yanagawa's actions and a few days on November 22 Matsui issued an urgent telegram to the Army General Staff insisting that "To resolve this crisis in a prompt manner we need to take advantage of the enemy's present declining fortunes and conquer Nanking... By staying behind the operation restriction line at this point we are not only letting our chance to advance slip by, but it is having the effect of encouraging the enemy to replenish their fighting strength and recover their fighting spirit and there is a risk that it will become harder to break their will to make war."Meanwhile, as more and more Japanese units continued to slip past the operation restriction line, Tada was coming under pressure from within the Army General Staff. Many of Tada's colleagues and subordinates, including the powerful Chief of the General Staff Operations Division Sadamu Shimomura, had come around to Matsui's viewpoint and wanted Tada to approve an attack on Nanking.
On November 24 Tada relented and abolished the operation restriction line "owing to circumstances beyond our control", several days he reluctantly approved the oper
January 28 incident
The January 28 incident or Shanghai incident was a conflict between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan, before official hostilities of the Second Sino-Japanese War commenced in 1937. In Chinese literature it is known as the January 28 incident, while in Western sources it is called the Shanghai War of 1932 or the Shanghai incident. In Japan it is known as the first Shanghai incident, alluding to the second Shanghai incident, the Japanese name for the Battle of Shanghai that occurred during the opening stages of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937. After the Mukden Incident, Japan had acquired the vast northeastern region of China and would establish the puppet government of Manchukuo. However, the Japanese military planned to increase Japanese influence further into Shanghai where Japan, along with the various western powers, had extraterritorial rights. On January 18, five Japanese Buddhist monks, members of an ardently nationalist sect, were beaten near Shanghai's Sanyou Factory by agitated Chinese civilians.
Two were injured, one died. Over the next few hours, a group burnt down the factory. One policeman was killed and several more hurt when they arrived to quell the disorder; this caused an upsurge of anti-Japanese and anti-imperialist protests in the city and its concessions, with Chinese residents of Shanghai marching onto the streets and calling for a boycott of Japanese-made goods. The situation continued to deteriorate over the next week. By January 27, the Japanese military had concentrated some 30 ships, 40 airplanes and nearly 7,000 troops around the shoreline of Shanghai to put down any resistance in the event that violence broke out; the military's justification was. The Japanese issued an ultimatum to the Shanghai Municipal Council demanding public condemnation and monetary compensation by the Chinese for any Japanese property damaged in the monk incident, demanding that the Chinese government take active steps to suppress further anti-Japanese protests in the city. During the afternoon of January 28, the Shanghai Municipal Council agreed to these demands.
Throughout this period, the Chinese 19th Route Army had been massing outside the city, causing consternation to the civil Chinese administration of Shanghai and the foreign-run concessions. The 19th Route Army was viewed as little more than a warlord force, posing as great a danger to Shanghai as the Japanese military. In the end, Shanghai donated a substantial bribe to the 19th Route Army, hoping that it would leave and not incite a Japanese attack. However, at midnight on January 28, Japanese carrier aircraft bombed Shanghai in the first major aircraft carrier action in East Asia. Barbara W. Tuchman described this as being "the first terror bombing of a civilian population of an era, to become familiar with it", preceding the Condor Legion's bombing of Guernica by five years. Three thousand Japanese troops attacked targets, such as the Shanghai North railway station, around the city and began an invasion of the de facto Japanese settlement in Hongkew and other areas north of Suzhou Creek.
In what was a surprising about-face for many, the 19th Route Army, which many had expected to leave after having been paid, put up fierce resistance. Though the opening battles took place in the Hongkew district of the International Settlement, the conflict soon spread outwards to much of Chinese-controlled Shanghai; the majority of the concessions remained untouched by the conflict, it was the case that those in the Shanghai International Settlement would watch the war from the banks of Suzhou Creek. They could visit the battle lines by virtue of their extraterritoriality. On January 30, Chiang Kai-shek decided to temporarily relocate the capital from Nanjing to Luoyang as an emergency measure, due to the fact that Nanjing's proximity to Shanghai could make it a target; because Shanghai was a metropolitan city with many foreign interests invested in it, other countries, such as the United States, the United Kingdom and France, attempted to negotiate a ceasefire between Japan and China. However, Japan refused.
On February 12, American and French representatives brokered a half-day cease fire for humanitarian relief to civilians caught in the crossfire. The same day, the Japanese issued another ultimatum, demanding that the Chinese Army retreat 20 km from the border of the Shanghai concessions, a demand promptly rejected; this only intensified fighting in Hongkew. The Japanese were unable to take the city by the middle of February. Subsequently, the number of Japanese troops was increased to nearly 90,000 with the arrival of the 9th Infantry Division and the IJA 24th Mixed Brigade, supported by 80 warships and 300 airplanes. On February 14, Chiang Kai-shek sent the 5th Army, including the 87th and 88th divisions, into Shanghai. On February 20, Japanese bombardments were increased to force the Chinese away from their defensive positions near Miaohang, while commercial and residential districts of the city were set on fire; the Chinese defensive positions deteriorated without naval and armored support, with the number of defenders dwindling to fewer than 50,000.
Japanese forces increased to over a 100,000 troops, backed by naval bombardments. On February 28, after a week of fierce fighting characterized by the stubborn resistance of the Cantonese troops, the Japanese, supported by superior artillery, took the village of Kiangwan, north of Shanghai. On February 29, the Japanese 11th Infantr
Battle of Shanghai
The Battle of Shanghai was the first of the twenty-two major engagements fought between the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China and the Imperial Japanese Army of the Empire of Japan at the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War. It was one of the largest and bloodiest battles of the entire war, described by westerners as "Stalingrad on the Yangtze". Since the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931 followed by the Japanese attack of Shanghai in 1932, there had been ongoing armed conflicts between China and Japan without an official declaration of war; these conflicts escalated in July 1937, when the Marco Polo Bridge Incident triggered the full invasion from Japan. Dogged Chinese resistance at Shanghai was aimed at stalling the rapid Japanese advance, giving much needed time for the Chinese government to move vital industries to the interior, while at the same time attempting to bring sympathetic Western powers to China's side. During the fierce three-month battle and Japanese troops fought in downtown Shanghai, in the outlying towns, on the beaches of the Yangtze River and Hangzhou Bay, where the Japanese had made amphibious landings.
The Chinese soldiers had to rely on small-caliber weapons in their defense of Shanghai, against an overwhelming Japanese onslaught of air and armored striking power. In the end, Shanghai fell, China lost a significant portion of its best troops, while failing to elicit any international intervention; the resistance of Chinese forces, shocked the Japanese, indoctrinated with notions of cultural and martial superiority, demoralized the Imperial Japanese Army. The battle can be divided into three stages, involved nearly one million troops; the first stage lasted from August 13 to August 22, 1937, during which the NRA attempted to eradicate Japanese troop presence in downtown Shanghai. The second stage lasted from August 23 to October 26, 1937, during which the Japanese launched amphibious landings on the Jiangsu coast and the two armies fought a Stalingrad-type house-to-house battle, with the Japanese attempting to gain control of the city and the surrounding regions; the last stage, ranging from October 27 to the end of November 1937, involved the retreat of the Chinese army in the face of Japanese flanking maneuvers, the ensuing combat on the road to China's capital, Nanjing.
On 9 August, Lieutenant Isao Ōyama of the Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces came speeding in a car up to the gate of Hongqiao Airport. As he was stopped by a Chinese guard, the lieutenant attempted to drive past the gate; the guard stopped him again and Oyama shot and killed the guard. Other Chinese guards returned Lieutenant Oyama was killed in the shootout. Access to Hongqiao Airport was a violation of the terms agreed by China and Japan under the terms of the ceasefire signed in 1932, it is still unknown. The incident heightened the tensions between the Japanese forces in Shanghai. On 10 August, the Japanese Consul General demanded that the Chinese withdraw the Peace Preservation Corps and dismantle their defense works around the city, he made it clear that the Imperial Japanese Army regarded the shooting of a Japanese officer as humiliating, that any further incident would escalate the situation. In response to the incident, the Japanese began sending in reinforcements to Shanghai. Facing the increasing Japanese military presence in Shanghai, Chinese troops were being deployed to the Shanghai area beginning on 11 August.
On 12 August, representatives from the United Kingdom, United States and Italy along with Japan and China participated in the joint conference held in Shanghai to discuss the ceasefire terms. Japan demanded the withdrawal of Chinese troops from Shanghai, while the Chinese representative Yu Hung-chun dismissed the Japanese demand, stating that the terms of ceasefire have been violated by Japan; the major powers did not wish to see another January 28 Incident, which disrupted foreign economic activities in Shanghai. On the other hand, Chinese citizens feverishly welcomed the presence of Chinese troops in the city. In Nanjing and Japanese representatives met for the last time for final efforts at negotiation; the Japanese demanded that the Chinese withdraw all Peace Preservation Corps from Shanghai and all regular troops from the vicinities of the city. The Chinese insisted that the Japanese demand of a unilateral Chinese withdrawal was unacceptable since the two countries were fighting a war in North China.
At last Mayor Yu made it clear that at most the Chinese government would concede that the Chinese troops would not fire unless fired upon. Japan on the other hand placed all responsibility on China because of Chinese deployment of troops around Shanghai. Negotiation was impossible and there was no alternative other than the spread of war into Central China. Around 9 am on August 13, the Chinese Peace Preservation Corps exchanged small arms fire with Japanese troops in the Zhabei and Jiangwan districts of Shanghai. At about 3 pm the Japanese army crossed over the Bazi Bridge in Zhabei District and attacked various centers in the city; the 88th Division retaliated with mortar attacks. Sporadic shooting continued through the day until 4 pm, when Japanese headquarters ordered ships of the Third Fleet stationed in the Yangtze and the Huangpu River to open fire on Chinese positions in the city. Late that night, Chiang Kai-shek ordered Zhang Zhizhong to begin Chinese offensive operations the next day.
The next morning the Republic of China Air Force began bombing various Japanese targets and Chinese ground forces attacked at 3 pm. On the same day, August 14, the Chinese g
Pacification of Manchukuo
The Pacification of Manchukuo was a Japanese anti-insurgency campaign during the Second Sino-Japanese War to suppress any armed resistance to the newly established puppet state of Manchukuo from various anti-Japanese volunteer armies in occupied Manchuria and the Communist Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army. The operations were carried out by the Imperial Japanese Kwantung Army and the collaborationist forces of the Manchukuo government from March 1932 until 1942, resulted in a Japanese victory; the earliest formation of large Anti-Japanese partisan groups occurred in Liaoning and Kirin provinces due to the poor performance of the Fengtien Army in the first month of the Japanese invasion of Manchuria and to Japan's rapid success in removing and replacing the provincial authority in Fengtien and Kirin. The provincial government of Liaoning Province had fled west to Chinchow. Governor Zang Shiyi remained in Mukden, but refused to cooperate with the Japanese in establishing a separatist and collaborationist government and was imprisoned.
The Kwantung Army issued a proclamation on 21 September 1931 installing Colonel Kenji Doihara as Mayor of Mukden. On 23 September 1931, Lieutenant General Xi Qia of the Kirin Army was invited by the Japanese to form a provisional government for Kirin Province. In Kirin, the Japanese succeeded in achieving a bloodless occupation of the capital. General Xi Qia issued a proclamation on 30 September, declaring the province independent of the Republic of China under protection of the Japanese Army. On 24 September 1931, a provisional government was formed in Fengtien with Yuan Chin-hai as Chairman of the "Committee for the Maintenance of Peace and Order". In Harbin, General Chang Ching-hui called a conference on 27 September 1931 to discuss the organization of an "Emergency Committee of the Special District", formed to achieve the secession of Harbin from China; however he was not able to act as much of the area surrounding Harbin was still held by anti-Japanese militias under Generals Ting Chao, Li Du, Feng Zhanhai and others.
Meanwhile, in Mukden, the "North Eastern Administrative Committee" or Self-Government Guiding Board was set up on November 10 under the leadership of Yu Chung-han, a prominent elder statesman of Zhang Xueliang's Government, who favored the autonomy of Manchuria. After the Japanese defeated General Ma Zhanshan and occupied Tsitsihar on 19 November 1931, a local Self-Government Association was established in Heilungkiang Province. After the fall of Chinchow, the independence movement made rapid progress in northern Manchuria, where Colonel Doihara was Chief of Special Services in Harbin. General Chang Ching-hui, upon learning of the defeat of Marshal Zhang Xueliang at Chinchow, agreed to the request of the Self-Government Guiding Board at Mukden and declared the independence of Heilungkiang Province on 7 January 1932. After General Ma Zhanshan had been driven from Tsitsihar by the Japanese in the Jiangqiao Campaign he had retreated northeastward with his beaten and depleted forces and had set up his capital at Hailun.
There he attempted to continue to govern Heilongjiang province. Colonel Kenji Doihara began negotiations with General Ma from his Special Service Office at Harbin, hoping to get him to join the new state of Manchukuo Japan was organizing. Ma continued negotiating with Doihara; the emergence of Chinese resistance to the Japanese occupation of Manchuria in the form of citizen militias, peasant brotherhoods and bandit gangs was facilitated by Japan's success in destroying Zhang Xueliang's government in the region. Most of the Kwantung Army's strength during November 1931 was concentrated against General Ma Zhanshan in north-central Heilungkiang, in December and early January against Zhang Xueliang's remaining army in Chinchow in southwestern Liaoning. Away from the Japanese garrisons in cities and along the railroads, resistance units mustered and free from molestation in late 1931-early 1932; the frontier status of Manchuria, with endemic banditry and activities by opposing warlords, led leading citizens and village authorities to form private militias for the protection of their property and landholdings before the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.
After the start of the Japanese occupation, these militias became partisan bands known as "plain-clothes" men from their lack of uniforms, styled themselves with various names, such as the "Self-Protection Militia", "Anti-Japanese Militia" or "Chinese Volunteers". One of the first such forces to form, called the Courageous Citizens Militia, had been established by November 1931 near the estuary port of Chinchow; these militias operated principally in southern Fengtien, which had half of Manchuria's population and the highest proportion of Han Chinese. Fengtien had come immediately under Japanese control, as most population centers and its capital of Mukden all lay along the tracks of the South Manchuria Railway in the S. M. R. Zone, garrisoned by Kwantung Army troops since long before the conflict. "Peasant brotherhoods" were a traditional form of mutual protection by Chinese small-holders and tenant farmers. Waves of immigrants fleeing the wars of the Warlord era that ravaged north and central China came to Manchuria since 1926 at the rate of one million a year.
These included many peasants belonging to the two predominant brotherhoods, the Red Spear Society and the Big Swords Society, which aided the immigrants in establishing themselves and provided for protection against both bandits and rapacious landlords. The Red Sp