Machito was an influential Latin jazz musician who helped refine Afro-Cuban jazz and create both Cubop and salsa music. He was raised in Havana alongside the singer Graciela, his foster sister, in New York City, Machito formed the band the Afro-Cubans in 1940, and with Mario Bauzá as musical director, brought together Cuban rhythms and big band arrangements in one group. He made numerous recordings from the 1940s to the 1980s, many with Graciela as singer, Machito changed to a smaller ensemble format in 1975, touring Europe extensively. He brought his son and daughter into the band, and received a Grammy Award in 1983, Machitos music had an effect on the lives of many musicians who played in the Afro-Cubans over the years, and on those who were attracted to Latin jazz after hearing him. George Shearing, Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker and Stan Kenton credited Machito as an influence, an intersection in East Harlem is named Machito Square in his honor. Machito gave conflicting accounts of his birth and he sometimes said he was a native Cuban from Havana.
Other accounts place his birth in Tampa, making him an American of Cuban ancestry. He may have born in 1908 in the Jesús María district of Havana or in Tampa,1909 in the Marianao Beach district of Havana or in Tampa,1912 in Tampa or Havana. Regardless of his place of birth, Machito was raised from an age in the Jesús María district of Havana. Her parents raised both of them, Young Francisco Raúl Gutiérrez Grillo, the son of a cigar manufacturer, was nicknamed Macho as a child because he was the first son born to his parents after they had three daughters. In his teens and twenties in Cuba, Macho became a professional musician, Macho moved to New York City in 1937 as a vocalist with La Estrella Habanera. He worked with several Latin artists and orchestras in the late 1930s, recording with Conjunto Moderno, Cuarteto Caney, Orchestra Siboney, and the bandleader Xavier Cugat. After an earlier attempt to launch a band with Mario Bauzá, in 1940 he founded the Afro-Cubans, Macho was at this time going by Machito out of respect for his new bride.
A big band-style brass section with trumpets and saxes was backed by a Cuban rhythm section, Machito took on Bauza the following year as musical director, a role he kept for 34 years. Bauza played trumpet and alto saxophone, the band had an early hit with Sopa de Pichon in 1941. Its title is slang for pigeon soup, a Puerto Rican joke about nearly starving as an immigrant in New York, Tito Puente played timbales on the track, and Chino Pozo played percussion. Machitos bands of the 1940s, especially the band named the Afro-Cubans, were among the first to fuse Afro-Cuban rhythms with jazz improvisation, Machito was the front man and maraca player of the Afro-Cubans and its successors while Bauza determined the character of the band. Bauza, Machitos brother-in-law from his marriage to Machitos sister Estela, hired jazz-oriented arrangers, as a result, Machitos music greatly inspired such North American jazz giants as Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker and Stan Kenton
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
The term Afro-Cuban refers to Cubans who mostly have West African ancestry, and to historical or cultural elements in Cuba thought to emanate from this community. The term can refer to the combining of African and other elements found in Cuban society such as race, music, the arts. According to a 2002 national census which surveyed 11.2 million Cubans,1.1 million Cubans described themselves as Black, thus a significant proportion of those living on the island affirm some African ancestry. A study from 2014 estimated the genetic admixture of the population of Cuba to be 72% European, 20% African, many African immigrants have been coming to Cuba, especially from Angola. The percentage of Afro-Cubans on the island increased after the 1959 Cuban revolution led by Fidel Castro due to migration from the island of the largely white Cuban professional class. A small percentage of Afro-Cubans left Cuba, mostly for the United States, where they and their U. S. -born children are called Cuban Americans, Hispanic-Americans, and African Americans.
Only a few of them resided in nearby Spanish-speaking country of Dominican Republic, the Institute for Cuban and Cuban-American Studies at the University of Miami says 62% are black. In Equatorial Guinea, they part of the Emancipados, in Nigeria. Despite being free to return to Cuba when their tenure was over, the former slaves were brought to Africa by the Royal Orders of September 13,1845 and a June 20,1861 deportation from Cuba, due to the lack of volunteers. Similar circumstances previously occurred during the 17th century where ex-slaves from both Cuba and Brazil were offered the same opportunity, Angola has communities of Afro-Cubans, Amparos. They are descendants of Afro-Cuban soldiers brought to the country in 1975 as a result of the Cuban involvement in the Cold War, Fidel Castro deployed thousands of troops to the country during the Angolan Civil War. As a result of this era, there exists a small Spanish-speaking community in Angola of Afro-Cubans numbering about 100,000, Haitian Creole and culture first entered Cuba with the arrival of Haitian immigrants at the start of the 19th century.
Haiti was a French colony, and the years of the 1791–1804 Haitian Revolution brought a wave of French settlers fleeing with their Haitian slaves to Cuba. They came mainly to the east, and especially Guantánamo, where the French introduced sugar cultivation, constructed sugar refineries, by 1804, some 30,000 French were living in Baracoa and Maisí, the furthest eastern municipalities of the province. Later, Haitians continued to come to Cuba to work as braceros in the fields cutting cane and their living and working conditions were not much better than slavery. Although they planned to return to Haiti, most stayed on in Cuba, for years, many Haitians and their descendants in Cuba did not identify themselves as such or speak Creole. In the eastern part of the island, many Haitians suffered discrimination, but according to the Castro regime, since 1959, when he took over, this discrimination has stopped. After Spanish, Creole is the second language in Cuba
Armando Peraza was a latin jazz percussionist. Through his long associations with jazz pianist George Shearing, vibraphonist Cal Tjader and guitarist Carlos Santana, in addition to his worldwide fame as a highly revered percussionist, Peraza was an innovative and accomplished dancer and composer. Born in Lawton Batista, Cuba in 1924, he was orphaned by age 7 and lived on the streets, Peraza gained a reputation as a sportsman, and became proficient at baseball and boxing. At one time he was a boxing coach, a natural musician, a chance encounter at a baseball game led to his first professional gig with famous local bandleader Alberto Ruiz. He made his reputation as drummer and dancer playing with the cream of Havanas small bands or conjuntos and he left Cuba for Mexico in 1948 to tend to his sick friend, conga drummer Mongo Santamaría. He recorded with Slim Gaillard in New York in November 1949 and he toured the entire U. S. with Slim Gaillards band and ended up in San Francisco, where Gaillard owned the famous San Francisco nightclub named Bop City.
Armando headed up an Afro-Cuban dance review at the Cable Car Village club in San Francisco, attracting a clientele from Hollywood that included Errol Flynn, Marlon Brando and Rita Hayworth. In 1954, while performing in San Francisco with pianist Dave Brubeck, Peraza met Cal Tjader, during this period, Peraza was introduced to British pianist George Shearing by bassist Al McKibbon. Peraza joined Shearings band for the next 12 years and was a collaboration that found Peraza at the forefront of a new wave of popularity for Afro-Cuban music. Shearings music is now regarded as light in terms, but the rhythms. These recordings were at the heart of the craze, which swept the U. S. and the world and Peraza became highly visible. Perazas extraordinary technique and expressive power as a hand drummer became a feature of Shearings performances and he toured the world over with Shearing but it was in America where he experienced persistent and institutionalized racism. Shearing and Lee resolved the situation by threatening to out of the performance unless Peraza.
Shearing was one of the first racially integrated jazz groups, which was groundbreaking in its own right, while with Shearing, Peraza had the distinct opportunity to play with the classical symphonies of Boston, New York and Oklahoma City. He participated while with Shearing, in a command performances for Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, in 1959, Peraza joined Mongo Santamaría for the classic Mongo album, one of the most important recordings of Afro-Cuban folklore music ever. It included conga drummer Francisco Aguabella, another contemporary and friend of Peraza, and Afro-Blue, the album Mongo was combined with the 1958 Mongo Santamaria album Yambo as the compilation Afro Roots in 1972. In the early 1960s, Peraza joined Cal Tjaders band for the six years. He was encouraged to perform and record in Southern California by his friend, Peraza performed throughout the area at such venues as Shellys Manne-Hole and The Lighthouse in Hermosa Beach
The quinto is the smallest and highest pitched type of conga drum. It is used as the drum in Cuban rumba styles such as guaguancó, yambú, columbia and guarapachangueo. Quinto phrases are played in both triple-pulse and duple-pulse structures, in columbia, triple pulse is the primary structure and duple pulse is secondary. In yambú and guaguancó duple-pulse is primary and triple-pulse is secondary, the optimum expression of quinto phrasing is shaped by its interaction with the dance and the song, in other words, the complete social event, which is rumba. During the verses of the song the quinto is capable of sublime creativity, there are natural pauses in the cadence of the verses, typically one or two measures in length, where the quinto can play succinct phrases in the “holes” left by the singer. During the verses the quinto does not demonstrate technical virtuosity so much as taste, once the chorus of the song begins, the phrases of the quinto interact with the dancers more than the lead singer.
At this time, the phrases often accent cross-beats or offbeats, many of the quinto phrases correspond directly to accompanying dance steps. The pattern of strokes and the pattern of dance steps are at times identical. The quinto player must be able to switch phrases immediately in response to the dancer’s ever-changing steps, the quinto vocabulary is used to accompany, inspire and in some ways, compete with the dancers spontaneous choreography. Each quintero interprets the requisite phrases in their own way, same thing with the dancer, who will have the ‘rules’ of that particular rumba to follow but will put his own particular stamp on each performance. Creativity and individuality has always been and still is the name of the game, with an emphasis on competition and individual creativity, the rhythmic vocabulary of quinto has evolved into a rich and pliable art form. The rhythmic phrasing heard in solos by percussion and other instruments in Cuban popular music, quinto phrasing is used as a means of varying the ostinato conga drum part called tumbao.
The quinto plays within two main modes, corresponding to the two main modes of rumba dancing. The quinto lock mode is primarily a dyadic melody of slap and open tones, the lock melody while constantly varied, maintains a specific relationship to clave, and corresponds to the basic side-to side rumba dance steps. The attack points of the lock and the steps are contained within a single cycle of clave. Put another way, the lock spans four main beats, or a single measure, rumba is an amalgamation of several African drumming traditions, transplanted to Cuba during the time of slavery. Guaguancó and yambú are descended from the Cuban-Congolese fertility dances makuta, columbia has cultural and musical ties to the Abakuá, a secret society from the Cross River region of present day southern Nigeria and northern Cameroon. The rhythmic phrasing of the lead drum bonkó enchemiyá is similar
The Trío Matamoros was one of the most popular Cuban trova groups. It was formed in 1925 by Miguel Matamoros, Rafael Cueto, all three were singers and composers. The Trío Matamoros played boleros and son and they toured all Latin America and Europe and recorded in New York. In 1940 Guillermo Portabales performed with the trio, Matamoros expanded the trio into a conjunto for a trip to Mexico and hired the young Beny Moré as singer from 1945 to 1947. They recorded many 78rpm records and LPs, some of their output is available on CDs, the group were renowned for the harmony of their voices, and the quality of the lyrics. Miguel Matamoros was one of the greatest and most prolific composers of Cuban son and his first hit was El que siembra su maíz, followed by classics such as Lágrimas negras and Son de la loma. The group, whose members stayed together for nearly 45 years, disbanded in 1969
The conga, known as tumbadora, is a tall, single-headed drum from Cuba. Congas are staved like barrels and classified three types, tres dos or tres golpes, and tumba or salidor. Most modern congas have a wooden or fiberglass shell. They are usually played in sets of two to four with the fingers and palms of the hand, typical congas stand approximately 75 centimetres from the bottom of the shell to the head. The drums may be played while seated, the drums may be mounted on a rack or stand to permit the player to play while standing. While they originated in Cuba, their incorporation into the popular and folk music of countries has resulted in diversification of terminology for the instruments. In Cuba, congas are called tumbadoras, Conga players are called congueros, while rumberos refers to those who dance following the path of the players. The term conga was popularized in the 1930s, when Latin music swept the United States, Cuban son and New York jazz fused together to create what was termed mambo, but became known as salsa.
In that same period, the popularity of the Conga Line helped to spread this new term, desi Arnaz played a role in the popularization of conga drums. However, the drum he played was similar to the type of known as bokú used in his hometown. The word conga came from the rhythm la conga used during carnaval in Cuba, the drums used in carnaval could have been referred to as tambores de conga since they played the rhythm la conga, and thus translated into English as conga drums. There are five basic strokes, Open tone is played with the four fingers near the rim of the head, producing a clear resonant tone with a distinct pitch. Muffled or mute tone, like the tone, is made by striking the drum with the four fingers. Bass tone, played with the palm on the head. It produces a low muted sound, slap tone, the most difficult technique producing a loud clear popping sound. Touch tone, as implied by the name, this tone is produced by just touching the fingers or heel of the palm to the drum head. It is possible to alternate a touch of the palm with a touch of the fingers in a maneuver called heel-toe, the moose call or glissando is done by rubbing the third finger, supported by the thumb, across the head of the drum.
The finger is sometimes moistened with saliva or sweat, and sometimes a little coat of beeswax is put on the surface of the head to help make the sound
Ernesto Antonio Tito Puente was an American musician and record producer. He is best known for dance-oriented mambo and Latin jazz compositions that endured over a 50-year career and he and his music appear in many films such as The Mambo Kings and Fernando Truebas Calle 54. He guest-starred on several shows, including Sesame Street and The Simpsons two-part episode Who Shot Mr. Burns. Tito Puente was born on April 20,1923, at Harlem Hospital Center in the New York borough of Manhattan and his family moved frequently, but he spent the majority of his childhood in the Spanish Harlem area of the city. Puentes father was the foreman at a razorblade factory, as a child, he was described as hyperactive, and after neighbors complained of hearing seven-year-old Puente beating on pots and window frames, his mother sent him to 25-cent piano lessons. By the age of 10, he switched to percussion, drawing influence from jazz drummer Gene Krupa and he created a song-and-dance duo with his sister Anna in the 1930s and intended to become a dancer, but an ankle tendon injury prevented him pursuing dance as a career.
When the drummer in Machitos band was drafted to the army, Tito Puente served in the Navy for three years during World War II after being drafted in 1942. He was discharged with a Presidential Unit Citation for serving in nine battles on the escort carrier USS Santee, the GI Bill allowed him to study music at Juilliard School of Music, where he completed a formal education in conducting and theory. In 1969, he received the key to the City of New York from former Mayor John Lindsay, in 1992, he was inducted into the National Congressional Record, and in 1993 he received the James Smithson Bicentennial Medal from the Smithsonian. During the 1950s, Puente was at the height of his popularity, and helped to bring Afro-Cuban and Caribbean sounds like mambo, Puente was so successful playing popular Afro-Cuban rhythms that many people mistakenly identify him as Cuban. Dance Mania, possibly Puentes most well known album, was released in 1958, later, he moved into more diverse sounds, including pop music, bossa nova and others, eventually settling down with a fusion of Afro-Cuban and Latin jazz.
In 1979, Puente won the first of five Grammy Awards for the albums A Tribute to Benny Moré, On Broadway, Mambo Diablo, in 1990, Puente was awarded the James Smithson Bicentennial Medal. He was awarded a Grammy at the first Latin Grammy Awards, in 1995, he appeared as himself on the Simpsons episode Who Shot Mr. Burns. In early 2000, he shot the music documentary Calle 54 and he was posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 2003. Puentes son Richard Richie Puente was the percussionist in the 70s Funk Band Foxy, Puentes youngest son, Tito Puente Jr. Puentes granddaughter, Janeen Puente, is a singer and bandleader. Her band is known as the Janeen Puente Orchestra, on September 10,2007, a United States Post Office in Spanish Harlem was named after him at a ceremony presided by House Ways and Means Committee Chairman Charles Rangel and Rep. José Serrano. An amphitheatre was named in his honor at Luis Muñoz Marín Park, next to the Roberto Clemente Coliseum, in San Juan, Puente performed at the closing ceremonies at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia.
The timbales he used there are on display at the National Museum of American History in Washington D. C, in 1997, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts
Son cubano is a genre of music and dance that originated in the highlands of eastern Cuba during the late 19th century. It is a genre that amalgamates elements of Spanish and African origin. Among its fundamental Hispanic components are the style, lyrical metre. On the other hand, its characteristic clave rhythm and response structure, around 1909 the son reached Havana, where the first recordings were made in 1917. This marked the start of its expansion throughout the island, becoming Cubas most popular, while early groups had between three and five members, during the 1920s the sexteto became the genres primary format. By the 1930s, many bands had incorporated a trumpet, becoming septetos, and in the 1940s a larger type of ensemble featuring congas and piano became the norm, the cojunto. Besides, the son became one of the ingredients in the jam sessions known as descargas that flourished during the 1950s. The international presence of the son can be traced back to the 1930s when many bands toured Europe and North America, radio broadcasts of son became popular in West Africa and the Congos, leading to the development of hybrid genres such as Congolese rumba.
In the 1960s, New Yorks music scene prompted the rapid success of salsa, in Spanish, the word son, from Latin sonus, denotes a pleasant sound, particularly a musical one. In eastern Cuba, the term began to be used to refer to the music of the highlands towards the late 19th century, to distinguish it from similar genres from other countries, the term son cubano is most commonly used. In Cuba, various qualifiers are used to distinguish the variants of the genre. These include son montuno, son oriental, son santiaguero and son habanero, Son singers are generally known as soneros, and the verb sonear describes not only their singing but their vocal improvisation. The adjective soneado refers to songs and styles which incorporate the tempo and syncopation of the son, there is an explicit diffenrece between styles that incorporate elements of the son partially or totally, as evidenced by the distinction between bolero soneado and bolero-son. The term sonora refers to conjuntos with smoother trumpet sections such as Sonora Matancera and Sonora Ponceña, although the history of Cuban music dates back to the 16th century, the son is a relatively recent musical invention whose precursors emerged in the mid-to-late 19th century.
Musicologists agree that the ancestors of the son appeared in Cubas Oriente Province. These forms flourished in the context of rural parties such as guateques, where bungas were known to perform, such early guitars are thought to have given rise to the tres some time around 1890 in Baracoa. The addition of a section composed of percussion instruments such as the bongó. Due to the very little historiographical and ethnomusicological research devoted to the son and this fallacy stemmed from the apocryphal origin story of a folk song known as Son de Má Teodora