Finance is the study of money and how it is used. It deals with the questions of how an individual, company or government acquires the money needed - called capital in the company context - and how they spend or invest that money. Finance is, correspondingly split into three areas: personal finance, corporate finance and public finance. At the same time, finance is about the overall "system" - i.e. the financial markets that allow the flow of money, via investments and other financial instruments and within these areas. A major focus within finance is thus investment management — called money management for individuals, asset management for institutions — and finance includes the associated activities of securities trading & stock broking, investment banking, financial engineering, risk management. More abstractly, finance is concerned with the investment and deployment of assets and liabilities over "space and time": i.e. it is about performing valuation and asset allocation today, based on risk and uncertainty of future outcomes, incorporating the time value of money.
As an academic field, finance theory is studied and developed within the disciplines of management, economics and applied mathematics. Correspondingly, given its wide application, there are several related professional qualifications, that can lead to the field; as the debate to whether finance is an art or a science is still open, there have been recent efforts to organize a list of unsolved problems in finance. An entity whose income exceeds its expenditure can lend or invest the excess income to help that excess income produce more income in the future. Though on the other hand, an entity whose income is less than its expenditure can raise capital by borrowing or selling equity claims, decreasing its expenses, or increasing its income; the lender can find a borrower—a financial intermediary such as a bank—or buy notes or bonds in the bond market. The lender receives interest, the borrower pays a higher interest than the lender receives, the financial intermediary earns the difference for arranging the loan.
A bank aggregates the activities of many lenders. A bank accepts deposits from lenders; the bank lends these deposits to borrowers. Banks allow lenders, of different sizes, to coordinate their activity. Finance is used by individuals, by governments, by businesses and by other organizations such as schools and non-profit organizations. In general, the goals of each of the above activities are achieved through the use of appropriate financial instruments and methodologies, with consideration to their institutional setting. Finance is one of the most important aspects of business management and includes analysis related to the use and acquisition of funds for the enterprise. In corporate finance, a company's capital structure is the total mix of financing methods it uses to raise funds. One method is debt financing. Another method is equity financing – the sale of stock by a company to investors, the original shareholders of a share. Ownership of a share gives the shareholder certain contractual rights and powers, which include the right to receive declared dividends and to vote the proxy on important matters.
The owners of both bonds and stock, may be institutional investors – financial institutions such as investment banks and pension funds or private individuals, called private investors or retail investors. Personal finance is defined as the mindful planning of monetary spending and saving, while considering the possibility of future risk. Personal finance may involve paying for education, financing durable goods such as real estate and cars, buying insurance, e.g. health and property insurance and saving for retirement. Personal finance may involve paying for a loan, or debt obligations; the following steps, as outlined by the Financial Planning Standards Board, suggest that an individual will understand a secure personal finance plan after: Purchasing insurance to ensure protection against unforeseen personal events Understanding the effects of tax policies management of personal finances Understanding the effects of credit on individual financial standing Developing of a savings plan or financing for large purchases Planning a secure financial future in an environment of economic instability Pursuing a checking and/or a savings account Preparing for retirement/ long term expenses Corporate finance deals with the sources of funding and the capital structure of corporations, the actions that managers take to increase the value of the firm to the shareholders, the tools and analysis used to allocate financial resources..
Although it is in principle different from managerial finance which studies the financial management of all firms, rather than corporations alone, the main concepts in the study of corporate finance are applicable to the financial problems of all kinds of firms. Short term financial management is termed "working capital management", relates to cash-, inventory- and debtors management. In the longer term, corporate finance involves balancing risk and profitability, while attempting to maximize an entity's ass
Hayagriva Upanishad or Hayagrivopanishad is one of 108 Upanishad, written in Sanskrit language. It is a minor Upanishad, dedicated to Hayagriva – the horse-faced avatar of the god Vishnu, it belongs to the Vaishnava sect, which worships Vishnu, is associated with the Atharvaveda. In a Telugu language anthology of 108 Upanishads of the Muktika in the modern era, narrated by Rama to Hanuman, it is listed at number 100; the Upanishad is neither part of the anthology of 52 popular Upanishads in north India by Colebrooke, nor is it found in the Bibliotheca Indica anthology of popular Upanishads in south India by Narayana. The Hayagriva Upanishad presents mantras to know the nature of the supreme reality Brahman; the composition date of the text is unknown. Given the Vishnu avatar-oriented sectarian nature, the description of tantric mantras in the text, it is a late Upanishad. Sectarian Upanishads with tantra mantras were composed after the 10th century, states Douglas Brooks. Patrick Olivelle states that sectarian Upanishads attached to Atharvaveda were composed in the 2nd-millennium, until about the 16th century.
The word Hayagriva means "horse necked". The term refers to several different mythological characters found in all three major ancient Indic religions – Hinduism and Jainism. Hayagriva refers to a horse-themed avatar known as Ashvamukha and Hayashirsa. In one legend, Hayagriva is the persistent horse who brought back the Vedas from asuras Madhu and Kaitabha who stole them, during the mythical battle between good and evil – a battle described in the Mahabharata. In an alternate mythology, Hayagriva refers to a demon who stole the Vedas and was slain by Vishnu in his Matsya avatar, a story presented in the Bhagavata Purana. In a third version, a mythology presented in medieval era Devi-Bhagavata Purana, Vishnu appears in a hybrid human-body, horse-headed form called Hiyagriva who battles and kills a horse-like demon named Hiyagriva. In Pancaratra Vaishnava tradition, Hayagriva-Vishnu becomes the god of learning and one who protects, maintains the Vedas. In the Hayagriva Upanishad, the term refers to half-human horse-headed Vishnu avatar, the teacher of humanity.
The Hayagriva Upanishad is divided into two chapters. It is narrated as a sermon by the god Brahma to sage Narada; the text opens with an invocation to the god Vishnu, Garuda, the Sun, Brihaspati are invoked for welfare of all. Narada asks Brahma to grant him the knowledge of Brahman, which saves one from sins and grants spiritual and material wealth. Brahma declares that one who "masters" the mantras of Hayagriva learns the wisdom of the scriptures Shrutis, Smritis and Puranas and is bestowed with wealth. Brahma starts narrating the various mantras that are used in Hayagriva's worship; the first mantra salutes Hayagriva as the ruler of knowledge. He is praised as a saviour; the second mantra identifies Hayagriva as the manifestation of the three Vedas — Rigveda and Samaveda — and Om. He is, asserts the text, the symbol of all Vedas, the teacher of everything. Hayagriva is described to be radiant like the moon and holds a shankha, chakra and a book in his three hands, while the fourth makes the maha-mudra hand gesture.
The 29-syllabled mantra and 28-syllable mantra are told, ending the first chapter. The second chapter begins with Brahma telling about the one-syllable mantra of Hayagriva: Lhoum; the mantra Amritam kuru kuru svaha, asserts the text, grants control over words and the eight siddhis. Another mantra Lhoum sakala-samrajyena siddhim kuru kuru svaha through which, claims the text, in life the reciter gains pleasures and after death, salvation; this helps one realize the true spiritual meanings of the Vedic maxims: Prajnanam Brahma, Tat tvam asi", Ayam atma brahma, Aham Brahmasmi. Four supplementary Vedic mantras are recited, which are "Yad Vak Vadanthi...", "Gowrimimaya...", "Oshtapidhana..." and "Sa Sarpareeramathim...". In tradition of Upanishads, the Hayagriva Upanishad ends by mentioning the merits of the text; the canon declares that one who recites the Hayagriva Upanishad on ekadashi would be blessed with Hayagriva's grace and attain salvation. The text ends with a prayer. Ganapati Upanishad Mahanarayana Upanishad Nirvana Upanishad Varaha Upanishad Deussen, Paul.
M.. B.. Sixty Upanishads of the Veda. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1467-7. Hattangadi, Sunder. "हयग्रीवोपनिषत्". Retrieved 7 March 2016. Mahadevan, T. M. P.. Upaniṣads: Selections from 108 Upaniṣads. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-1611-4. Hayagriva Upanishad in Sanskrit
James Sherman Jett, is a former American football wide receiver and Olympic sprinter who played nine seasons for the Los Angeles/Oakland Raiders from 1993 to 2002, in the National Football League. He attended college at West Virginia University, he guided the Jefferson High School Cougars of Shenandoah Junction, West Virginia to the state playoffs in 1988. James ran for the JHS Cougar's Track Team. Jett played college football at West Virginia University where he was a four-year starter at receiver. Jett entered the 1989 season as the only true freshman to play on the eventual Gator Bowl team. Jett was one of the targets, along with senior Reggie Rembert, for All-American quarterback Major Harris. Along with receiving, Jett led the Mountaineers as a return specialist. Jett finished the season with only 8 receptions three touchdowns, he had a total of 35 returns for 504 yards. Jett entered his sophomore season in 1990 as the leading returning receiver for the Mountaineers, who lost both Rembert and Harris.
Jett totaled his best statistical season in his career, recording 31 receptions for 652 yards and 2 touchdowns. He had a career-low 10 returns for 164 yards; as a junior, Jett saw his numbers decrease to only 9 receptions for two touchdowns. However, he totaled 45 returns for both career-highs. Jett had five carries for 28 yards and a pass for 27 yards, he finished the season with 845 all-purpose yards. In his final collegiate season, James Jett recorded 19 receptions for 4 touchdowns, he had 35 returns for 333 yards. Jett finished his career against Louisiana Tech, where Jett was on the receiving end of a stadium-record 78-yard touchdown reception. Jett played in the Japan Bowl All-Star game upon his graduation. James Jett finished his career with 11 touchdowns, he had 125 returns for 1,620 yards, totaling 3,076 career all-purpose yards. His all-purpose yardage was fifth on WVU's all-time career list, while his receiving totals was eighth at the time of his graduation. Jett was inducted into the West Virginia University Sports Hall of Fame in 2002.
Jett was an Olympic sprinter. While at West Virginia University, he was a seven-time All-American in track, finishing fifth at 100 meters in the U. S. Olympic Trials in New Orleans, earning him a spot on the 4 x 100 m relay Olympic team, that won the gold medal in the 1992 Summer Olympics with a time of 38.95 seconds. He outran eventual Olympic gold medalist Carl Lewis in the 100 meters during prelims to the games. Jett ran the first two rounds of the 4 x 100 m relay in Barcelona gave his spot in the finals to Carl Lewis. All team members earned a gold medal. Jett earned NCAA indoor and outdoor All-America honors in the 50 meters, 100 meters and 200 meters during his career and finished as NCAA runner-up at 100 meters and 200 meters in 1992, his personal bests are 19.91 seconds in the 200 meters. James Jett signed with the Los Angeles Raiders as an undrafted free agent following the 1993 NFL Draft. During his rookie season, Jett lead the NFL with over 23 yards per reception and recorded 771 yards on 33 receptions for 3 touchdowns.
Jett averaged 48.2 yards per game his debut season, played in all 16 games but only starting one. In the 1994 season, Jett played in all 16 games. However, he only recorded 15 receptions for 253 yards. In 1995, Jett did not start any contests, he finished the season with 13 receptions for a touchdown. In 1996, Jett started all 16 games on the year. At age 26, he recorded 43 receptions for 4 touchdowns. Jett won the NFL Fastest Man Competition following the season; the following season, he was second among NFL receivers with a personal-best 12 touchdowns in 1997. Jett finished with a career-high 46 receptions for 804 yards. Jett was a finalist in the NFL Fastest Man Competition after winning the competition the previous season. In the 1998 season, Jett recorded a career-high 882 yards on 45 receptions for 6 touchdowns, he tallied a career-high 55 yards per game in his final season of starting all 16 games. At 29 years old, in 1999, Jett recorded 552 yards on 39 receptions for 2 touchdowns; the following year, 2000, he finished with 20 receptions for 356 yards and 2 touchdowns, including a career-long 84-yard reception against the Atlanta Falcons.
In 2001, at the age of 31 years, Jett played in 11 games on the season, recording two receptions for 19 yards. In his final professional season, 2002, the 32-year-old played in and started only one game, but did not record a statistic. James Jett finished his career with 256 receptions for 4,417 yards and 30 touchdowns, a 17.3 yard per reception average. Jett finished his career as the 8th-leading receiver in Oakland Raiders team history, he was one of two Los Angeles Raiders to remain with the team through Super Bowl XXXVII. Https://web.archive.org/web/20121026075038/http://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/athletes/je/james-jett-1.html https://www.pro-football-reference.com/players/J/JettJa00.htm