A festoon is a wreath or garland hanging from two points, in architecture a carved ornament depicting conventional arrangement of flowers, foliage or fruit bound together and suspended by ribbons. The motif is sometimes known as a swag when depicting linen. In modern English the verb forms "festooned with", are used loosely or figuratively to mean having any type of fancy decoration or covering, its origin is due to the representation in stone of the garlands of natural flowers, etc. which were hung up over an entrance doorway on fête days, or suspended around an altar. The design was employed both by the Ancient Greeks and Romans and formed the principal decoration of altars and panels; the ends of the ribbons are sometimes formed into twisted curves. The motif was used in neo-classical architecture and decorative arts ceramics and the work of silversmiths. Variations on the exact design are plentiful. In modern usage, the term can refer to a specific style of electric lighting with individual bulbs suspended along a string that incorporates the power wiring, suspended between two or more points.
The term can refer to a style of light bulb with power contacts located at either end. Lewis, Philippa. Dictionary of Ornament. New York: Pantheon. ISBN 0-394-50931-5. Sturgis, Russell. A Dictionary of Architecture and Building, Volume II. New York: Macmillan. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Festoon". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; the dictionary definition of festoon at Wiktionary
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Stortorget is a public square in Gamla Stan, the old town in central Stockholm, Sweden. It is the oldest square in Stockholm, the historical centre on which the medieval urban conglomeration came into being. Today, the square is frequented by tens of thousands of tourists annually, is the scene for demonstrations and performances, it is traditionally renowned for its annual Christmas market offering traditional handicrafts and food. Located in the centre of the plateau of Stadsholmen, the square never was the stylish show-piece occupying the centre of many other European cities during the Middle Ages; the exception being the Stock Exchange Building taking up the northern side of the square and concealing the Cathedral and the Royal Palace. Today, Stortorget is the location of the Stock Exchange Building, which houses the Swedish Academy, the Nobel Museum, the Nobel Library. Designed by Erik Palmstedt and built 1773–1776, it replaced the town hall that had occupied the lot for several hundreds years before and subsequently been relocated first to the Bonde Palace and to the present Court House in 1915.
The plan of the building, French Rococo in style, is a trapezium, the rounded corner of which widened the flanking alleys. While the building is designed much like a private palace, the central pediment and the lantern-style cupola crowning the building underline its public status; the closed first floor, accommodating the Swedish Academy, contrasts the openness of the ground floor - a contrast enhanced during the restoration in the 1980s. The present well on the square was designed by Palmstedt and built in connection to the new Stock Exchange Building, it dried up in 1856 due to land elevation, however. It was relocated to Brunkebergstorg but moved back to its original location in the 1950s and is today connected to the city water conduit. Built by the merchant Hans Bremer in the 1640s and featuring pointed cairns, Number 3, on the right side of Köpmangatan still features the original cross vaults and a German inscription in the entrance hall. However, the building is today called Grillska huset after the goldsmith Antoni Grill, who immigrated from Augsburg to Sweden in the 1680s during the era of Gustavus Adolphus to found the Grill Dynasty, said to descend from the Grillo family in Genoa.
He bought the building. The cloverleaf-shaped gables were added in 1718 together with the blue livid colour and the Rococo portal; the Dynasty's most prominent member was the merchant Claës Grill, leader of the East India Company, owner of several banks and many mining industries and shipping companies, a great art collector. The building is today the headquarters of the Stockholm´s City Mission, an independent Christian charity devoted to support homeless and exposed citizens with food and education running advisory bureaus and others elsewhere in the old town. In the second hand shop on Number 5 are painted joists from the 1640s displaying animals and fruits. There are many such restored ceilings in Gamla stan, but this one is one of the few accessible to the general public. On the first floor is the so-called Bullkyrkan where the City Mission offers services every Sunday together with buns and coffee. Rev. Karl-Erik Kejne, who served in the church in the 1950s, was quoted by public service radio saying working there was a grateful commission as the penniless and homeless crowded the church where other congregations were more conspicuous by their absence.
Until the mid-15th century, the south side of the square was lined with wooden shops, in the spacious basements of which peasants kept their provisions and prepared meals. Among the numerous historical tenants in the building was adventurer Filip Kern from Meissen, Saxony, he served as a barber and a master builder for King John III and is suspected to have poisoned King Eric XIV. During the reign of Gustavus Adolphus, the Dutch merchant Abraham Cabiljau, one of the founders and first mayors of Gothenburg, lived in the building; the French wig maker Jean Bedoire bought the building in 1682 and, just like his son and namesake who gave his name to the alley Bedoirsgränd, made a fortune in trading wine and iron. The building was rebuilt in 1937 when the façades of the three buildings located south of the square were united to form the present façade. Occupying the three buildings in the block since 1944 is the Mäster Olofsgården, it was founded as a youth centre by the priest Gabriel Grefberg in 1931 when Gamla stan was a slum, the number of activities grew to include elderly, scouts and many other groups.
Following a generous donation, the organisation was able to gather its activities to the present location in 1944. Today its services include studies in the history of the old town and the "Gamla stan Society"; the cannonball in the corner of Skomakargatan, according to popular legend, dates back to the Stockholm Bloodbath in 1520, when it was fired at the Danish king Christian Tyrant. Undoubtedly, it was more built into the wall by an early proprietor and subsequently put back into place after each restoration; the restaurant on the ground floor, Stortorgskällaren, is built over a medieval basement, part of which dates back to the 15th century. According to some sources, this was the location for the tavern Spanska druvan, the oldest known tavern in Stockholm, (acco
Tre Kronor (castle)
Tre Kronor was a castle located in Stockholm, Sweden, on the site where Stockholm Palace is today. It is believed to have been a citadel that Birger Jarl built into a royal castle in the middle of the 13th century; the name "Tre Kronor" is believed to have been given to the castle during the reign of King Magnus IV in the middle of the 14th century. Most of Sweden's national library and royal archives were destroyed when the castle burned down in 1697, making the country's early history unusually difficult to document; when King Gustav Vasa broke Sweden free from the Kalmar Union and made Sweden independent again, Tre Kronor Castle became his most important royal seat. Gustav Vasa expanded the castle's defensive measures, while his son John III of Sweden rebuilt and improved the castle aesthetically, turning it into a renaissance style castle and adding a castle church; the keep may have existed previous to the 16th century, but in a much smaller form than on the pictures from the beginning and end of the 16th and 17th centuries.
The tower was about the half of the height in the end of the 16th century. The castle consisted of two parts, the main castle and the walled in gardens surrounding it with the high tower in the middle. On May 7, 1697 a large fire broke out in Tre Kronor that demolished the majority of the more-than-400-year-old castle; the fire was discovered by Georg Stiernhoff. The fire marshal, Sven Lindberg, informed the royal staff that he could not get to the fire extinguishing equipment because the fire blocked his access to it; the royal family and court were forced to evacuate the castle. The servants attempted to save as much as possible of the royal possessions; the fire spread to all parts of the castle. Since the castle was made out of wood and copper, the hot copper plates set the roof on fire. Due to the fire most of Sweden's national library and royal archives were destroyed. Shortly after the fire died out, the investigation was launched into why it was not discovered earlier. A royal court found three possible culprits.
Sven Lindberg – the fire marshal for the castle – and Anders Andersson and Mattias Hansson, soldiers on fire watch for the night, reporting to Sven Lindberg. It is revealed that Anders Andersson was running an errand for the fire marshal's wife, against fire watch regulations. Mattias Hansson had left his post. Hanson claimed; the royal court concluded that the fire marshal had used the soldier for his and his wife's private errands. It was found that he had accepted bribes in exchange for hiring people into certain positions at the castle. In February 1698 the sentences were handed out. Sven Lindberg and Mattias Hanson were sentenced to death. Anders Andersson was sentenced to run the gauntlet; the death sentences were both commuted to running the gauntlet and six years of forced labour at Carlsten fortress. Lindberg died. Plans were made to rebuild a new castle on the old foundation. Nicodemus Tessin the Younger was the architect in charge of rebuilding; the new building, Stockholm Palace, was completed in 1754.
Nicodemus did not get to see it completed. A 1/3rd scale replica of Tre Kronor was created as part of The General Art and Industrial Exposition of Stockholm known as "Stockholm World's Fair". Media related to Tre kronor at Wikimedia Commons The Swedish Royal Court - The Tre Kronor Museum
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity. The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the middle ages; the intellectual basis of the Renaissance was its version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, politics and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe: the first traces appear in Italy as early as the late 13th century, in particular with the writings of Dante and the paintings of Giotto.
As a cultural movement, the Renaissance encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, in science to an increased reliance on observation and inductive reasoning. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man"; the Renaissance began in the 14th century in Italy. Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time: its political structure, the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici, the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks.
Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Milan and Rome during the Renaissance Papacy. The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and, in line with general scepticism of discrete periodizations, there has been much debate among historians reacting to the 19th-century glorification of the "Renaissance" and individual culture heroes as "Renaissance men", questioning the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation; the art historian Erwin Panofsky observed of this resistance to the concept of "Renaissance": It is no accident that the factuality of the Italian Renaissance has been most vigorously questioned by those who are not obliged to take a professional interest in the aesthetic aspects of civilization – historians of economic and social developments and religious situations, most natural science – but only exceptionally by students of literature and hardly by historians of Art. Some observers have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for classical antiquity, while social and economic historians of the longue durée, have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras, which are linked, as Panofsky observed, "by a thousand ties".
The word Renaissance meaning "Rebirth", first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word occurs in Jules Michelet's 1855 work, Histoire de France; the word Renaissance has been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, art, politics, science and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, searched for realism and human emotion in art. Renaissance humanists such as Poggio Bracciolini sought out in Europe's monastic libraries the Latin literary and oratorical texts of Antiquity, while the Fall of Constantinople generated a wave of émigré Greek scholars bringing precious manuscripts in ancient Greek, many of which had fallen into obscurity in the West.
It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th century, who had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts. In the revival of neo-Platonism Renaissance humanists did not reject Christianity. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion, reflected in many other areas of cultural life. In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were brought back from Byzantium to Western Europe and engaged Western scholars for the first time since late antiquity; this new engagement with Greek Christian works, the return to the original Greek of the Ne
Johan Eberhard Carlberg
Johan Eberhard Carlberg, born February 24, 1683 in Gothenburg, died October 22, 1773 in Stockholm, was a Swedish fortification officer and architect. He was Gothenburg's first city engineer, a position he held from 1717 until 1727. In 1727, he was appointed city architect in Stockholm, where he stayed for 45 years until 1772. During this time, he began an influential school of architecture, he was an older brother of the engineer and architect Bengt Wilhelm Carlberg, who replaced him as a city engineer in Gothenburg when Johan Eberhard moved to Stockholm. Carlberg began work in 1700 at the fortification in Marstrand, working at first as a volunteer but as project leader. In 1703, Carlberg became a lieutenant in the Närkes and Värmlands reserve regiment, participating in their field training in Latvia and Lithuania. In Gothenburg, Carlberg became a lieutenant at the fortification on November 19, 1709 and the city engineer on September 14, 1717, he resigned from the Gothenburg fortification with the rank of captain on February 18, 1721.
Carlberg took office on April 27, 1727 as a city architect in Stockholm, where he was responsible for the rebuilding of Slussen 1744-1753, the customs pavilions at Norrtull, the rebuilding of Alstavik on Långholmen, reconstruction of Danviken hospital, the church tower of Stockholm's Great Church, the reconstruction of the Bonde Palace and the Stora Sjötullen in Blockhusudden) in 1729. The Army's commissariat warehouse at Skeppsholmen is Carlberg's only preserved monumental building in Stockholm; as city architect, he issued regulations intended to promote harmonious appearance of neighboring buildings and established a "school" to train young architects. His critics, while praising Carlberg's "force and vigor" warned that "If you put more iron into the fire than you have time to watch over, many will get burned." Erik Palmstedt was one of the students in Carlstadt's "school," which he entered when only 14 years old. Johan Eberhard Carlberg owned and lived in a house he inherited from his mother at the eastern side of Korsgatan and Vallgatan's north side in Gothenburg.
The Carlbergsgatan street in the district of Gårda in Gothenburg is named for the Carlberg family. In the district of Överkikaren at Hornsgatan 24 in Södermalm, he designed and built a residential building in 1731-32 as his private residence. Carlberg's father Johan Carlberg was bishop of Gothenburg 1689-1701. Carlberg himself married three times: first, on June 24, 1708 with Magdalena von Seth, second, on 25th May 1718 with Birgitta Thingvall, third, in 1733 with his second wife's cousin Christina Engel Geijer
Myntgatan is a street in Gamla stan, the old town in central Stockholm, Sweden. Stretching west from Mynttorget over to Riddarhustorget, it is crossed by the streets Salviigränd, Rådhusgränd, Riddarhusgränd, Storkyrkobrinken. Most of the buildings surrounding the street are occupied by either the Parliament or the Supreme Court. While the square Mynttorget was named for its proximity to the Royal Mint and is present on a map dated 1733 AD, the name of the street Myntgatan is most much younger. On a map from the 1630s it is called Skattmestere Gattun in reference to Gabriel Bengtsson Oxenstierna who owned a single land parcel by the street, it has been referred to as Salviigränd. Following the completion of Stora Nygatan in the 1660s, it was realized that this new boulevard-like street, a pride for a still medieval Stockholm, could not end up blindly in what was a peripheral end of the city – an insight which led to the gradual creation of Myntgatan which forms a perpendicular angle to Stora Nygatan in the Baroque manner of the era.
The street was thus extended east to Mynttorget as the latter was created in 1672 and the old defensive tower, Norre port, was demolished. It was called Riddargatan or Riddarhusgatan until the late-19th century in references to Riddarhuset, but different names were used for the eastern and western ends of the street. List of streets and squares in Gamla stan History of Stockholm "Innerstaden: Gamla stan". Stockholms gatunamn. Stockholm: Kommittén för Stockholmsforskning. 1992. Pp. 61–62. ISBN 91-7031-042-4. Hall, Thomas. Huvudstad i omvandling - Stockholms planering och utbyggnad under 700 år. Stockholm: Sveriges Radios förlag. ISBN 91-522-1810-4. Hitta.se - Location map and virtual walk