Money is any item or verifiable record, accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts, such as taxes, in a particular country or socio-economic context. The main functions of money are distinguished as: a medium of exchange, a unit of account, a store of value and sometimes, a standard of deferred payment. Any item or verifiable record that fulfils these functions can be considered as money. Money is an emergent market phenomenon establishing a commodity money, but nearly all contemporary money systems are based on fiat money. Fiat money, like any note of debt, is without use value as a physical commodity, it derives its value by being declared by a government to be legal tender. Counterfeit money can cause good money to lose its value; the money supply of a country consists of currency and, depending on the particular definition used, one or more types of bank money. Bank money, which consists only of records, forms by far the largest part of broad money in developed countries.
The word "money" is believed to originate from a temple of Juno, on Capitoline, one of Rome's seven hills. In the ancient world Juno was associated with money; the temple of Juno Moneta at Rome was the place. The name "Juno" may derive from the Etruscan goddess Uni and "Moneta" either from the Latin word "monere" or the Greek word "moneres". In the Western world, a prevalent term for coin-money has been specie, stemming from Latin in specie, meaning'in kind'; the use of barter-like methods may date back to at least 100,000 years ago, though there is no evidence of a society or economy that relied on barter. Instead, non-monetary societies operated along the principles of gift economy and debt; when barter did in fact occur, it was between either complete strangers or potential enemies. Many cultures around the world developed the use of commodity money; the Mesopotamian shekel was a unit of weight, relied on the mass of something like 160 grains of barley. The first usage of the term came from Mesopotamia circa 3000 BC.
Societies in the Americas, Asia and Australia used shell money – the shells of the cowry. According to Herodotus, the Lydians were the first people to introduce the use of gold and silver coins, it is thought by modern scholars that these first stamped coins were minted around 650–600 BC. The system of commodity money evolved into a system of representative money; this occurred because gold and silver merchants or banks would issue receipts to their depositors – redeemable for the commodity money deposited. These receipts became accepted as a means of payment and were used as money. Paper money or banknotes were first used in China during the Song dynasty; these banknotes, known as "jiaozi", evolved from promissory notes, used since the 7th century. However, they did not displace commodity money, were used alongside coins. In the 13th century, paper money became known in Europe through the accounts of travelers, such as Marco Polo and William of Rubruck. Marco Polo's account of paper money during the Yuan dynasty is the subject of a chapter of his book, The Travels of Marco Polo, titled "How the Great Kaan Causeth the Bark of Trees, Made Into Something Like Paper, to Pass for Money All Over his Country."
Banknotes were first issued in Europe by Stockholms Banco in 1661, were again used alongside coins. The gold standard, a monetary system where the medium of exchange are paper notes that are convertible into pre-set, fixed quantities of gold, replaced the use of gold coins as currency in the 17th–19th centuries in Europe; these gold standard notes were made legal tender, redemption into gold coins was discouraged. By the beginning of the 20th century all countries had adopted the gold standard, backing their legal tender notes with fixed amounts of gold. After World War II and the Bretton Woods Conference, most countries adopted fiat currencies that were fixed to the U. S. dollar. The U. S. dollar was in turn fixed to gold. In 1971 the U. S. government suspended the convertibility of the U. S. dollar to gold. After this many countries de-pegged their currencies from the U. S. dollar, most of the world's currencies became unbacked by anything except the governments' fiat of legal tender and the ability to convert the money into goods via payment.
According to proponents of modern money theory, fiat money is backed by taxes. By imposing taxes, states create demand for the currency. In Money and the Mechanism of Exchange, William Stanley Jevons famously analyzed money in terms of four functions: a medium of exchange, a common measure of value, a standard of value, a store of value. By 1919, Jevons's four functions of money were summarized in the couplet: Money's a matter of functions four, A Medium, a Measure, a Standard, a Store; this couplet would become popular in macroeconomics textbooks. Most modern textbooks now list only three functions, that of medium of exchange, unit of account, store of value, not considering a standard of deferred payment as a distinguished function, but rather subsuming it in the others. There have been many historical disputes regarding the combination of money's functions, some arguing that they need more separation and that a s
Hisar - Coimbatore AC Superfast Express is a air conditioned, super fast express train operated by the Bikaner Division of North Western Railway zone of Indian Railways. Train Connects Tamil Nadu,Kerala,Goa, Maharashtra,Gujarat, Haryana Train numbered 22475 starts from Hisar at 01:05 hrs on Thursdays and reaches Coimbatore Junction at 04:40 hrs on Saturdays. For the return journey, train numbered 22476 leaves Coimbatore Junction at 15:20 hrs on Saturdays and reaches Hisar at 22:15 hrs on Mondays; this train will get LHB coaches from 9 August 2018. This train is operated through Konkan Railway route, it covers distance of 2941 km. Train reverse at Bikaner Junction railway station
KSWM is a radio station broadcasting a News Talk Information format. Licensed to Aurora, United States, it serves the Springfield MO area; the station is owned by Falcon Broadcasting. KSWM began broadcasting in 1961, it was operated by Galen O. Gilbert, a long-time radio station owner. At the time, Gilbert owned KBTN-AM, in nearby Neosho, Missouri. At first, KSWM broadcast from a storefront location on Locust Street in Aurora. However, in the mid-1960s, plans were underway to build a companion FM station and a new studio building at the corner of Locust and Jefferson Streets. KSWM-AM and its new FM station began broadcasting from the new building 1967. KSWM-AM continues to broadcast from this studio today though the FM stations have gone through many changes. In the 1960s and 1970s, the station was managed by Joe McCullah. McCullah was best remember for his "Revolving Bandstand" program, which played the Top40 "Rock N Roll" hits of the day; the station was known for a "Quiz Bowl" competition between local high school teams, similar to TV's College Bowl program.
Around 1980, the station was sold to a group of local businessmen, to Dale Hendrix, who attempted to upgrade the station to 5,000 watts and move the transmitter site to near Republic, Missouri. Both of those efforts failed, however Hendrix did upgrade the companion FM station to 50,000 watts and sold it to Sunburst Media, it became KGMY-FM operated from Springfield, Missouri. In 1991, Hendrix turned KSWM-AM back over to Galen Gilbert; the station was off-the-air at that time. Gilbert try to bring it back to profitability. In August 1991, KSWM returned to the air as a stand-alone AM station from the studios at Locust & Jefferson. Kelly Ellison as sales manager and air talent, Kris Inman as air talent and sports director, Mariah McKinley as traffic director and air talent; these formed a core-group of people. Since the station had been off-the-air for several months, the first goal was to bring back the audience. Local news and sports as well as the "Trading Post" program would help reestablish the audience.
Within five years, the station was successful again. In 2003, Gilbert signed a contract with Dewayne & Janet Gandy and Bill Lewis to purchase the station and its companion FM. Gandys and Lewis had purchased MO a year or so earlier, they combined operations of all four stations in the KSWM studio building. Query the FCC's AM station database for KSWM Radio-Locator Information on KSWM Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for KSWM