John Wayne Airport
John Wayne Airport is an international airport in Orange County, United States, with its mailing address in the city of Santa Ana, hence the IATA airport code. The entrance to the airport is off MacArthur Blvd in Irvine, the city that borders the airport on the north and east. Newport Beach and Costa Mesa form the southern and western boundaries along with a small unincorporated area along the Corona del Mar Freeway. Santa Ana is just north, not touching the airport. Named Orange County Airport, the county Board of Supervisors renamed it in 1979 to honor actor John Wayne, who lived in neighboring Newport Beach and died that year; the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015 categorized it as a primary commercial service airport since it has over 10,000 passenger boardings per year. Federal Aviation Administration records say the airport had 4,584,147 enplanements in calendar year 2014, an increase from 4,450,628 in 2013. John Wayne International Airport is the sole commercial airport in Orange County.
General aviation operations outnumber commercial operations and several facilities at the airport serve the general aviation and corporate aviation community. The other general aviation airport in the county is Fullerton Municipal Airport. Other commercial airports nearby are Hollywood Burbank Airport, Long Beach Airport, Los Angeles International Airport and Ontario International Airport. In 2014, John Wayne Airport was the second busiest airport in the Greater Los Angeles area with over 9 million total passengers; as of 2015, the largest airlines at John Wayne Airport were Southwest Airlines, American Airlines, United Airlines, Alaska Airlines, Delta Air Lines. The main runway, at 5,701 feet, is one of the shortest of any major airport in the United States, passenger airliners at the airport have never been larger than the Boeing 757; some gates are built to handle planes up to the size of a Boeing 767, which could operate with payload/fuel load restrictions. No wide-body passenger airliners have been scheduled at SNA.
John Wayne Airport is 14 miles from Orange County's main attraction – the Disneyland Resort. A statue of John Wayne, the airport's eponym, welcomes passengers in the arrivals area on the lower level; the first airstrip on the grounds was constructed in 1923, when Eddie Martin signed a five-year lease with James Irvine to operate a flying school on land owned by the Irvine Company. It was purchased through a land swap by the County of Orange in 1939 and remains under the county's ownership and management. Martin added the first hangar in 1926. In 1935 Howard Hughes staged his world speed record-setting flight from the Eddie Martin Airport. With the opening of the Santa Ana Army Air Base in 1942, the adjacent Martin Field was temporarily closed. After serving as a military base during World War II, the Santa Ana Army Airfield was returned by the federal government to the County with the stipulation that it remain open to all kinds of aviation uses. In addition to continuing to serve aviation, the field became an important drag racing center.
From 1950 to 1959, C. J. "Pappy" Hart and Creighton Hunter operated the Santa Ana Drag Strip, credited for being the world's first commercial drag strip, on the airport runway every Sunday, when it was closed to air traffic. The original single runway was 4,800 feet long, on a magnetic heading of 30 degrees. In 1964 the airport was rebuilt, with its present two parallel runway configuration, oriented 190/10 degrees magnetic; the longer runway, 19R, at 5,701 feet, is only 901 feet longer than the old Runway 21 but long enough to accommodate jet airliners. A full instrument landing system was installed. In the 1950s the only airline flights were Bonanza's few flights between Los Angeles and Phoenix, via San Diego. In 1963 Bonanza started nonstop F27s to Phoenix, to Las Vegas in 1965; the first scheduled jet flights were Bonanza DC-9s in 1967. In 1967 the 22,000-square-foot Eddie Martin Terminal was built to accommodate 400,000 annual passengers. Remodeling added two passenger holding areas in 1974, a new baggage claim area in 1980 and a terminal annex building in 1982, bringing the facility to 29,000 square feet.
Nonstop flights reached Salt Lake City in 1976–77, Denver in 1982, Dallas/Fort Worth in 1983, Chicago in 1986, New York Kennedy in 1991. After the Orange County Airport was renamed John Wayne Airport in 1979, the John Wayne Associates commissioned sculptor Robert Summers to create a bronze statue of "the Duke." The 9-foot statue, created at Hoka Hey Foundry in Dublin, was dedicated to the County on November 4, 1982. Today, the bronze statue is in the Thomas F. Riley Terminal on the Arrival Level. In 1990, the Thomas F. Riley Terminal opened; the aging 29,000-square-foot Eddie Martin Terminal was replaced with a modern 337,900-square-foot facility. The new facility included 14 loading bridges, four baggage carousels, wide open spaces and distinct roadside arrival and departure levels. In 1994, the then-unused Eddie Martin Terminal was demolished. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, a new, larger airport was proposed for the nearby site of the recently closed El Toro Marine Corps Air Station. However, after a series of political battles, combined with significant opposition from residents in the vicinity of El Toro
The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing propeller-driven airliner that revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s. Its lasting effect on the airline industry and World War II makes it one of the most significant transport aircraft produced, it has a cruise speed of 207 mph, capacity of 21 to 32 passengers or 6,000 lbs of cargo and a range of 1,500 mi. The DC-3 is a twin-engine metal monoplane with a tailwheel-type landing gear and was developed as a larger, improved 14-bed sleeper version of the Douglas DC-2, it had many exceptional qualities compared to previous aircraft. It had good range and could operate from short runways, it carried passengers in greater comfort. Before the war it pioneered many air travel routes, it made worldwide flights possible. It is considered the first airliner. Civil DC-3 production ended in 1942 at 607 aircraft. Military versions, including the C-47 Skytrain, Russian- and Japanese-built versions, brought total production to over 16,000. Following the war, the airliner market was flooded with surplus C-47s and other ex-military transport aircraft, Douglas' attempts to produce an upgraded DC-3 failed due to cost.
Post-war, the DC-3 was made obsolete on main routes by more advanced types such as the Douglas DC-6 and Lockheed Constellation, but the design proved exceptionally adaptable and useful. Large numbers continue to see service in a wide variety of niche roles well into the 21st century. In 2013 it was estimated that 2,000 DC-3s and military derivatives were still flying, a testament to the durability of the design. "DC" stands for "Douglas Commercial". The DC-3 was the culmination of a development effort that began after an inquiry from Transcontinental and Western Airlines to Donald Douglas. TWA's rival in transcontinental air service, United Airlines, was starting service with the Boeing 247 and Boeing refused to sell any 247s to other airlines until United's order for 60 aircraft had been filled. TWA asked Douglas to build an aircraft that would allow TWA to compete with United. Douglas' design, the 1933 DC-1, was promising, led to the DC-2 in 1934; the DC-2 was a success. The DC-3 resulted from a marathon telephone call from American Airlines CEO C. R. Smith to Donald Douglas, when Smith persuaded a reluctant Douglas to design a sleeper aircraft based on the DC-2 to replace American's Curtiss Condor II biplanes.
Douglas agreed to go ahead with development only after Smith informed him of American's intention to purchase twenty aircraft. The new aircraft was engineered by a team led by chief engineer Arthur E. Raymond over the next two years, the prototype DST first flew on December 17, 1935, its cabin was 92 in wide, a version with 21 seats instead of the 14–16 sleeping berths of the DST was given the designation DC-3. There was no prototype DC-3; the DC-3 and DST popularized air travel in the United States. Eastbound transcontinental flights could cross the U. S. in about 15 hours with three refueling stops. A few years earlier such a trip entailed short hops in slower and shorter-range aircraft during the day, coupled with train travel overnight. A variety of radial engines were available for the DC-3. Early-production civilian aircraft used Wright R-1820 Cyclone 9s, but aircraft used the Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp, which gave better high-altitude and single-engine performance. Five DC-3S Super DC-3s with Pratt & Whitney R-2000 Twin Wasps were built in the late 1940s, three of which entered airline service.
Total production of all variants was 16,079. More than 400 remained in commercial service in 1998. Production was as follows: 607 civil variants of the DC-3. Production of DSTs ended in mid-1941 and civil DC-3 production ended in early 1943, although dozens of DSTs and DC-3s ordered by airlines that were produced between 1941 and 1943 were impressed into the US military while still on the production line. Military versions were produced until the end of the war in 1945. A larger, more powerful Super DC-3 was launched in 1949 to positive reviews; the civilian market, was flooded with second-hand C-47s, many of which were converted to passenger and cargo versions. Only five Super DC-3s were built, three of them were delivered for commercial use; the prototype Super DC-3 served the U. S. Navy with the designation YC-129 alongside 100 R4Ds, upgraded to the Super DC-3 specification. From the early 1950s, some DC-3s were modified to use Rolls-Royce Dart engines, as in the Conroy Turbo Three. Other conversions featured Armstrong Siddeley Pratt & Whitney PT6A turbines.
The Greenwich Aircraft Corp DC-3-TP is a conversion with an extended fuselage and with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-65AR or PT6A-67R engines fitted. The Basler BT-67 is a conversion of the DC-3/C-47. Basler refurbishes C-47s and DC-3s at Oshkosh, fitting them with Pratt & Whitney Ca
Hughes Airwest was an airline in the western United States, backed by the Summa Corporation of Howard Hughes. The original name for the airline was Air West. Hughes Airwest flew routes in the western U. S. and to several destinations in Canada. Its headquarters were on the grounds of San Francisco International Airport in unincorporated San Mateo County, California. On April 17, 1968, three "local service" airlines in the western U. S. merged to form Air West: Pacific Air Lines, which operated as Southwest Airways when it was founded in 1941, was based in San Francisco and flew along the coast and California's Central Valley, linking cities from Medford, Oregon, to Southern California. Pacific operated Boeing 727-100s and Fairchild F-27s in 1968. Bonanza Air Lines routes reached west from its Phoenix base to Southern California and north to Las Vegas and Salt Lake City. Bonanza flew Douglas DC-9-10s and Fairchild F-27s in 1968, with a McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30 on order, delivered after the merger.
West Coast Airlines, based at Boeing Field in Seattle, served the Pacific Northwest, Utah and northern California. West Coast operated Douglas DC-9-10s, Fairchild F-27s and Piper Navajos in 1968; the initial Air West fleet included Boeing 727-100s, Douglas DC-9s, Fairchild F-27s, Piper Navajos. The first new addition to the Air West fleet was a McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30, ordered by Bonanza Air Lines. Hungry for another adventure in the airline industry, TWA's former owner Howard Hughes sought the airline in 1968, the deal was finalized in 1970; the airline was renamed Hughes Air West and its call sign became "Hughes Air." It expanded to several cities in the western United States and Mexico. With the new yellow paint scheme, unveiled 28 September 1971, the airline began calling itself Hughes Airwest, two words instead of the initial three word name; the airline participated in some movies in the 1970s, notably The Gauntlet with Clint Eastwood and Sondra Locke in 1977. Eastwood's character arrives in Las Vegas from Phoenix on the airline and when he phones the airport for flight departure times, Locke's character sarcastically called the airline, "Air Worst."
In 1977, the airline was operating service from both Burbank and Orange County to Denver via an interchange flight agreement with the original Frontier Airlines. Hughes Airwest would subsequently introduce its own jet service to Denver from a number of cities in the western U. S. Like other local service airlines in the 1970s, Hughes Airwest eliminated many stops and opened longer routes. Service expanded to resorts in Mexico. Hughes Airwest became an all-jet airline with Boeing 727-200s, Douglas DC-9-10s and McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30s when it ended Fairchild F-27 turboprop flights in 1979. In September 1979 the airline was grounded for two months by a walkout by their ticket agents, reservations handlers, office employees, without a contract for over a year. During 1979 several airlines showed interest in buying Hughes Airwest, including Alaska and Allegheny, with the latter soon becoming USAir; the strike was resolved in late October and flights resumed in November. Four months they were the target of a buyout by Republic Airlines, finalized on October 1, 1980, for $38.5 million.
Republic had been formed in July 1979 via the merger of North Central Airlines and Southern Airways, the first under airline deregulation. Republic was acquired by Northwest Airlines in 1986, which in turn was merged into Delta Air Lines in 2010; the original headquarters were in two buildings in downtown San Mateo, California, on the San Francisco peninsula. Its new headquarters were located in San Mateo; the airline scheduled the move to a new headquarters from Thursday August 25, 1973, to August 28, 1973. The complex was on a hill overlooking San Francisco Bay; the airline relocated two departments from the offices at San Francisco International Airport: flight control and reservations. Hughes Airwest's planes were recognizable by their banana-yellow tail colors, their airplanes were dubbed "flying bananas" and the airline launched an advertising campaign with the catchphrase "Top Banana in the West." Most nicknames given to Hughes Airwest airplanes in aviation books and magazines have to do with bananas.
Apart from their all-yellow scheme, the airplanes featured a blue logo on the vertical stabilizer that resembled three diamonds connected. The name Hughes Airwest, in stylized lettering, was featured unconventionally below the front passenger windows; this livery was devised by the southern California design firm of Mario Armond Zamparelli, following the crash of Flight 706 in June 1971, caused by a mid-air collision with a U. S. Marine Corps F-4B jet fighter near Duarte, California. In late 1971, the company launched a new marketing campaign which included new colors and repainted planes; the cabin windows had a metallized PET film coating but this proved too costly to maintain. Zamparelli designed the uniforms of the flight attendants in the new colors in Sundance Yellow trimmed with Universe Blue. After the sale in October 1980 the all-yellow paint scheme was replaced by Republic's white with blue and green trim, the mallard "Herman the Duck." Douglas DC-9-14/15/31/32 - 49 (includes 17 Douglas DC-9-10s and 32 McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30s.
Bonanza Air Lines and West Coast Airlines both operated DC-9-10s when they merge
Kingman is a city in and the county seat of Mohave County, United States. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city is 28,068; the nearby communities of Butler, Golden Valley bring the Kingman area total population to over 45,000. Kingman is located about 105 miles southeast of Las Vegas and about 165 miles northwest of the state capital, Phoenix. Lt. Edward Fitzgerald Beale, a U. S. Navy officer in the service of the U. S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers, was ordered by the U. S. War Department to build a federal wagon road across the 35th Parallel, his secondary orders were to test the feasibility of the use of camels as pack animals in the southwestern desert. Beale traveled through the present day Kingman in 1857 surveying the road and in 1859 to build the road. Beale's Wagon Road became part of Highway 66 and Interstate Highway 40. Remnants of the wagon road can still be seen in White Cliffs Canyon in Kingman. Kingman, was founded in 1882, when Arizona was still Arizona Territory.
Situated in the Hualapai Valley between the Cerbat and Hualapai mountain ranges, Kingman is known for its modest beginnings as a simple railroad siding near Beale’s Springs in the Middleton Section along the newly constructed route of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. The city of Kingman was named for Lewis Kingman, who surveyed along the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad's right-of-way between Needles, Calif. and Albuquerque, N. M. Lewis Kingman supervised the building of the railroad from Winslow, Ariz. to Beale's Springs, near the present location of the town of Kingman. The Mohave County seat was located in Mohave City from 1864 to 1867; the portion of Arizona Territory west of the Colorado River was transferred to Nevada in 1865 after Nevada's statehood, became part of Lincoln County, Nevada Clark County, Nevada. The remaining territory of Pah-Ute County became part of Mohave County, its seat was moved to Hardyville in 1867. The county seat transferred to the mining town of Cerbat in 1873 to Mineral Park near Chloride in 1877.
In 1887, the county seat was moved to Kingman after some period of time without a permanent county seat, the instruments and records of Mohave County government were taken clandestinely from Chloride and moved to Kingman in the middle of the night during this final transfer of the county seat. During World War II, Kingman was the site of a U. S. Army Air Force airfield; the Kingman Army Airfield was founded at the beginning of WW II as an aerial gunnery training base. It became airmen; the airfield and Kingman played a significant role in this important era of America's history. Following the war, the Kingman Airfield served as one of the largest and best-known reclamation sites for obsolete military aircraft. Postwar, Kingman experienced growth as several major employers moved into the vicinity. In 1953 Kingman was used to detain those men accused of practicing polygamy in the Short Creek raid, at the time one of the largest arrests in American history. In 1955, Ford Motor Company established a proving ground in nearby Yucca, Arizona at the former Yucca Army Airfield.
Several major new neighborhoods in Kingman were developed to house the skilled workers and professionals employed at the proving ground, as Kingman was the only sizable, developed town within a convenient distance. The development of the Duval copper mine near adjacent Chloride and construction of the Mohave Generating Station in nearby Laughlin, Nevada, in 1971 contributed to Kingman's population growth; the location of a General Cable plant at what was to become the Kingman Airport Industrial Park provided a steady employment base as well. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 30.0 square miles, all of it land. Kingman sits on the eastern edge of the Mojave Desert, but is located in a cold semi-arid climate due the plateau location; the BSk climate type receives more precipitation than the BWh hot desert climate found to the south and west, the wintertime low temperatures are colder. Kingman's higher elevation and location between the Colorado Plateau and the Lower Colorado River Valley keeps summer high temperatures away from the extremes experienced by Phoenix and the Colorado River Valley.
The higher elevation contributes to winter cold and occasional snowfall. Summer daytime highs reach above 90 °F but exceed 107 °F. Summertime lows remain between 60 to 70 °F. Winter highs are mild, ranging from around 50 to 65 °F, but winter nighttime lows fall to freezing, with lower temperatures possible. Kingman receives a dusting of snow in the winter, though it remains on the ground for longer than the mid-to-late morning; the record low temperature in Kingman was set on January 9, 1937 at 6 °F, the record high temperature occurred on June 20, 2017, at 113 °F. The wettest year was 1919 with 21.22 inches and the driest year was 1947 with 3.58 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 9.85 inches in September 1939. The most rainfall in 24 hours was 6.03 inches on November 28, 1919. The snowiest year was 1949 with 18.2 inches. The most snowfall in one month was 14.0 inches in December 1932. On December 31, 2014 and January 1, 2015, Kingman received 6.5 inches of snow. The storm was so significant that it was a contributing factor for closing Interstate 40 at the US 93 Junction for 24 hours
Las Vegas the City of Las Vegas and known as Vegas, is the 28th-most populated city in the United States, the most populated city in the state of Nevada, the county seat of Clark County. The city anchors the Las Vegas Valley metropolitan area and is the largest city within the greater Mojave Desert. Las Vegas is an internationally renowned major resort city, known for its gambling, fine dining and nightlife; the Las Vegas Valley as a whole serves as the leading financial and cultural center for Nevada. The city bills itself as The Entertainment Capital of the World, is famous for its mega casino–hotels and associated activities, it is a top three destination in the United States for business conventions and a global leader in the hospitality industry, claiming more AAA Five Diamond hotels than any other city in the world. Today, Las Vegas annually ranks as one of the world's most visited tourist destinations; the city's tolerance for numerous forms of adult entertainment earned it the title of Sin City, has made Las Vegas a popular setting for literature, television programs, music videos.
Las Vegas was settled in 1905 and incorporated in 1911. At the close of the 20th century, it was the most populated American city founded within that century. Population growth has accelerated since the 1960s, between 1990 and 2000 the population nearly doubled, increasing by 85.2%. Rapid growth has continued into the 21st century, according to a 2018 estimate, the population is 648,224 with a regional population of 2,227,053; as with most major metropolitan areas, the name of the primary city is used to describe areas beyond official city limits. In the case of Las Vegas, this applies to the areas on and near the Las Vegas Strip, located within the unincorporated communities of Paradise and Winchester; the earliest visitors to the Las Vegas area were nomadic Paleo-Indians, who traveled there 10,000 years ago, leaving behind petroglyphs. Anasazi and Paiute tribes followed at least 2,000 years ago. A young Mexican scout named Rafael Rivera is credited as the first non-Native American to encounter the valley, in 1829.
Trader Antonio Armijo led a 60-man party along the Spanish Trail to Los Angeles, California in 1829. The area was named Las Vegas, Spanish for "the meadows," as it featured abundant wild grasses, as well as the desert spring waters needed by westward travelers; the year 1844 marked the arrival of John C. Frémont, whose writings helped lure pioneers to the area. Downtown Las Vegas's Fremont Street is named after him. Eleven years members of the LDS Church chose Las Vegas as the site to build a fort halfway between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles, where they would travel to gather supplies; the fort was abandoned several years afterward. The remainder of this Old Mormon Fort can still be seen at the intersection of Las Vegas Boulevard and Washington Avenue. Las Vegas was founded as a city in 1905, when 110 acres of land adjacent to the Union Pacific Railroad tracks were auctioned in what would become the downtown area. In 1911, Las Vegas was incorporated as a city. 1931 was a pivotal year for Las Vegas.
At that time, Nevada legalized casino gambling and reduced residency requirements for divorce to six weeks. This year witnessed the beginning of construction on nearby Hoover Dam; the influx of construction workers and their families helped Las Vegas avoid economic calamity during the Great Depression. The construction work was completed in 1935. In 1941, the Las Vegas Army Air Corps Gunnery School was established. Known as Nellis Air Force Base, it is home to the aerobatic team called the Thunderbirds. Following World War II, lavishly decorated hotels, gambling casinos, big-name entertainment became synonymous with Las Vegas. In the 1950s the Moulin Rouge opened and became the first racially integrated casino-hotel in Las Vegas. In 1951, nuclear weapons testing began at the Nevada Test Site, 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. During this time the city was nicknamed the "Atomic City". Residents and visitors were able to witness the mushroom clouds until 1963, when the limited Test Ban Treaty required that nuclear tests be moved underground.
The iconic "Welcome to Las Vegas" sign, never located within municipal limits, was created in 1959 by Betty Willis. During the 1960s, corporations and business powerhouses such as Howard Hughes were building and buying hotel-casino properties. Gambling was referred to as "gaming"; the year 1995 marked the opening of the Fremont Street Experience in Las Vegas's downtown area. This canopied five-block area features 12.5 million LED lights and 550,000 watts of sound from dusk until midnight during shows held on the top of each hour. Due to the realization of many revitalization efforts, 2012 was dubbed "The Year of Downtown." Hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of projects made their debut at this time. They included The Smith Center for the Performing Arts and DISCOVERY Children's Museum, Mob Museum, Neon Museum, a new City Hall complex and renovations for a new Zappos.com corporate headquarters in the old City Hall building. Las Vegas is situated within Clark County in a basin on the floor of the Mojave Desert and is surrounded by mountain ranges on all sides.
Much of the landscape is arid with desert vegetation and wildlife. It can be subjected to torrential flash floods, although much has been done to mitigate the effects of flash floods through improved drainage systems; the peaks surrounding Las Vegas reach elevations of o
Salt Lake City
Salt Lake City is the capital and the most populous municipality of the U. S. state of Utah. With an estimated population of 190,884 in 2014, the city is the core of the Salt Lake City metropolitan area, which has a population of 1,153,340. Salt Lake City is further situated within a larger metropolis known as the Salt Lake City–Ogden–Provo Combined Statistical Area, a corridor of contiguous urban and suburban development stretched along a 120-mile segment of the Wasatch Front, comprising a population of 2,423,912, it is one of only two major urban areas in the Great Basin. The world headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is located in Salt Lake City; the city was founded in 1847 by followers of the church, led by Brigham Young, who were seeking to escape persecution that they had experienced while living farther east. The Mormon pioneers, as they would come to be known, at first encountered an arid, inhospitable valley that they extensively irrigated and cultivated, thereby establishing the foundation to sustain the area's present population.
Salt Lake City's street grid system is based on the north-south east-west grid plan developed by early church leaders, with the Salt Lake Temple constructed at the grid's starting point. Due to its proximity to the Great Salt Lake, the city was named Great Salt Lake City. In 1868, the 17th Utah Territorial Legislature dropped the word "Great" from the city's name. Immigration of international members of the church, mining booms, the construction of the first transcontinental railroad brought economic growth, the city was nicknamed the Crossroads of the West, it was traversed by the Lincoln Highway, the first transcontinental highway, in 1913. Two major cross-country freeways, I-15 and I-80, now intersect in the city. Salt Lake City has developed a strong outdoor recreation tourist industry based on skiing, the city hosted the 2002 Winter Olympics, it is the industrial banking center of the United States. Before settlement by members of the LDS Church, the Shoshone and Paiute had dwelt in the Salt Lake Valley for thousands of years.
At the time of Salt Lake City's founding, the valley was within the territory of the Northwestern Shoshone. One local Shoshone tribe, the Western Goshute tribe, referred to the Great Salt Lake as Pi'a-pa, meaning "big water", or Ti'tsa-pa, meaning "bad water"; the land was treated by the United States as public domain. The first American explorer in the Salt Lake area was Jim Bridger in 1825, although others had been in Utah earlier, some as far north as the nearby Utah Valley. US Army officer John C. Frémont surveyed the Great Salt Lake and the Salt Lake Valley in 1843 and 1845; the Donner Party, a group of ill-fated pioneers, had traveled through the Great Salt Lake Valley in August 1846. The valley's first permanent settlements date to the arrival of the Latter-day Saints in July 1847, they had traveled beyond the boundaries of the United States into Mexican Territory seeking a secluded area to safely practice their religion away from the violence and the persecution they experienced in the Eastern United States.
Upon arrival at the Salt Lake Valley, president of the church Brigham Young is recorded as stating, "This is the right place, drive on." Brigham Young claimed to have seen the area in a vision prior to the wagon train's arrival. They found. Four days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Brigham Young designated the building site for the Salt Lake Temple; the Salt Lake Temple, constructed on the block called Temple Square, took 40 years to complete. Construction started in 1853, the temple was dedicated on April 6, 1893; the temple serves as its centerpiece. In fact, the southeast corner of Temple Square is the initial point of reference for the Salt Lake meridian, for all addresses in the Salt Lake Valley; the pioneers organized a state called State of Deseret, petitioned for its recognition in 1849. The United States Congress rebuffed the settlers in 1850 and established the Utah Territory, vastly reducing its size, designated Fillmore as its capital city. Great Salt Lake City replaced Fillmore as the territorial capital in 1856, the name was shortened to Salt Lake City.
The city's population continued to swell with an influx of converts to the LDS Church and Gold Rush gold seekers, making it one of the most populous cities in the American Old West. Explorer and author Richard Francis Burton traveled by coach in the summer of 1860 to document life in Great Salt Lake City, he was granted unprecedented access during his three-week visit, including audiences with Brigham Young and other contemporaries of Joseph Smith. The records of his visit include sketches of early city buildings, a description of local geography and agriculture, commentary on its politics and social order, essays and sermons from Young, Isaac Morley, George Washington Bradley and other leaders, snippets of everyday life such as newspaper clippings and the menu from a high-society ball. Disputes with the federal government ensued over the church's practice of polygamy. A climax occurred in 1857 when President James Buchanan declared the area in rebellion after Brigham Young refused to step down as governor, beginning the Utah War.
A division of the United States Army, comman
Fokker F27 Friendship
The Fokker F27 Friendship is a turboprop airliner developed and manufactured by the Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker. It has the distinction of being the most numerous post-war aircraft to have been manufactured in the Netherlands; the F27 was developed during the early 1950s with the expressed intent of producing a capable successor to the earlier piston engine-powered airliners that had become commonplace on the market, such as the successful Douglas DC-3. A key innovation of the F27 was the adoption of the Rolls-Royce Dart turboprop engine, which produced less vibration and noise which provided improved conditions for passengers. Innovative manufacturing techniques were employed in the aircraft's construction. On 24 November 1955, the F27 performed its maiden flight. Shortly after its introduction, the F27 was recognised as being a commercial success. Under a licensing arrangement reached between Fokker and the U. S. aircraft manufacturer Fairchild, the F27 was manufactured in the United States by the latter.
During the 1980s, Fokker developed a modernised successor to the F27, the Fokker 50, which replaced it in production. In the aftermath of the Second World War, twin-engine all-metal monoplanes such as the successful Douglas DC-3 airliner dominated commuter aviation. Over 10,000 DC-3s had been manufactured during wartime, which led to the type being available and thus encouraging its adoption by hundreds of operators across the world. By the early 1950s, various aircraft manufacturers had begun considering the post-war requirements of the civil aviation market and several commenced work upon projects aiming to produce designs for new aircraft which would be viewed as best meeting these requirements. By 1951, figures within Fokker were urging that design work be undertaken on a prospective 32-seat airliner intended as a direct replacement for the popular DC-3. Fokker sought the opinions of a number of existing DC-3 operators on what performance increases and refinements they would expect of a new model of commuter aircraft.
On the basis of this feedback, the design team chose to incorporate various new technologies into the tentative design. Fokker evaluated a number of different potential configurations for the airliner, including the use of Wright Cyclone radial engines, before settling upon a high-wing aircraft, furnished with a pair of Rolls-Royce Dart turboprop engines and a pressurised cabin which contained a total of 28 passengers; the Dart engine had proven successful on the early models of the Vickers Viscount, while a high-mounted wing had been selected as it produced a higher lift coefficient than a lower counterpart, it enabled easier ground loading due to a lower floor level and provided unfettered external views to passengers without any weight increase. In the aircraft's construction, Fokker used an innovative metal-to-metal bonding technique, resulting in a longer fatigue life, improved aerodynamics, a lighter structure. In 1953, the proposed airliner received the name Friendship. A total of four prototypes were produced, two of these being flyable aircraft that were used for the test flight programme and were paid for by the Netherlands Institute of Aircraft Development.
On 24 November 1955, registered PH-NIV, performed its maiden flight. The second prototype and initial production machines were 0.9 m longer than the first prototype in order to addressing a revealed tendency for tail-heavy handling as well as to provide additional space for four more passengers, raising the maximum number of passengers which could be carried to 32. These aircraft were powered by the Dart Mk 528 engine, capable of generating greater thrust. Throughout the F27's production life, Fokker proceeded to adapt the design for various purposes and roles. Via a number of modifications, such as the adoption of improved engines, rearranged loading doors, elongated fuselages, other changes, several different models of the F27 were developed and made available for commercial operators. Several military transport models were produced. Fokker chose to design a dedicated model of the F27 for conducting maritime reconnaissance missions. During 1952, Fokker established a relationship with the US aircraft manufacturer Fairchild, interested in the upcoming F27.
In 1956, Fokker signed a licensing deal with Fairchild, under which the latter was authorised to manufacture the F27 in the USA. On 12 April 1958, the first American-built aircraft conducted its first flight. Production of Fairchild built aircraft would continue until July 1973. Fairchild proceeded to independently develop a stretched version of the airliner, designated as the FH-227; the majority of sales completed by Fairchild fell within the North American market. In the early 1980s, Fokker decided to develop a modernised successor to the F27 Friendship, designated as the F27 Mark 050 and marketed as the Fokker 50. Although originating from the F27-500 airframe, the Fokker 50 was a new aircraft, complete with Pratt & Whitney Canada engines and modern systems, which led to its general performance and passenger comfort being noticeably improved over the F27; the Fokker 50 replaced the F27 in production. In November 1958, the first producti