Bonanza is an American western television series that ran on NBC from September 12, 1959, to January 16, 1973. Lasting 14 seasons and 431 episodes, Bonanza is NBC's longest-running western, ranks overall as the second-longest-running western series on U. S. network television, within the top 10 longest-running, live-action American series. The show continues to air in syndication; the show is set in the 1860s and it centers on the wealthy Cartwright family who live in the vicinity of Virginia City, bordering Lake Tahoe. The series starred Lorne Greene, Pernell Roberts, Dan Blocker and Michael Landon and featured Guy Williams, David Canary, Mitch Vogel and Tim Matheson; the show is known for presenting pressing moral dilemmas. The title "Bonanza" is a term used by miners in regard to a large vein or deposit of silver ore, from Spanish bonanza and refers to the 1859 revelation of the Comstock Lode of rich silver ore mines under the town of Virginia City, not far from the fictional Ponderosa Ranch that the Cartwright family operated.

The show's theme song titled "Bonanza", became a hit song. Only instrumental renditions, absent Ray Evans' lyrics, were used during the series's long run. In 2002, Bonanza was ranked No. 43 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time, in 2013 TV Guide included it in its list of The 60 Greatest Dramas of All Time. The time period for the television series is between 1861 and 1867 during and shortly after the American Civil War. During the summer of 1972, NBC aired reruns of episodes from the 1967–1970 period in prime time on Tuesday evening under the title Ponderosa; the show chronicles the weekly adventures of the Cartwright family, headed by the thrice-widowed patriarch Ben Cartwright. He had three sons, each by a different wife: the eldest was the urbane architect Adam Cartwright who built the ranch house. Via exposition and flashback episodes, each wife was accorded a different ancestry: English and French Creole respectively; the family's cook was Chinese immigrant Hop Sing. Greene, Roberts and Landon were billed equally.

The family lived on a thousand square-mile ranch called the Ponderosa on the eastern shore of Lake Tahoe in Nevada opposite California on the edge of the Sierra Nevada range. The vast size of the Cartwrights' land was revised to "half a million acres" on Lorne Greene's 1964 song, "Saga of the Ponderosa." The ranch name refers to common in the West. The nearest town to the Ponderosa was Virginia City, where the Cartwrights would go to converse with Sheriff Roy Coffee, or his deputy Clem Foster. Bonanza was considered an atypical western for its time, as the core of the storylines dealt less about the range but more with Ben and his three dissimilar sons, how they cared for one another, their neighbors, just causes. "You always saw stories about family on comedies or on an anthology, but Bonanza was the first series, week-to-week about a family and the troubles it went through. Bonanza was a period drama; that was difficult to do on television. Most shows that tried to do it failed because the sponsors didn't like it, the networks were nervous about getting letters", explains Stephen Battaglio, a senior editor for TV Guide magazine.

Episodes ranged from high drama, to broad comedy, addressed issues such as the environment, substance abuse, domestic violence, anti-war sentiment, illegitimate births. The series sought to illustrate the cruelty of bigotry against: Asians, African-Americans, Native Americans, Jews,; the Cartwrights tended to be depicted as put-off by outsiders. Lorne Greene objected to this, pointing out that as the area's largest timber and livestock producer, the family should be less clannish; the producers changed the Cartwrights to be more amiable. Though not familiar stars in 1959, the cast became favorites of the first television generation; the order of billing at the beginning of the broadcast appeared to be shuffled randomly each week, with no relation whatsoever to the current episode featured that week. The main cast of actors portraying Cartwrights is listed here in the order of their characters' ages, followed by an array of recurring supporting players: Born in Ottawa, Canada, to Russian-Jewish parents, Lorne Gree

Mt. Edgecumbe High School

Mt. Edgecumbe High School is a public boarding high school in Sitka, Alaska in the United States. Located on Japonski Island, across Sitka Harbor from the northwestern corner of downtown Sitka, the school is situated on a portion of Sitka's former World War II-era military installations. Established in 1947 after the military abandoned the area, the school was operated by the federal Bureau of Indian Affairs as part of a network of boarding high schools, which included schools in Eklutna and Wrangell. After several decades of operation by the BIA, the school was closed in the 1980s before being reopened by the Alaska Department of Education, which operates it today. For administrative and statistical purposes, MEHS is considered by the state to be a school district, albeit one consisting of only one school; the enrollment was 421 students as of October 1, 2014. The student body, both in its former and current incarnations, is predominately from rural Alaska. For a time, until the resolution of the Tobeluk v. Lind lawsuit and the subsequent construction of K–12 schools in most rural communities, MEHS was one of the few viable options many rural students had to obtain a high school education, as BIA schools in rural villages only provided schooling until the eighth grade.

Today, the school still attracts rural residents students from communities too small to qualify for state school funding, plus exceptional athletes who seek to develop their skills beyond what competition their local school districts can provide. The school is named for Mount Edgecumbe, located on Kruzof Island, a 3,077 feet high dormant volcano visible from the campus; the mountain, in turn, was named for George, Earl of Edgecumbe, by British Captain James Cook in 1778. Outside of the school year, the campus has hosted summer camps such as the Sitka Fine Arts Camp, now located on the campus of the defunct Sheldon Jackson College. Mt. Edgecumbe was established on Japonski Island in Sitka in 1947 on the then-recently deserted Sitka World War II installation, it was administered by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and, along with Native Alaskan boarding schools in others parts of the state, helped educate today's leaders from rural areas. In fact, there are several MEHS graduates in the current Alaska Legislature.

In the 1980s, the school was closed for a year before being transferred to the State of Alaska, which has administered the institution since. The Alaska State Board of Education serves as the school board for Mt. Edgecumbe High School. Mt. Edgecumbe is known for developing educationally-disadvantaged students from rural Alaska. Ninety percent of its students attend universities and college after graduation. All students are required to learn a non-indigenous second language Chinese or Japanese. Students are required to familiarize themselves with an array of technologies, to participate in the academic environment. MEHS faculty are each in charge of an "extended families" scheme made up of groups of students; the faculty members eat dinner with their students at the school cafeteria every Thursday to help build personal connections with students and help strengthen the community at the school. MEHS is known for its unique and emphasized science program, which includes a high-level genetics program.

IBM offers internships to graduating students. Mt. Edgecumbe's sports teams are known as the Braves, for male athletes, the Lady Braves for female athletes; the school is recognized for both its boys' and girls' basketball teams. MEHS, classified as a 3A school by the Alaska School Activities Association, has made repeated runs to state championships with its basketball teams; the Lady Braves program has done exceptionally well in region play. In the 2008-2009 season, the Lady Braves made the school's first appearance at a state basketball championship game, playing Anchorage Christian Schools losing 32-28. In 2010, the Lady Braves captured the school's first state basketball championship after defeating ACS 32-26. In 2014, the Lady Braves made a repeat appearance at the state championship losing to ACS. Besides basketball, its competitive drama and forensic team has been successful at the state level, winning a state championship in drama in 2004, the school has produced many quality wrestling and volleyball teams as well.

In recent years, the Lady Braves volleyball team has been successful. Since 2005 they have finished as the Class 3A State runner-up three times, won state championships in 2011 and 2012. Edgecumbe was known for its running, their last regional championship was in 2008. In 2011 and 2014, the Lady Braves volleyball team took first place. All wrestling matches and basketball games are played at the B. J. McGillis Field House, a former World War II-era aircraft hangar. Being one of the larger sports venues in Southeast Alaska, rivalry games and region championships hold crowds exceeding 1,500 spectators; the site boasts standard bleachers, reserved seating, a press box, a climbing wall, wrestling mats, a weight training center. It is the only school in the region with a gymnasium large enough to hold two basketball courts. MEHS's traditional rivals include its cross-town 3A rival Sitka High School and other 3A rival, Petersburg High School in Petersburg. In the scho

1943 New York state election

The 1943 New York state election was held on November 2, 1943, to elect the Lieutenant Governor and a judge of the New York Court of Appeals. On April 30, 1943, Edward R. Finch resigned from the Court of Appeals. On May 12, Governor Thomas E. Dewey appointed Thomas D. Thacher to fill the vacancy temporarily. On July 17, 1943, Lieutenant Governor Thomas W. Wallace died, Temporary President of the State Senate Joe R. Hanley became Acting Lieutenant Governor; the question arose how to proceed. The wording of the 1937 amendment to the State Constitution, which had increased the terms in office of the assemblymen to two years, of the statewide elected officers to four years left the question in doubt; the New York Supreme Court at Albany ruled on August 14. This was upheld by the Court of Appeals unanimously on August 19; the Republican State Committee met on August 24 at New York. They nominated Joe R. Hanley for Lieutenant Governor; the Democratic State Committee met on August 24. They nominated Lt. Gen. William N. Haskell for Lieutenant Governor.

The American Labor State Committee met on August 21 at the Hotel Claridge in New York City and tentatively nominated Ex-State Comptroller Joseph V. O'Leary for Lieutenant Governor, Leo J. Rosett for the Court of Appeals; the committee met again on August 25 and endorsed the Democratic nominee Haskell and the Republican and Democratic nominee Thacher. The Republican ticket was elected; this was the last special election for Lieutenant Governor. Governor Dewey criticized the ruling of the Court of Appeals, saying that the special election of a lieutenant governor was incompatible with the 1937 amendment. To press his view, he recommended to the New York State Legislature to amend the State Constitution again. In November 1945, an amendment was adopted which prohibited special elections for lieutenant governor saying that "no election of a lieutenant governor shall be had in any event, except at the time of electing a governor," and that "the temporary president of the senate in office or his successor as such temporary president shall perform all the duties of lieutenant-governor...during such vacancy..."

New York state elections