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Bombing of Tokyo

The Bombing of Tokyo was a series of firebombing air raids by the United States Army Air Forces during the Pacific campaigns of World War II. Operation Meetinghouse, conducted on the night of 9–10 March 1945, is regarded as the single most destructive bombing raid in human history. 16 square miles of central Tokyo were destroyed, leaving an estimated 100,000 civilians dead and over one million homeless. The US first mounted a seaborne, small-scale air raid on Tokyo in April 1942. Strategic bombing and urban area bombing began in 1944 after the long-range B-29 Superfortress bomber entered service, first deployed from China and thereafter the Mariana Islands. B-29 raids from those islands began on 17 November 1944, lasted until 15 August 1945, the day of Japanese surrender. Over 50 % of Tokyo's industry was spread out among commercial neighborhoods; some post-war analysts have called the raid a war crime due to the targeting of civilian infrastructure and the ensuing mass loss of civilian life.

The first raid on Tokyo was the Doolittle Raid of 18 April 1942, when sixteen B-25 Mitchells were launched from USS Hornet to attack targets including Yokohama and Tokyo and fly on to airfields in China. The raid was retaliation against the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor; the raid did little damage to Japan's war capability but was a significant propaganda victory for the United States. Launched at longer range than planned when the task force encountered a Japanese picket boat, all of the attacking aircraft either crashed or ditched short of the airfields designated for landing. One aircraft landed in the neutral Soviet Union where the crew was interned, but smuggled over the border into Iran on 11 May 1943. Two crews were captured by the Japanese in occupied China. Three crewmen from these groups were executed; the key development for the bombing of Japan was the B-29 Superfortress strategic bomber, which had an operational range of 3,250 nautical miles and was capable of attacking at high altitude above 30,000 feet, where enemy defenses were weak.

90% of the bombs dropped on the home islands of Japan were delivered by this type of bomber. Once Allied ground forces had captured islands sufficiently close to Japan, airfields were built on those islands and B-29s could reach Japan for bombing missions; the initial raids were carried out by the Twentieth Air Force operating out of mainland China in Operation Matterhorn under XX Bomber Command, but these could not reach Tokyo. Operations from the Northern Mariana Islands commenced in November 1944 after the XXI Bomber Command was activated there; the high-altitude bombing attacks using general-purpose bombs were observed to be ineffective by USAAF leaders due to high winds—later discovered to be the jet stream—which carried the bombs off target. Between May and September 1943, bombing trials were conducted on the Japanese Village set-piece target, located at the Dugway Proving Grounds; these trials demonstrated the effectiveness of incendiary bombs against wood-and-paper buildings, resulted in Curtis LeMay ordering the bombers to change tactics to utilize these munitions against Japan.

The first such raid was against Kobe on 4 February 1945. Tokyo was hit by incendiaries on 25 February 1945 when 174 B-29s flew a high altitude raid during daylight hours and destroyed around 643 acres of the snow-covered city, using 453.7 tons of incendiaries with some fragmentation bombs. After this raid, LeMay ordered the B-29 bombers to attack again but at a low altitude of 5,000 to 9,000 ft and at night, because Japan's anti-aircraft artillery defenses were weakest in this altitude range, the fighter defenses were ineffective at night. LeMay ordered all defensive guns but the tail gun removed from the B-29s so that the aircraft would be lighter and use less fuel. On the night of 9–10 March 1945, 334 B-29s took off to raid with 279 of them dropping 1,665 tons of bombs on Tokyo; the bombs were the 500-pound E-46 cluster bomb which released 38 napalm-carrying M-69 incendiary bomblets at an altitude of 2,000–2,500 ft. The M-69s landed on the ground. A lesser number of M-47 incendiaries were dropped: the M-47 was a 100-pound jelled-gasoline and white phosphorus bomb which ignited upon impact.

In the first two hours of the raid, 226 of the attacking aircraft unloaded their bombs to overwhelm the city's fire defenses. The first B-29s to arrive dropped bombs in a large X pattern centered in Tokyo's densely populated working class district near the docks in both Koto and Chūō city wards on the water; the individual fires caused by the bombs joined to create a general conflagration, which would have been classified as a firestorm but for prevailing winds gusting at 17 to 28 mph. 15.8 square miles of the city were destroyed and some 100,000 people are estimated to have died. A grand total of 282 of the 339 B-29s launched for "Meetinghouse" made it to the target, 27 of which were lost due to being shot down by Japanese air defenses, mechanical failure, or being caught in updrafts caused by the fires. Damage to Tokyo's heavy industry was slight until firebombing destroyed much of the light industry, used as an integral source for small machine parts and time-intensive processes. Firebombing killed or made homeless many workers who had taken part in the war industry.

Over 50% of Tokyo's industry was spread out among residential and commer

Inverloch (webcomic)

Inverloch is a series of five fantasy graphic novels authored by Sarah Ellerton drawn in a cel-shaded manga style. Inverloch was published as a webcomic with new content introduced several pages at a time from 2003 to 2007. Three volumes have seen print with the first three volumes available from IndyPlanet and with the first two published by Seven Seas Entertainment. Inverloch received several nominations in the 2005, 2006 and 2007 Web Cartoonist's Choice Awards, winning the Outstanding Fantasy Comic category in 2005. During its web publication Inverloch was rated at both Topwebcomics and buzzComix online comic rating sites; the story of Inverloch follows the journey of Acheron and his companions to find the whereabouts of the elf Kayn'dar. It was scripted in December 2003, although it was edited and refined throughout its production. Inverloch author Sarah Ellerton was an experienced artist before she began the project, says she chose to create a webcomic as a means of improving her art. Ellerton wrote out the script for the entire comic ahead of time, in December 2003, as a five-volume series.

She began illustrating the comic in June 2004, updating twice a week with several new pages uploaded per update, finished the comic in 2007. After finishing Inverloch, Ellerton began work on a second webcomic, called The Phoenix Requiem; that comic, like Inverloch, has a total of 800 pages. To create each page of Inverloch, Ellerton planned out the panels with sketches on paper and drew and colored them in Adobe Photoshop using a Wacom graphics tablet, she drew each panel individually, rearranging and organizing them in Photoshop. Each page is in book format, the size and shapes of the panels within each page varies. Volume 1 of Inverloch was published in print form on May 15, 2006. Ellerton redrew the first five pages for the published version, saying that the artistic style had changed since those pages were produced. Volume 2 was published on November 15, 2006; the story of Inverloch begins when Acheron, a young da'kor, forms an unlikely friendship with Shiara, an elf. When Shiara reveals to him that her childhood love, Kayn'dar, disappeared twelve years earlier, Acheron promises to find him for her.

When he explains to his mother that he will be leaving, it becomes apparent to him that his mother and uncle all know something about Kayn'dar, but are unwilling to tell him. Before leaving, Acheron visits his uncle Selak, who gives him a pendant, once owned by Kayn'dar. Acheron first sets out to find Lei'ella, an elven woman whom one of the da'kor says can help him find Kayn'dar. While searching for her in the human town of Strathwood, he is assaulted by Berard, a human criminal who captures da'kor to use in gladiatorial fighting rings. At that moment Lei'ella appears and rescues him, after which he explains his goal and she agrees to join him. From there they travel to Rhyll, where Acheron catches a thief named Varden trying to steal from him. At Lei'ella's suggestion, they go to Aydensfell, a city inhabited by humans who have traces of elven blood and study magic; the Archmage of Aydensfell tells Acheron that he should seek someone named Silvah, rather than Kayn'dar, allows a young mage named Neirren to join them.

The group travels to a city called Muirfold to search for Silvah. In the city they split up to ask about his whereabouts, Acheron is captured by Berard, following them. To rescue Acheron and prevent Berard from following them in the future, Varden approaches Berard and requests to fight Acheron in the gladiatorial ring. There, Varden wounds Acheron with a poisoned blade to make him appear dead, kills Berard, they take Acheron out of the city, where he reawakens. From there, the group finds an old watchtower and enters it finding Silvah, a white-haired elf, inside. Silvah explains to them that Kayn'dar had been killed, that he is living in the watchtower to perfect his magical abilities in order to avenge Kayn'dar; the groups leaves the watchtower, Lei'ella explains to the group that because Silvah is a white-haired and golden-eyed elf like her but can still use magic "Silvah" must be Kayn'dar, since before disappearing Kayn'dar had been famous as the only white-haired elf to possess magical powers.

They return to the watchtower to confront Silvah, Lei'ella accuses him of throwing away the only hope for elves such as them. Angered, worried about his secret getting out, Silvah stabs Lei'ella, flees with Raul, the former archmage, now involved in Silvah's plan. Acheron is able to heal her, using Kayn'dar's pendant, which possesses the memories and spirit of Kayn'dar. Once recovered, Lei'ella explains to the group that both she and Kayn'dar are "severed elves": elves who were born without their connection to nature, thus are mortal like humans and unable to use magic. Kayn'dar, was able to use magic as a child, thus had been seen as a savior for the severed elves; the group returns to Aydensfell, the city of mages, the Archmage explains to them that the kidnapping of Kayn'dar had, in fact, been orchestrated by himself and Raul, as an attempt to learn more about elven healing magic. When the experiment had failed, Raul and "Silvah," the personality that inhabited Kayn'dar's body, had left and become recluses.

Acheron, Lei'ella and Neirren decide to go back to the forest of Inverloch and seek aid

René Redzepi

René Redzepi is a Danish chef and co-owner of the two-Michelin star restaurant Noma in the Christianshavn neighborhood of Copenhagen, Denmark. His restaurant was voted the best restaurant in the world by Restaurant magazine's World's Best Restaurants in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2014. Redzepi is noted for his work on the reinvention and refinement of a new Nordic cuisine and food, characterized by inventiveness and clean flavours. Redzepi was born in Copenhagen, Denmark, to an immigrant father from the Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and a Danish mother, his father is of Albanian ethnic descent. When he was young, Redzepi's family moved to Macedonia and lived in Tetovo, a predominantly ethnic Albanian area, until 1992 - the start of the Yugoslav wars. Redzepi has said he found life in Macedonia enjoyable compared to his time in a small apartment in a not so-great neighborhood in Denmark. In Macedonia, Redzepi lived in a rural area in a large multi-generation house where they ate locally sourced food vegetarian, healthy.

After the family moved back to Denmark, Redzepi spent his summers in Yugoslavia when he was young. Redzepi has Kenneth Redzepi, he and his brother had multiple newspaper delivery services, working for a local store so that they could contribute to the family's income. When he was 15 years old, Redzepi left high school, he enrolled in a cooking school with a friend. After choosing a culinary career, Redzepi trained at a local family-owned Michelin starred restaurant called Pierre André in Copenhagen, where he had an apprenticeship that lasted 4 years; when he was 19 years old, he went to work at Le Jardin des Sens in Montpellier in Southern France. Redzepi first visited El Bulli as a guest in 1998 and subsequently worked there during the 1999 season. Back in Copenhagen, Redzepi started working at Kong Hans Kælder, one of the city's leading gourmet restaurants since the mid-1970s. In 2001 he spent four months working under Thomas Keller at The French Laundry in California, but returned to Kong Hans Kælder and Copenhagen.

In December 2002, when he was 24 years old, Redzepi was contacted by Claus Meyer, offered to operate a restaurant at the North Atlantic House, a former 18th-century warehouse, being turned into a cultural centre for the North Atlantic region. The restaurant, was opened in 2004 with Redzepi as the head chef; the name is a combination of the Danish words nordisk, which means Nordic, mad, which means food. Redzepi sources much of his food does research by foraging for food in the wild, he said that this comes from his time living in Macedonia, where food was fresh. Much of the approach to the menu and food at Noma is based on seasonal themes of what is available at the time. Redzepi focuses on fermentation and dehydration, experimenting with using as much of the plants and fish as possible. Redzepi is married to chef Nadine Levy Redzepi, who grew up in Denmark, they have three daughters. 2006: The World's 50 Best Restaurants, Restaurant – 33rd Best Restaurant in the World 2007: The World's 50 Best Restaurants, Restaurant – 15th Best Restaurant in the World 2008: The World's 50 Best Restaurants, Restaurant – 10th Best Restaurant in the World 2008: TripAdvisor, Best restaurant in the world 2008: Lo Mejor de la Gastronomia conference, International Chef of the Year 2008–present: Michelin Guide – two stars 2009: The World's 50 Best Restaurants, Restaurant – 3rd Best Restaurant in the World 2009: The World's 50 Best Restaurants, Restaurant – Chefs' Choice 2010: The World's 50 Best Restaurants, Restaurant – Best Restaurant in the World 2011: The World's 50 Best Restaurants, Restaurant – Best Restaurant in the World 2012: The World's 50 Best Restaurants, Restaurant – Best Restaurant in the World 2012: TIMES 2012 100 Most Influential People in the World 2013: The World's 50 Best Restaurants, Restaurant – 2nd Best Restaurant in the World 2014: The World's 50 Best Restaurants, Restaurant – Best Restaurant in the World 2015: The World's 50 Best Restaurants, Restaurant – 3rd Best Restaurant in the World 2016: The Catey Awards International Outstanding Achievement 2016: Bestowed Knight of The Order of the Dannebrog 2016: The World's 50 Best Restaurants, Restaurant – 5th Best Restaurant in the World 2019: The World's 50 Best Restaurants, Restaurant – 2nd Best Restaurant in the World 2008: The Great British Menu – 1 episode: Heston Blumenthal's Dinner at the Gherkin 2008: Noma: A Boiling Point / Noma pa Kogepunktet 2009: MasterChef – 1 episode: Episode #5.32 2010: Three Stars 2010: MasterChef: The Professionals – 1 episode: Episode #3.16 2010: Noma at Boiling Point 2012: Anthony Bourdain: No Reservations – 1 episode: Japan: Cook It Raw 2012: The Mind of a Chef – 3 episodes: Rene, Buddies 2013: La última película 2014: Finding Gaston 2015: Noma: My Perfect Storm 2016: Ants on a Shrimp 2016: Noma: Australia – 3 episodes: Episode #1.1, Episode #1.2, Episode #1.3 2018: How to Dine at René Redzepi's new noma 2018: Ugly Delicious – 3 episodes: Tacos, Homecooking, BBQ Redzepi, René.

Henrik Kerrn-Jespersen. Noma: Nordisk Mad. Denmark: Politiken. ISBN 978-87-567-7539-7. OCLC 475466661. Redzepi, René. Kerrn-Jespersen, Henrik. Noma: Nordic Cuisine. Denmark: Politikens Forlag. ISBN 978-87-567-8333-0. OCLC 859381695. Redzepi, René.

Lo malo

"Lo malo" is a song by Spanish singers Aitana and Ana Guerra written in English language under name "Boy No Good" by Jess Morgan and Will Simms and adapted into Spanish language by Brisa Fenoy. It was first released on January 28, 2018 as one of the candidate songs to represent Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 2018, but it finished in third place and "Tu canción" was selected. A revamped version was released on April 6, 2018; the single received a fivefold platinum certification. A remix version featuring Argentine singer Tini Stoessel and Colombian singer Greeicy Rendón was released on August 24, 2018. On 4 December 2017, the Spanish broadcaster Televisión Española confirmed that they would use the successful music reality program Operación Triunfo to select their act for the Eurovision Song Contest 2018, it was revealed on 20 December that the final five singers of the program's ninth series would perform in "Gala Eurovisión", which would be where the Spanish public would choose both the song and its performers for the Eurovision Song Contest.

The nine competing songs were unveiled on 23 January 2018. "Lo malo" was first presented as "Chico malo", but the song's title was changed two days because of copyright issues. Gala Eurovisión was held on 29 January. "Lo malo" was one of the top three songs in the first round of voting, qualifying to the second round where it placed third with 26% of the vote. The Spanish branch of OGAE, the international fan club of the Eurovision Song Contest, selected “Lo malo” to represent Spain in the visual event OGAE Second Chance Contest in 2018. In addition to the versions of Aitana and Ana Guerra there are different recordings of the song performed by other artists, including Christian Villanueva, Jordan Boyd, Paula Muñoz with Nuria Gomez, Miami Beatz among others. A version with the original lyrics in English is being recorded, performed by singers Juanma Rios, Javier Alfaro and Lupe Sarrini; the recording will be titled "Boy No Good" as registered at Broadcast Music, Inc.. On 8 March 2018, protest signs featuring lyrics from "Lo malo" were used in International Women's Day demonstrations across Spain as the song deals with women's empowerment against machismo.

In April 2018, Inditex-owned brand Stradivarius released a T-shirt inspired by the song, sold out in less than twenty four hours


Vailimia is a genus of Asian jumping spiders, first described by C. F. Kammerer in 2006, it was first described in 1907 from a single male about 6 millimetres long. It was thought to be close to Harmochirus, but the male pedipalp and cephalothorax drawn by Proszynski in 1984, information gained from collected specimens indicates otherwise. Subsequently, three more species have been identified, it may be a synonym for Pancorius. The genus was named Vailima after the name of the last residence of Robert Louis Stevenson and the village where it is situated. However, the name was misspelled Vailimia by Prószyński in 2003, it was subsequently renamed to Vailimia in Vailima. The original name Vailima was used by Peckham & Peckham in 1907. Most species are found in Borneo; as of August 2019 it contains four species, found in Asia: Vailimia bakoensis Prószyński & Deeleman-Reinhold, 2013 – Borneo Vailimia jianyuae Prószyński & Deeleman-Reinhold, 2013 – Borneo Vailimia longitibia Guo, Zhang & Zhu, 2011 – China Vailimia masinei – Borneo Prószyński, J..

"Atlas rysunków diagnostycznych mniej znanych Salticidae". Wyzsza Szkola Rolniczo-Pedagogiczna, Siedlcach. 2: 1–177

Maltepe railway station

Maltepe station is located in Maltepe, İstanbul. The station is 14.3 km east from Haydarpaşa Terminal and is located directly southeast of the historical city center of Maltepe. The station has 2 platforms for 2 freight platforms; the Haydarpaşa-Gebze Line and the Haydarpaşa-Adapazarı Regional service the station, as intercity trains skip Maltepe. The station was opened in 1872 by the Ottoman Government as part of a railway from İstanbul to İzmit; the government sold the station to the Anatolian Railway in 1888, taken over by the Turkish State Railways in 1927. The station used to be a main freight depot, but when the branch line serving the Maltepe military pier was abandoned freight operations declined greatly. Maltepe station information Adapazarı regional train timetables Eastbound Haydarpaşa commuter service Westbound Haydarpaşa commuter service