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Bone

A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton in animals. Bones protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells, store minerals, provide structure and support for the body, enable mobility. Bones have a complex internal and external structure, they are lightweight yet strong and hard, serve multiple functions. Bone tissue is a type of dense connective tissue, it has a honeycomb-like matrix internally. Bone tissue is made up of different types of bone cells. Osteoblasts and osteocytes are involved in the mineralization of bone. Modified osteoblasts become the lining cells; the mineralised matrix of bone tissue has an organic component of collagen called ossein and an inorganic component of bone mineral made up of various salts. Bone tissue is a mineralized tissue of cortical bone and cancellous bone. Other types of tissue found in bones include bone marrow, periosteum, blood vessels and cartilage. In the human body at birth, there are over 270 bones, but many of these fuse together during development, leaving a total of 212 separate bones in the adult, not counting numerous small sesamoid bones.

The largest bone in the body is the femur or thigh-bone, the smallest is the stapes in the middle ear. The Greek word for bone is hence the many terms that use it as a prefix -- such as osteopathy. Bone is not uniformly solid, but consists of a flexible matrix and bound minerals which are intricately woven and endlessly remodeled by a group of specialized bone cells, their unique composition and design allows bones to be hard and strong, while remaining lightweight. Bone matrix is 90 to 95% composed of elastic collagen fibers known as ossein, the remainder is ground substance; the elasticity of collagen improves fracture resistance. The matrix is hardened by the binding of inorganic mineral salt, calcium phosphate, in a chemical arrangement known as calcium hydroxylapatite, it is the bone mineralization. Bone is constructed and remodeled throughout life by special bone cells known as osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Within any single bone, the tissue is woven into two main patterns, known as cortical and cancellous bone, each with different appearance and characteristics.

The hard outer layer of bones is composed of cortical bone, called compact bone as it is much denser than cancellous bone. It forms the hard exterior of bones; the cortical bone gives bone its smooth and solid appearance, accounts for 80% of the total bone mass of an adult human skeleton. It facilitates bone's main functions - to support the whole body, to protect organs, to provide levers for movement, to store and release chemical elements calcium, it consists of multiple microscopic columns, each called an osteon. Each column is multiple layers of osteoblasts and osteocytes around a central canal called the haversian canal. Volkmann's canals at right angles connect the osteons together; the columns are metabolically active, as bone is reabsorbed and created the nature and location of the cells within the osteon will change. Cortical bone is covered by a periosteum on its outer surface, an endosteum on its inner surface; the endosteum is the boundary between the cancellous bone. The primary anatomical and functional unit of cortical bone is the osteon.

Cancellous bone called trabecular or spongy bone, is the internal tissue of the skeletal bone and is an open cell porous network. Cancellous bone has a higher surface-area-to-volume ratio than cortical bone and it is less dense; this makes it more flexible. The greater surface area makes it suitable for metabolic activities such as the exchange of calcium ions. Cancellous bone is found at the ends of long bones, near joints and in the interior of vertebrae. Cancellous bone is vascular and contains red bone marrow where hematopoiesis, the production of blood cells, occurs; the primary anatomical and functional unit of cancellous bone is the trabecula. The trabeculae are aligned towards the mechanical load distribution that a bone experiences within long bones such as the femur; as far as short bones are concerned, trabecular alignment has been studied in the vertebral pedicle. Thin formations of osteoblasts covered in endosteum create an irregular network of spaces, known as trabeculae. Within these spaces are bone marrow and hematopoietic stem cells that give rise to platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells.

Trabecular marrow is composed of a network of rod- and plate-like elements that make the overall organ lighter and allow room for blood vessels and marrow. Trabecular bone accounts for the remaining 20% of total bone mass but has nearly ten times the surface area of compact bone; the words cancellous and trabecular refer to the tiny lattice-shaped units. It was first illustrated in the engravings of Crisóstomo Martinez. Bone marrow known as myeloid tissue in red bone marrow, can be found in any bone that holds cancellous tissue. In newborns, all such bones are filled with red marrow or hematopoietic marrow, but as the child ages the hematopoietic fraction decreases in quantity and the fatty/ yellow fraction called marrow adipose tissue increases in quantity. In adults, red marrow is found in the bone marrow of the femur, the ribs, the vertebrae and pelvic bones. Bone is a metabolically active tissue composed of several types of

Traianoupoli

Traianoupoli or Traianopolis or Trajanopolis was a medieval settlement in the 14th century in the Evros regional unit of East Macedonia and Thrace region, northeastern Greece, nowadays named Loutra Traianopouleos. Traianoupoli was the name of a municipality which existed between 1997 and 2011 following the Kapodistrias Plan. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Alexandroupoli, of which it is a municipal unit; the municipal unit has an area of 163.549 km2. Population 2,706; the seat of the municipality is in Antheia. The municipal unit Traianoupoli is subdivided into the following communities: Antheia Doriko Loutros Nipsa The city was founded by the Roman emperor Trajan near the ancient town of Doriscus, received his name. In the Roman period, the city was famous for its baths. In the 4th century, it became the capital and metropolitan see of the Thracian Roman province of Rhodope. Under Justinian I the city walls were repaired; the city remained the metropolis of the ecclesiastical province of Rhodope until its decline in the 14th century, but ceased being a provincial capital with the rise of the theme system, coming under the Theme of Macedonia, although a single strategos of Traianoupolis is attested in an 11th-century seal.

In autumn 1077, the troops of the rebel general Nikephoros Bryennios the Elder proclaimed him emperor at Traianoupolis. In the Partitio Romaniae of 1204 it is listed as the pertinentia de Macri et Traianopoli; the Crusader Geoffrey of Villehardouin is known to have been assigned fiefs in the area. In 1205 or 1207, the town was destroyed by Tsar Kaloyan of Bulgaria, but in 1210 it is attested as a Latin archbishopric. Following its recovery by the Empire of Nicaea, the Greek Orthodox see; the area was ravaged by Bulgarian raids in 1322 and by Turkish raids in 1329/30. By the time John Kantakouzenos and his ally, Umur Bey, erected their camp on the site in the winter of 1343/44, the city had lain destroyed and abandoned for several years. In 1347, the local metropolitan was therefore allowed to reside in Mosynopolis instead; the area fell to the Ottoman Turks by 1365, in 1371 the see was supplanted by that of Serres in the ecclesiastical hierarchy. The sole use of the site after the city's abandonment was as a way-station, in ca.

1375/85, the Ottoman Gazi Evrenos built a Turkish bath, which still survive. Traces of the medieval buildings and the circuit wall survive; the area came under Bulgarian rule after the Balkan Wars of 1912–13 and was ceded to Greece in the Treaty of Neuilly. Trajanopolis was an episcopal see at least since the time of Constantius II, when its bishop Theodulus was persecuted by the Arians. By the end of the century, it had become the metropolis of the ecclesiastical province of Rhodope, a position it retained throughout its existence until the 14th century, its suffragan sees were Ainos, Makri, Mosynopolis, Peritheorion/Anastasiopolis, Poroi and Xantheia. A bishop Syncletius is attested ca. 400, several the metropolitans are attested thereafter in various church councils: Peter took part in the Council of Ephesus in 431, Basil in the "Robber Council" of 449 and the Council of Chalcedon in 451, John in the church council of 459, Eleusinius in the Fifth Ecumenical Council of 553, Tiberius in the Quinisext Council of 691/2, Leo in the Second Council of Nicaea in 787, Nicephorus in the Fourth Council of Constantinople in 879, George in the council of 997.

John, Metropolitan of Anastasiopolis, was administrator of Trajanopolis in 1285, but in the early 14th century the see fell vacant. Patriarch Nephon I of Constantinople assumed direct control over its revenues in 1310–14, in 1315 the vacant see was granted for life to Patriarch John XIII of Constantinople; the city was destroyed and abandoned after the raids of the 1320s, so that in 1347, the metropolitan moved his residence to Mosynopolis. In 1353, the incumbent metropolitan was assigned the Metropolis of Peritheorion as well. Following the Ottoman conquest shortly after, in 1365 the dispossessed Metropolitan was moved to the Metropolis of Lacedaemon. In 1371 the see of Serres replaced Trajanopolis in the ecclesiastical hierarchy of the Patriarchate of Constantinople; the title of Metropolitan of Trajanopolis remained a titular appointment in the Church of Constantinople until 1885, when it was assigned to the Metropolis of Ainos. From 1922, with the establishment of the Metropolis of Alexandroupolis within the modern Greek state, the title passed to it.

The diocese was nominally restored as a Latin Catholic Metropolitan titular archbishopric in the 17th century as Traianopolis, changed in 1933 to Trajanopolis in Rhodope, avoiding confusion with a Turkish namesake. It is vacant since 1968, having had the following incumbents, all except the first of the highest rank: Titular Bishop Claudio de Villagómez Titular Archbishop Deodat Bogdan Nersesowicz Titular Archbishop Nicolò Paolo Andrea Coscia Titular Archbishop Carlo Pignatelli Titular Archbishop Francesco Scipione Maria Borghese (later Cardina

64th NHK KĊhaku Uta Gassen

The 64th NHK Red & White Year-End Song Festival was aired on December 31, 2013. This edition's theme was "歌がここにある" and the captains were Arashi and Haruka Ayase; this was the 25th edition on Heisei Era. The most notable highlights from this edition were the Amachan special segment, Yuko Oshima's surprise graduation announcement during AKB48 performance, final performance from Saburo Kitajima who announced an honorable retirement from Kouhaku after 50 performances. For the second time, the WHITE TEAM won this time using a ball system; the final score was 4-9. Once again, NHK gave priority to Japanese artists, including rookie Chris Hart, who sang on stage with Seiko Matsuda. Other musical collaboration was between Nana Mizuki and T. M. Revolution. Other artists who debuted in Kouhaku are: Sexy Zone, NMB48, Shigeru Izumiya, Linked Horizon, Sakanaction, E-Girls and Miwa. Golden Bomber sang again "Memeshikute", who performed in 2012, but this time inspired by Olympic sports, due to the Tokyo city of choice to host the Olympic Games in 2020.

Several artists presented "medleys", as in the case of AKB48, Masaharu Fukuyama, E-Girls, Momoiro Clover Z, Arashi and Seiko Matsuda. The traditional "Ootori" was made by veteran Saburo Kitajima, who declared that he would be participating for the 50th and last time the Kouhaku and it is fair to sing "Matsuri" for being the last singer to perform before the announcement the winning team; as tradition dictates, at the end of the event, all the artists sing "Hotaru no Hikari" with the regency of Masaaki Hirao. The ball system was used for the first time in seven years, the winning team was the Shirogumi, accumulating 35 wins. Akagumi continues with 29 wins and have not won since 2011; the average program audience was 44.5% being the highest since 2004. The program had audience peak of 51% during the final presentation of Saburo Kitajima. Other moments were the most watched Yuko Oshima graduation announcement during the presentation of AKB48 and participation of the cast of Ama-chan, one of the greatest successes of the Japanese TV in 2013 This was the final time which Ayumi Hamasaki was the opening act for the Kouhaku.

Debuting or returning artists are in bold

Seal of the United States Senate

The Seal of the United States Senate is the seal adopted by the United States Senate to authenticate certain official documents. Its design sometimes serves as a sign and symbol of the Senate, appearing on its official flag among other places; the current version dates from 1886, is the third seal design used by the Senate since its inception in 1789. The use of the seal is restricted by federal law and other regulations, so is used sparingly, to the point that there are alternate, non-official seal designs more seen in public; the seal has a shield with 13 stars on top and 13 vertical stripes on the bottom, with a scroll inscribed with E pluribus unum floating across the top. An olive branch, symbolizing peace, graces the left side of the shield, while an oak branch, symbolizing strength, is on the right. A red liberty cap above the shield and crossed fasces below the shield represent freedom and authority, respectively. Blue beams of light emanate from the shield. Surrounding the seal is the legend "United States Senate".

Several of the elements are derived from the Great Seal of the United States. The seal is affixed to impeachment resolutions of consent to international treaties, it appears on presentation copies of Senate resolutions recognizing appointments and notable achievements. Other uses include authentication of senator credentials, electoral votes for President and Vice President; the seal is kept in the custody of the Secretary of the Senate, who can authorize other specific uses. In the twentieth century, the Secretary has authorized its official use by the majority and minority leaders, it is illegal to use the Senate seal in any manner reasonably calculated to convey a false impression of sponsorship or approval by the Government of the United States. The seal is depicted in a stained glass window in the United States Capitol. There are four grand staircases in the building, all four stairwells contain a large stained glass window, each with a different design. One of these windows, on the Senate side of the Capitol depicted an eagle with a shield and flags of the United States but it was accidentally destroyed in the 1960s.

The window was filled in with frosted glass, but was replaced with a colorful design depicting the senate seal. The window is visible from the office on the other side. An image of this window served as the theme of the Senate's web page from about 2002 to 2006; the Senate never had an official flag until the 1980s though by most other government agencies and offices had one. In April 1984, Senator Daniel Inouye of Hawaii proposed that the Senate commission an official flag using the design of the Senate seal. After turning down several submitted designs, the committee turned to the Army Institute of Heraldry, which proposed a navy blue flag with the seal in the center; this was approved in 1987, the flags were made available in March 1988. Each senator and committee were limited to two flags apiece, in keeping with the usual limits on the seal, use of the flags is restricted to Senate offices only, commercial use is prohibited. A Senate flag is hung above the dais of the Hart Building’s central hearing room.

The Senate seal, along with the seal of the Department of Justice, was used on the reverse of the 1998 commemorative dollar coin honoring Robert F. Kennedy; the seals symbolized Kennedy's career in the U. S. government, first as United States Attorney General and as a senator from New York. At least during the 1960s, a painted version of the seal was on the ceiling of the office of the Secretary of the Senate; when first meeting in Philadelphia in the 1790s, members of the early Senate admired the visually appealing Great Seal enough that they had it reproduced on a carpet woven for their chamber. They selected a similar design for the first official Senate seal; this first design had an eagle with a shield on its breast, olive branches in its left talon, arrows in its right. Above the eagle were rays of light emanating from clouds, representing the emergence of the new nation. Encircling the design was the legend SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES. While the design was based on the Great Seal of the United States, the engraving was distinctly different.

It had a spade shield instead of the more familiar shape on the Great Seal, the eagle had no scroll in its beak. The design of the clouds and light rays was different, the inscription showed it was a seal made for the Senate; the design is closer to a rendition made by James Trenchard for the September 1786 Columbian Magazine, later used on the reverse side of a few Indian Peace Medals given by President Washington in about the same time frame as the Senate seal was made. When this first seal was made, or by whom, is not known; the first known use of this seal was on the March 1798 impeachment summons of Tennessee Senator William Blount. Six years the seal appeared on another impeachment summons, this time for Federal Judge John Pickering, other documents during his trial. By 1830, the first Senate seal was either unserviceable due to wear or lost after a period of not being used. A new seal was commissioned from Robert G. Lanphier, Jr. a French artist and jeweler living in Washington D. C. at the time.

The press and counterseal were made by Edward Stabler, the postmaster at Sandy Spring, Maryland from 1830 until his death in 1883. Stabler had engraved the seal for the House of Representatives in 1830, would make the seals for most federal government departments of the time, some states, several municipali

Kasongo

Kasongo known as Piani Kasongo, is a town and Territory, located in Maniema Province of the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Kasongo lies east of the Lualaba River, northwest of its confluence with the Luama River, at an altitude of 2188 ft. Kasongos population is 63,000; the town is served by Kasongo Airport. Kasongo is connected to the provincial capital Kindu by the 150 mile'Kasongo Road', however the journey takes two days due to the road's poor state. Kasongo is part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kasongo A trading post was established at Kasongo in 1875 by Tippu Tip, an Afro-Arab trader; the town was visited by Henry Morton Stanley sometime between 1879 and 1884, on his third expedition. The territory was at the centre of the 1892-1894 war in the Eastern Congo and the Batetela Revolt in 1898. A century Kasongo and its inhabitants were affected by the Second Congo War, the CARE and Concern Worldwide NGO's are active in the area. Congo Rainforest Worldstatesmen.org: Details of traditional kingdom leadership, including in Kasongo area

Chunked transfer encoding

Chunked transfer encoding is a streaming data transfer mechanism available in version 1.1 of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol. In chunked transfer encoding, the data stream is divided into a series of non-overlapping "chunks"; the chunks received independently of one another. No knowledge of the data stream outside the currently-being-processed chunk is necessary for both the sender and the receiver at any given time; each chunk is preceded by its size in bytes. The transmission ends; the chunked keyword in the Transfer-Encoding header is used to indicate chunked transfer. An early form of the chunked transfer encoding was proposed in 1994. Chunked transfer encoding is not supported in HTTP/2, which provides its own mechanisms for data streaming; the introduction of chunked encoding provided various benefits: Chunked transfer encoding allows a server to maintain an HTTP persistent connection for dynamically generated content. In this case, the HTTP Content-Length header cannot be used to delimit the content and the next HTTP request/response, as the content size is not yet known.

Chunked encoding has the benefit that it is not necessary to generate the full content before writing the header, as it allows streaming of content as chunks and explicitly signaling the end of the content, making the connection available for the next HTTP request/response. Chunked encoding allows the sender to send additional header fields after the message body; this is important in cases where values of a field cannot be known until the content has been produced, such as when the content of the message must be digitally signed. Without chunked encoding, the sender would have to buffer the content until it was complete in order to calculate a field value and send it before the content. For version 1.1 of the HTTP protocol, the chunked transfer mechanism is considered to be always and anyway acceptable if not listed in the TE request header field, when used with other transfer mechanisms, should always be applied last to the transferred data and never more than one time. This transfer coding method allows additional entity header fields to be sent after the last chunk if the client specified the "trailers" parameter as an argument of the TE field.

The origin server of the response can decide to send additional entity trailers if the client did not specify the "trailers" option in the TE request field, but only if the metadata is optional. Whenever the trailers are used, the server should list their names in the Trailer header field. If a Transfer-Encoding field with a value of "chunked" is specified in an HTTP message, the body of the message consists of an unspecified number of chunks, a terminating chunk, a final CRLF sequence; each chunk starts with the number of octets of the data it embeds expressed as a hexadecimal number in ASCII followed by optional parameters and a terminating CRLF sequence, followed by the chunk data. The chunk is terminated by CRLF. If chunk extensions are provided, the chunk size is terminated by a semicolon and followed by the parameters, each delimited by semicolons; each parameter is encoded as an extension name followed by value. These parameters could be used for a running message digest or digital signature, or to indicate an estimated transfer progress, for instance.

The terminating chunk is a regular chunk, with the exception. It is followed by the trailer; such header fields would be sent in the message's header. In that case, it is useful to send those headers in the trailer. Header fields that regulate the use of trailers are TE, Trailers. HTTP servers use compression to optimize transmission, for example with Content-Encoding: gzip or Content-Encoding: deflate. If both compression and chunked encoding are enabled the content stream is first compressed chunked; the remote endpoint decodes the stream by concatenating the chunks and uncompressing the result. In the following example, three chunks of length 4, 5 and 14 are shown; the chunk size is transferred as a hexadecimal number followed by \r\n as a line separator, followed by a chunk of data of the given size. 4\r\n Wiki\r\n 5\r\n pedia\r\n E\r\n in\r\n \r\n chunks.\r\n 0\r\n \r\n Note: the chunk size indicates the size of the chunk data and excludes the trailing CRLF. In this particular example, the CRLF following "in" are counted as two octets toward the chunk size of 0xE.

The CRLF in its own line are counted as two octets toward the chunk size. The period character at the end of "chunks" is the 14th character, so it is the last data character in that chunk; the CRLF following the period is the trailing CRLF, so it is not counted toward the chunk size of 0xE. Wikipedia in chunks. List of HTTP header fields