In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders. The most common types of bonds include corporate bonds; the bond is a debt security, under which the issuer owes the holders a debt and is obliged to pay them interest or to repay the principal at a date, termed the maturity date. Interest is payable at fixed intervals; the bond is negotiable, that is, the ownership of the instrument can be transferred in the secondary market. This means that once the transfer agents at the bank medallion stamp the bond, it is liquid on the secondary market, thus a bond is a form of loan or IOU: the holder of the bond is the lender, the issuer of the bond is the borrower, the coupon is the interest. Bonds provide the borrower with external funds to finance long-term investments, or, in the case of government bonds, to finance current expenditure. Certificates of deposit or short-term commercial paper are considered to be money market instruments and not bonds: the main difference is the length of the term of the instrument.
Bonds and stocks are both securities, but the major difference between the two is that stockholders have an equity stake in a company, whereas bondholders have a creditor stake in the company. Being a creditor, bondholders have priority over stockholders; this means they will be repaid in advance of stockholders, but will rank behind secured creditors, in the event of bankruptcy. Another difference is that bonds have a defined term, or maturity, after which the bond is redeemed, whereas stocks remain outstanding indefinitely. An exception is an irredeemable bond, such as a consol, a perpetuity, that is, a bond with no maturity. In English, the word "bond" relates to the etymology of "bind". In the sense "instrument binding one to pay a sum to another", use of the word "bond" dates from at least the 1590s. Bonds are issued by public authorities, credit institutions and supranational institutions in the primary markets; the most common process for issuing bonds is through underwriting. When a bond issue is underwritten, one or more securities firms or banks, forming a syndicate, buy the entire issue of bonds from the issuer and re-sell them to investors.
The security firm takes the risk of being unable to sell on the issue to end investors. Primary issuance is arranged by bookrunners who arrange the bond issue, have direct contact with investors and act as advisers to the bond issuer in terms of timing and price of the bond issue; the bookrunner is listed first among all underwriters participating in the issuance in the tombstone ads used to announce bonds to the public. The bookrunners' willingness to underwrite must be discussed prior to any decision on the terms of the bond issue as there may be limited demand for the bonds. In contrast, government bonds are issued in an auction. In some cases, both members of the public and banks may bid for bonds. In other cases, only market makers may bid for bonds; the overall rate of return on the bond depends on the price paid. The terms of the bond, such as the coupon, are fixed in advance and the price is determined by the market. In the case of an underwritten bond, the underwriters will charge a fee for underwriting.
An alternative process for bond issuance, used for smaller issues and avoids this cost, is the private placement bond. Bonds sold directly to buyers may not be tradeable in the bond market. An alternative practice of issuance was for the borrowing government authority to issue bonds over a period of time at a fixed price, with volumes sold on a particular day dependent on market conditions; this was called a tap bond tap. Nominal, par, or face amount is the amount on which the issuer pays interest, which, most has to be repaid at the end of the term; some structured bonds can have a redemption amount, different from the face amount and can be linked to the performance of particular assets. The issuer has to repay the nominal amount on the maturity date; as long as all due payments have been made, the issuer has no further obligations to the bond holders after the maturity date. The length of time until the maturity date is referred to as the term or tenor or maturity of a bond; the maturity can be any length of time, although debt securities with a term of less than one year are designated money market instruments rather than bonds.
Most bonds have a term of up to 30 years. Some bonds have been issued with terms of 50 years or more, there have been some issues with no maturity date. In the market for United States Treasury securities, there are three categories of bond maturities: short term: maturities between zero to one year; the coupon is the interest rate. This rate is fixed throughout the life of the bond, it can vary with a money market index, such as LIBOR, or it can be more exotic. The name "coupon" arose because in the past, paper bond certificates were issued which had coupons attached to them, one for each interest payment. On the due dates the bondholder would hand in the coupon to a bank in exchange for the interest payment. Interest can be paid at different frequencies: semi-annual, i.e. every 6 months, or annual. The yield is the rate of return received from investing in the bond, it refers either to
Marco Antonio Rito Palomares is a Mexican biochemist and chemical engineer. He graduated in 1987 with a BSc in Food-Biochemical Engineering at Instituto Tecnológico de La Paz, B. C. S. In 1989, he earned an MSc in Chemical Engineering at Tecnológico de Monterrey. Earned his PhD in Chemical Engineering at University of Birmingham in 1995. After working as a Postdoctoral researcher in Centre for Bioprocess Engineering at University of Birmingham and University of Cambridge, he returned to Tecnológico de Monterrey as Full Professor of Bioprocess Engineering, he play an important part in the foundation of the FEMSA Biotechnology Center, one of the first of his kind in Latin America. He is now the actual Director; the opening of the center attended by President Felipe Calderon, impressed with the lab and called the day of the event as "a day of pride for Mexico". Between 2001 and 2002, he was at the University of Cambridge in England, where he participated in a study looking for a vaccine against cervical-uterine cancer.
Marco Rito-Palomares has been honored with the Jubilee Award 2003 granted by the International Foundation for Science. Rómulo Garza Award 2002, maximum research award of Tecnológico de Monterrey, he is Member of the Scientific Committee of the International Foundation for Science, the prestigious Academia Mexicana de Ciencias and President of the Mexican Society of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Nuevo León State Section. Palomares was awarded the Award for Teaching and Research Labor by ITESM in 2007 and today is recognized as one of the most important biotechnologists in Mexico in the recovery and purification of bioproducts. List of Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education faculty International Foundation for Science
The Colt OHWS was a semi-automatic pistol created by Colt to compete for the United States Special Operations Command Offensive Handgun Weapon System tender. The winner of this competition would become the standard-issue handgun for most US special forces groups; the OHWS contract was awarded to Heckler & Koch for their MK23 Mod 0 pistol, Colt scrapped the project. The Colt OHWS carried a single-stack 10-round magazine; the handgun was designed to carry a laser aiming module. The handgun was chambered for the.45 ACP cartridge. Colt developed their OHWS handgun during the early 1990s to compete for a contract under the US SOCOM Offensive Handgun Weapon System program; the Colt OHWS was produced to fire.45 ammunition, but was capable of firing most.45 ammunition designed, including SOCOMs intended primary round.45 ACP + P. At the time Colt's pistols were not capable of handling +P ammunition Colt decided that instead of modifying the previous SOCOM weapon the M1911A1 to meet SOCOMs current needs it would be more cost-effective to produce a brand new handgun.
The Colt OHWS was a compilation of combined top features from other Colt firearms including the M1911A1, Double Eagle and All American 2000. Colt used the rotating barrel locking system from the All American 2000 – one of the strongest locking systems designed for handguns; the design was modified from the M1911A1, except machined and slide was made of stainless steel. Colt added a slide lock, to stop cycling of the slide in sound-sensitive cases. To promote reliability Colt decided to use a single-column 10-round magazine instead of a double-column. An interesting feature of the Colt OHWS was mounting muzzle attachments was done through the frame instead of moving barrel, they did this by adding an extension rail and toggle switch; the problem was the silencer. Colt added in an additional rail under the dust cover to attach tactical LAMs. SOCOM found the Colt OHWS to be too bulky, not as durable as expected and the accessories to be too meticulous to use and fit, leading to a loss in the competition for SOCOMs contract to the Heckler and Koch MK23.
List of individual weapons of the U. S. Armed Forces Modern Firearms