Armoy, County Antrim
Armoy is a village and civil parish in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It is 5.5 miles southwest of Ballycastle and 8 miles northeast of Ballymoney. According to an estimate in 2013 by the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency it had a population of 1,122; the village is centred at the foot of two of the nine Glens of Antrim. The Armoy parish includes part of Knocklayd mountain which lies to the northeast of the village, it is one of the bigger villages in the area and has two primary schools, shops, a post office, public houses and other community facilities. The village was dominated by public sector housing for many years, but in the late 1980s and early 1990s, new housing developments began around the village; the village is close to a number of scenic locations including the Dark Hedges, which in recent years has become a popular tourist attraction as the infamous "King's Road" in the HBO series Game of Thrones. A monastic settlement, founded by Saint Patrick in the 5th Century sat to the northeast of the present day village, in the area of what is now St. Patrick's Parish Church.
The site was excavated and archaeologists uncovered artifacts which date the location to the 6th century. The actual centre of the monastic settlement has yet to be determined, though many scholars believe it may be higher up the slope behind the graveyard on unexcavated ground; the monastic settlement is said to be built on land given to Patrick by Fergus Mor MacEarca who would succeed his father to become the first Christian king in Ireland. Saint Olcán was a follower of Patrick who came from the area, was baptised at Dunseverick by Patrick and became Bishop of Armoy. One of the local primary schools still carries his name, it is suggested that the original site of the village was built around the monastery and the round tower. However, during the Norman period the village moved to its present-day location on the banks of the River Bush to accommodate the Norman operated mills which demanded large volumes of water. Therefore, a location by the riverbank was much more suitable; the area surrounding the present day church is of special significance as it has several oval shaped tunnels which have been dug under the rock all the way down to a cave at the Lagge crossroads below the church.
This tunnel from the tower to the crossroads was used as an escape route as it leads down to the River Bush. The word Lagge is of significance as it translates as hollow and legend has it that a giant lifted an ‘L’- shaped section of the ground at Lagge Cross and threw it into the sea creating Rathlin Island. A picturesque Presbyterian Church sits near to the edge of the River Bush and not to far from the centre on the village; the church’s striking spire, with a Viking ship weathervane on top, has been described as ’a miniature replica of the Eiffel Tower’. There are the remains of an Irish round tower on the edge of the village. An early monastery was founded about AD 460 by a disciple of Saint Patrick; the only trace of an early monastery is the stump of the round tower, which stands in the grounds of St Patrick's Parish Church. The tower has three storeys. At one time, Armoy was the main religious settlement in the Irish part of the kingdom of Dál Riata. Close to the village is Gracehill House, a Georgian house dating from 1775.
The grounds are home to Gracehill Golf Course, an 18-hole parkland golf course, surrounded by ponds and woodland. It was designed with challenging obstacles such as large trees; the village has a small park beside the river in which many references can be found to its connection with motorbikes and road racing. This includes a monument dedicated to the "Armoy Armada" who were a famous group of road racers from Armoy which included Joey Dunlop, Mervyn Robinson, Frank Kennedy and Jim Dunlop; the park has paths laid out in the shape of the circuits of both the North West 200 and the legendary Isle of Man TT. In recent years Armoy has played host to what has become one of the stand out events in the Irish Road Racing calendar, The Armoy Road Race known as "The Race of Legends"; the event takes place at the end of July/start of August every year and takes place on Armoy's 3 mile long circuit. The grid for the races is set up in a grand prix style with up to 27 riders starting each race; the start/finish line is located along the A44 Hillside Road just to the north of the village on the main road to Ballycastle.
The commercial and community life of the village has been enhanced by a community regeneration project at the junction of Main Street and Drones Road. The Tilley Molloy Project, implemented under the International Fund for Ireland’s Community Regeneration and Improvement Special Programme, was undertaken by Armoy Community Development Association and completed in 2000; this redevelopment of a key derelict site at the entrance to the village provided four shop units, four apartments, community care facilities and public toilets. The physical environment of the village has been further enhanced by a new Riverside Park developed by the District Council, an environmental improvement scheme on Main Street carried out as part of the CRISP project. Armoy is situated in the picturesque Glens of Antrim, an area renowned for its valleys shaped by glaciers during the ice age; the Armoy Moraine is located on the outskirts of the village in an area known locally as The Lagge, where the Round Tower and St. Patrick's Church now sit.
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County Antrim is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland. Adjoined to the north-east shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of 3,046 square kilometres and has a population of about 618,000. County Antrim has a population density of 203 people per square kilometre or 526 people per square mile, it is one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland, as well as part of the historic province of Ulster. The Glens of Antrim offer isolated rugged landscapes, the Giant's Causeway is a unique landscape and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Bushmills produces whiskey, Portrush is a popular seaside resort and night-life area; the majority of Belfast, the capital city of Northern Ireland, is in County Antrim, with the remainder being in County Down. According to the 2001 census, it is one of only two counties of Ireland in which a majority of the population are from a Protestant background; the other is County Down to the south. A large portion of Antrim is hilly in the east, where the highest elevations are attained.
The range runs north and south, following this direction, the highest points are Knocklayd 514 m, Slieveanorra 508 m, Trostan 550 m, Slemish 437 m, Agnew's Hill 474 m and Divis 478 m. The inland slope is gradual, but on the northern shore the range terminates in abrupt and perpendicular declivities, here some of the finest coast scenery in the world is found differing, with its unbroken lines of cliffs, from the indented coast-line of the west; the most remarkable cliffs are those formed of perpendicular basaltic columns, extending for many miles, most strikingly displayed in Fair Head and the celebrated Giant's Causeway. From the eastern coast the hills rise but less abruptly, the indentations are wider and deeper. On both coasts there are several resort towns, including Portrush and Ballycastle. All are somewhat exposed to the easterly winds prevalent in spring; the only island of size is the L-shaped Rathlin Island, off Ballycastle, 11 km in total length by 2 km maximum breadth, 7 km from the coast, of similar basaltic and limestone formation to that of the mainland.
It is arable, supports a small population. Islandmagee is a peninsula separating Larne Lough from the North Channel; the valleys of the Bann and Lagan, with the intervening shores of Lough Neagh, form the fertile lowlands. These two rivers, both rising in County Down, are the only ones of importance; the latter flows to Belfast Lough, the former drains Lough Neagh, fed by a number of smaller streams. The fisheries of the Bann and of Lough Neagh are of value both commercially and to sportsmen, the small town of Toome, at the outflow of the river, being the centre. Below this point lies Lough Beg, the "Small Lake", about 4.5 m lower than Lough Neagh. County Antrim has a number of air and sea links. Northern Ireland's main airport, Belfast International Airport, at Aldergrove is in County Antrim. Belfast International shares its runways with 38 Brigade Flying Station Aldergrove, which otherwise has its own facilities, it is the fifth-largest regional air cargo centre in the UK. There are regular services to Great Britain and North America.
The region is served by George Best Belfast City Airport, a mile east of Belfast city centre on the County Down side of the city, renamed in 2006 in honour of footballer George Best. The main Translink Northern Ireland Railways routes are the major line between Belfast, Ballymena and Derry, Belfast to Carrickfergus and Larne, the port for Stranraer in Scotland and Coleraine to Portrush. Two of Northern Ireland's main ports are in County Antrim and Belfast. Ferries sail from Larne Harbour to destinations including Cairnryan in Scotland; the Port of Belfast is Northern Ireland's principal maritime gateway, serving the Northern Ireland economy and that of the Republic of Ireland. It is a major centre of industry and commerce and has become established as the focus of logistics activity for Northern Ireland. Around two-thirds of Northern Ireland's seaborne trade, a quarter of that for Ireland as a whole is handled at the port, which receives over 6,000 vessels each year; the population of County Antrim was 615,384 according to recent census information, making it the most populous county in Northern Ireland.
Statistics for 2009–2010 show 1,832 students attending the 12 Gaelscoileanna and 1 Gaelcholáiste. The Presbyterian Church in Ireland is the largest religious denomination, followed by the Catholic Church and the Anglican Church of Ireland. County Antrim is one of two counties in Ireland in which the majority of people are Protestant, according to the 2001 census, the other being Down; the strong Presbyterian presence in the county is due to the county's historical links with lowland Scotland, which supplied many immigrants to Ireland. Protestants are the majority in most of the county, whilst Catholics are concentrated in Belfast the west of the city, the northeast, on the shore of Lough Neagh; the traditional county town is Antrim. More Ballymena was the seat of county government; the counties of Northern Ireland ceased to be administrative entities in 1973, with the reorganization of local government. In Northern Ireland the county structure is no long
Newtownabbey is a large settlement north of Belfast in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. Sometimes considered to be a suburb of Belfast, it is separated from the rest of the city by Cavehill and Fortwilliam golf course. At the 2001 Census, Newtownabbey Urban Area had a population of 62,056, making it the fourth largest settlement in Northern Ireland, it is part of Newtownabbey Borough Council. A residential area, Newtownabbey is home to many engineering and computer industries. Retail and leisure facilities include the Abbey Centre, the Valley Leisure Centre, the Ballyearl Arts & Leisure Centre, The Theatre at the Mill, Glengormley Moviehouse, Glengormley Sportsbowl and three large public parks; the main campus for the University of Ulster is based in the Jordanstown area of Newtownabbey. Although the Jordanstown campus of the University of Ulster merged with the current Belfast campus in 2018. Newtownabbey was formed by the merging of seven villages, it was formally brought into being on 1 April 1958.
Before its inception the expanse fell under the jurisdiction of the Belfast Rural District Council. The timeline of the local government authority is: Newtownabbey Urban District Council, Newtownabbey District Council, Newtownabbey Borough Council and Antrim & Newtownabbey District Council. For more information see The Troubles in Newtownabbey, which includes a list of incidents in Newtownabbey during The Troubles resulting in two or more deaths. Below is a list of townlands that are within Newtownabbey's urban area, alongside their etymologies. Ballybought * Ballyduff * Ballygolan * Ballyhenry * Ballyvesey * Ballywonard * Carnmoney * Collinward * Cloughfern * Drumnadrough, where Merville Garden Village is located Dunanney * Glengormley * Jordanstown Mallusk or Molusk * Monkstown Whiteabbey White House * citation for derivations The following housing estates have Irish-derived names, although they are not named after townlands: Mossley Rathcoole Until 2014 Newtownabbey operated under its own council comprising Ballyclare, Jordanstown, Carnmoney and Rathcoole.
However, from 2014 it has operated as a larger Council after merging with Antrim to create Antrim and Newtownabbey Borough Council. The current electoral ward and areas are: Airport Antrim Ballyclare Dunsilly Glengormley Urban Macedon Three Mile Water Newtownabbey Urban Area is classified as a large town by the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency and is within the Belfast Metropolitan Urban Area. On Census day there were 85,139 people living in Newtownabbey. Of these: 20.4% were aged under 16 years and 15.4% were aged 65 and over 48.2% of the population were male and 51.8% were female 22.56% were from a Catholic background and 67.76% were from a Protestant background. 3.8% of people aged 16–74 were unemployed. Higher-level educationUniversity of Ulster at Jordanstown Northern Regional College Secondary-level educationBallyclare High School Belfast High School Edmund Rice College Glengormley High School Ballyclare Secondary SchoolPrimary-level educationJordanstown Schools for the Deaf and Blind Whitehouse Primary School CricketAcademy Cricket Club Cliftonville Cricket ClubFootball18th Newtownabbey Old Boys F.
C. FC Whiteabbey Mossley Young Men F. C. Nortel F. C. Rathfern Rangers F. C. U. U. J. F. C. Gaelic gamesSt Enda's GACHockeyEast Antrim Hockey Club Mossley Hockey Club Owls Hockey ClubRugbyAcademy Rugby Club Ballyclare Rugby Club Belfast High School Former Pupils Rugby Club Ophir Rugby Club Abbey Presbyterian Church Abbots Cross Congregational Church Ballycraigy Congregational Church Ballyhenry Presbyterian Church The Church of the Good Shepherd Church of the Holy S
Ballintoy is a small village and civil parish in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It is alongside the B15 coast road, 28 km north-east of Coleraine, 8 km west of Ballycastle and between it and Bushmills, it is in the historic barony of Cary. The village lies about one kilometre from Ballintoy Harbour, a small fishing harbour at the end of a small, steep road down Knocksaughey hill which passes by the entrance to Larrybane and Carrick-a-Rede Rope Bridge; the harbour is host to a dawn service on Easter Sunday each year. There has been no significant development within the village in the recent past and, as a result, Ballintoy's population has declined and was only 165 people in the 2001 Census; the village has commercial and social facilities including tourist accommodation, several small shops, two churches. The best known church is the distinctive white Ballintoy Parish Church on the hill above the harbour; the village was built around a single street separating the inland pastures from the strip fields running towards the sea.
Two of the village's oldest hotels and pubs, the Carrick-A-Rede Hotel and the Fullerton Arms, still stand on this street. The village is in the area covered by Moyle District Council. In 2011 residents objected to the erection of bilingual street signs in English and Irish in a petition sent to Moyle District Council after an application was requested for an English/Irish sign at Harbour Road opposite the local Church of Ireland; the village was used for the fictional town of Lordsport in the Isle of Pyke second season of HBO's medieval fantasy television series Game of Thrones. The filming at the harbour took place on 18, 19 and 22 August 2011, from 15 August there was a limited public access to the zone; the local shops and fishermen, who had to temporarily berth their boats in Ballycastle, were compensated by the production. Bendhu House – a listed building on the road down to the harbour, built by the artist Newton Penprase The remains of Dunseverick Castle are nearby and the village is only a short drive from the Giant's Causeway.
Carrick-a-Rede Rope Bridge is just outside the village. The bridge links the mainland to the tiny Carrick Island, it is thought. The bridge is 30 m above the rocks below, it is a major tourist attraction with 140,000 visitors in 2005. Sheep Island, County Antrim is off the north coast; the Parish church, built in 1813, incorporating the tower of the older church. The civil parish contains the following townlands: List of towns and villages in Northern Ireland List of civil parishes in County Antrim List of townlands in County Antrim NI Neighbourhood Information Service Moyle District Council Draft Northern Area Plan 2016
A2 road (Northern Ireland)
The A2 is a major road in Northern Ireland, a considerable length of, referred to the Antrim Coast Road because much of it follows the scenic coastline of County Antrim. A single lane in each direction, the road follows most of the coastline of Northern Ireland, it is connected in several places to other major roads. The road begins in the city of Newry, County Down and heads North-East through the fishing towns of Warrenpoint and Kilkeel. After Dundrum the road continues via Ardglass to Strangford, where traffic wishing to stick to this route can take the Portaferry - Strangford Ferry to Portaferry. From there it meets the Irish Sea coast of the Ards Peninsula at Cloughey, follows it through Portavogie, Ballyhalbert and Donaghadee to Bangor, County Down, from where it becomes a major dual carriageway leading to Belfast. After its intersection with the M3, it continues through Belfast City Centre's complex one-way system via the Queen's Bridge and Queen Elizabeth II Bridge, past the Custom House and on along Corporation Street joining York Road.
Along this stretch and further out the Shore Road, the main route runs along the line of the M2 and M5, to a point where the M5 ends in Newtownabbey in the northern suburbs of Belfast. After a suburban stretch through Jordanstown, Carrickfergus and Whitehead, the road enters open countryside on its way to Larne, where the most noteworthy section of the road, the Antrim Coast Road, begins. After winding round the eastern coast from Larne to Cushendall the road continues along the north coast to Ballycastle before travelling along the Giant's Causeway Coast to Portrush and on through Coleraine and Derry to the border with the Republic of Ireland, where it becomes the N13 and proceeds as far as Letterkenny in County Donegal. Another section finishes at County Donegal. Where it approaches Derry City the A2 is a dual carriageway from City of Derry Airport to The Foyle Bridge; the Antrim Coast Road is regarded as one of the great tourist routes of the world. This part of the road has seen a dramatic increase in traffic in recent years.
It runs along the coast for about 25 miles, from the Black Arch near Larne to the Red Arch near Cushendall, passing through the villages of Ballygalley, Glenarm and Waterfoot. Motorists and pedestrians should pay due care and attention as there are no cycle lanes and footpaths are infrequent. Early in the 19th century, in the reign of William IV, the Commissioners of Public Works in Ireland reported that the Glens of Antrim were "cut off from any reasonable communication by the badness of roads over mountains and slopes varying from 1 in 6 to 1 in 12"; the Commissioners conceived a great project to build the Antrim Coast Road to give better access for the inhabitants, open up the Glens for trade, give a form of unemployment relief. The Antrim Coast Road was promoted by the Commissioners, but it was their civil engineer, William Bald, who had the vision of building the road along the foot of the cliffs, he did so between 1832 and 1842, supervised by the County Surveyors of the day – Thomas Woodhouse and Charles Lanyon.
It made a great difference to the people of the Glens. Before the road was built they sailed across the North Channel to Scotland to trade their goods, because the short sea crossing was easier than travel by land to the nearest market town. William Bald had the vision of building the road along the foot of the cliffs, some of them over 330 feet high; this was a novel idea. But this would have meant steep gradients as the road traversed the valleys of the Glens as they ran down from the Antrim Plateau to the sea. Bald decided to blast the cliff face which fell down onto the foreshore to form the base for the new road. In his report to the Commissioners Bald stated: "30,0000 cubic yards of rock have been hurled down on the shore entirely by blasting, executed by care and judgement; this has been assisted by the use of Beckford's Patent Safety fuse, an invention of the greatest certainty and economy which reduces, in a great degree, the chance of those accidents to which the operation of the miners has been liable."
The Antrim Coast Road was completed in 1842 at a cost of £37,140 – some £12,000 over budget – much to the displeasure of the Commissioners. It remained unchanged until the late 1960s, but there were frequent rockfalls because the geology of the Antrim Coast is Ulster White Limestone faulted and fissured, which bears a considerable overburden of basalt weathered and rotten near the surface. In February 1967 there was a major fall of rock onto the road south of Glenarm, in May 1967 there was another which blocked the road. At this point the cliffs are about 330 feet high so Antrim County Council decided to build a new road 100 feet on the seaward side of the old one; the Council did the work by direct labour and started to acquire the plant and equipment needed for the job. The council opened a quarry and began to build a new embankment, but on the night of 31 October 1968 there was a one in 70-year storm that washed away the part of the causeway that had not yet been protected by rock armour.
The work resumed in 1969 and a reinforced concrete sea wall was built, again by direct labour. Altogether 97,000 tonnes of rock armour were placed and the scheme was completed in November 1970, over three years after the road was closed. William Bal
Randalstown is a townland and small town in County Antrim, Northern Ireland, located between the towns of Antrim and Toome. It has a prominent disused railway viaduct and lies beside Lough Neagh and the Shane's Castle estate; the town is bypassed by the M22 motorway with junctions at both the eastern and western ends of the town. It had a population of 5,099 people in the 2011 Census; the settlement sprang up within the townland of an Dún Mór, anglicised as Dunmore. Randalstown was named after the 2nd Earl and 1st Marquess of Antrim, Randal MacDonnell, has strong links to the O'Neill family; the original stronghold of Edenduffcarrick was built in the 16th century and changed ownership until it was renamed Shane's Castle after the new owner, Shane McBrian O'Neill. The O'Neill family still reside on the estate; the 1798 rebellion commenced in Antrim following a meeting to prepare for revolt by the Ulster Directory on the 1st of February, 1798, at McClean's Inn. Randalstown. Robert McClean's "Great Inn".
Following his death in 1790, his son Francis became the proprietor. Dunmore Park was used as a training camp for the Ulster Volunteers during the Irish Home Rule crisis. Randalstown has a strong history of iron industries. A memorial to this history is in the middle of the town and made from the original turbine used to generate mains electricity for the town and items salvaged from the Old Bleach Linen Company founded by James Webb in 1864. An old linen mill chimney from the Old Bleach factory can be seen from most parts of the town; the Dorma Old Bleach factory which operated from a neighbouring site closed down in 2002. On 1 October 1989, an IRA car bomb exploded outside the town's police station on New Street causing serious damage to nearby property. On 8 January 2010, PSNI Constable Peadar Heffron was injured as a bomb exploded under his car on the Milltown Road near Randalstown. Dissident republicans were blamed for the attack; the Tudor style gateway to the Shane's Castle estate is in the town.
Randalstown OC Presbyterian Church, a fine example of Irish Gothic. Around the corner from the gateway is the seven-piered, viaduct built in 1855 to carry the railway line over the River Main; this has had a new bridge installed and a walk path created as part of the local healthy walking areas. Craigmore Fishery, a Fly Fishing facility is located on the outskirts of the town. World of Owls, Northern Ireland's only owl, bird of prey and exotic animal conservation centre is located next to Randalstown Forest. Caddy, a hamlet 3 miles north of the Randalstown centre, was site of a new school in 1908. and a centre of beekeeping in the 1950s. In the 2011 Census Randalstown had a population of 5,099 people.54.7% were from a Catholic background and 39.8% were from a Protestant background Randalstown is classified as a Small Town by the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. On Census day there were 4,956 people living in Randalstown. Of these: 25.7% were aged under 16 years and 15.5% were aged 60 and over 48.0% of the population were male and 52.0% were female 70.1% were from a Catholic and 27.7% were from a Protestant background 3.0% of people aged 16–74 were unemployed John Bodkin Adams, a suspected serial killer, was born to a Plymouth Brethren family in Randalstown on 21 January 1899 and lived here until 1901.
He became a general practitioner and worked in Eastbourne from 1922. He was acquitted, he was, suspected of causing the death of 163 other patients. David Ford, the leader of the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland since 2001 and Northern Ireland Minister of Justice lives in Randalstown. Laurence McKeown, a former member of the Provisional Irish Republican Army, an author, screenwriter, who took part in the 1981 Irish hunger strike, he lasted 70 days. In 1995 he co-founded the Belfast Film Festival. Johnny Brady and Irish singer was born in Randalstown. Mount St. Michael's Primary School Maine Integrated Primary School St. Benedict's High School Randalstown Central Primary School is a mixed non-denominational primary school within the North Eastern Education and Library Board area. Market Houses in Northern Ireland List of towns and villages in Northern Ireland List of townlands in County Antrim
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti