A hamlet is a small human settlement. In different jurisdictions and geographies, hamlets may be the size of a town, village or parish, be considered a smaller settlement or subdivision or satellite entity to a larger settlement; the word and concept of a hamlet have roots in the Anglo-Norman settlement of England, where the old French hamlet came to apply to small human settlements. In British geography, a hamlet is considered smaller than a village and distinctly without a church; the word comes from Anglo-Norman hamelet, corresponding to Old French hamelet, the diminutive of Old French hamel. This, in turn, is a diminutive of Old French ham borrowed from Franconian languages. Compare with modern French hameau, Dutch heem, German Heim, Old English hām and Modern English home. In Afghanistan the counterpart of the hamlet is the qala meaning "fort" or "hamlet"; the Afghan qala is a fortified group of houses with its own community building such as a mosque, but without its own marketplace. The qala is the smallest type of settlement in Afghan society, trumped by the village, larger and includes a commercial area.
In Australia a hamlet is a small village. A hamlet differs from a village in having no commercial premises, but has residences and may have community buildings such as churches and public halls. In Canada's three territories, hamlets are designated municipalities; as of January 1, 2010: Northwest Territories had 11 hamlets, each of which had a population of less than 900 people as of the 2016 census. In Canada's provinces, hamlets are small unincorporated communities within a larger municipality, such as many communities within the single-tier municipalities of Ontario or within Alberta's specialized and rural municipalities. Canada's two largest hamlets—Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park—are located in Alberta, they each have populations, within their main urban area, in excess of 60,000—well in excess of the 10,000-person threshold that can choose to incorporate as a city in Alberta. As such, these two hamlets have been further designated by the Province of Alberta as urban service areas. An urban service area is recognized as equivalent to a city for the purposes of provincial and federal program delivery and grant eligibility.
During the 18th century, for rich or noble people, it was up-to-date to create their own hameau in their gardens. They were a group of some houses or farms with rustic appearance, but in fact were comfortable; the best known is the Hameau de la Reine built by the queen Marie-Antoinette in the park of the Château de Versailles. Or the Hameau de Chantilly built by Prince of Condé in Chantilly, Oise. Lieu-dit is another name for hamlet; the difference is that a hamlet is permanently inhabited. The German word for hamlet is Weiler. A Weiler has, compared to no infrastructure; the houses and farms of a Weiler can be scattered. In North West Germany, a group of scattered farms is called Bauernschaft. In a Weiler there are no street names, the houses are just numbered. In different states of India, there are different words for hamlet. In Haryana and Rajasthan it is called "dhani" or "Thok". In Gujarat a hamlet is called a "nesada". In Maharashtra it's called a "pada". In southern Bihar in the Magadh division, a hamlet is called a "bigha".
All over Indonesia, hamlets are translated as kampung. They are known as dusun in Central Java and East Java, banjar in Bali, jorong or kampuang in West Sumatra. In Pakistan a hamlet is called a gron. In Poland a hamlet is called osada, is a small rural settlement differing by type of buildings or inhabited by population connected with some place or workplace, it can be a part of other settlement, like village. In Romania hamlets are called cătunuri, they represent villages that contain several houses at most, they are considered villages, statistically, they are placed in the same category. Like villages, they do not have a separate administration, thus are not an administrative division, but are part of a parent commune. In the Russian language there are several words which mean "a hamlet", but all of them are equal; the most common word is деревня. A hamlet in Russia has a church, some little shops, a school and a local culture center, in which different culture events and national holidays take place.
A hamlet in Russia consists of several tens of wooden houses. In the past hamlets were the most common kind of settlement in Russia, but nowadays many hamlets in Russia are settled only during the summer as places for vacation because people go to towns and cities in order to find better
Monte Cassino is a rocky hill about 130 kilometres southeast of Rome, in the Latin Valley, Italy, 2 kilometres to the west of the town of Cassino and 520 m altitude. Site of the Roman town of Casinum, it is best known for its abbey, the first house of the Benedictine Order, having been established by Benedict of Nursia himself around 529, it was for the community of Monte Cassino. The first monastery on Monte Cassino was abandoned. Of the first monastery nothing is known; the second monastery was established by Petronax of Brescia around 718, at the suggestion of Pope Gregory II and with the support of the Lombard Duke Romuald II of Benevento. It was directly subject to the pope and many monasteries in Italy were under its authority. In 883 the monastery was abandoned again; the community of monks resided first at Teano and from 914 at Capua before the monastery was rebuilt in 949. During the period of exile, the Cluniac Reforms were introduced into the community; the 11th and 12th centuries were the abbey's golden age.
It acquired a large secular territory around Monte Cassino, the so-called Terra Sancti Benedicti, which it fortified with castles. It maintained good relations with the Eastern Church receiving patronage from Byzantine emperors, it encouraged fine art and craftsmanship by employing Byzantine and Saracen artisans. In 1057, Pope Victor II recognised the abbot of Monte Cassino as having precedence over all other abbots. Many monks rose to become bishops and cardinals, three popes were drawn from the abbey: Stephen IX, Victor III and Gelasius II. During this period the monastery's chronicle was written by two of its own, Cardinal Leo of Ostia and Peter the Deacon. By the 13th century, the monastery's decline had set in. In 1239, the Emperor Frederick II garrisoned troops in it during his war with the Papacy. In 1322, Pope John XXII elevated the abbey into a bishopric but this was suppressed in 1367; the buildings were destroyed by an earthquake in 1349, in 1369 Pope Urban V demanded a contribution from all Benedictine monasteries to fund the rebuilding.
In 1454 the abbey was placed in commendam and in 1504 was made subject to the Abbey of Santa Giustina in Padua. In 1799, Monte Cassino was sacked again by French troops during the French Revolutionary Wars; the abbey was dissolved by the Italian government in 1866. The building became a national monument with the monks as custodians of its treasures. In 1944 during World War II it was the site of the Battle of Monte Cassino and the building was destroyed by Allied bombing, it was rebuilt after the war. After the reforms of the Second Vatican Council the monastery was one of the few remaining territorial abbeys within the Catholic Church. On 23 October 2014, Pope Francis applied the norms of the motu proprio Ecclesia Catholica of Paul VI to the abbey, removing from its jurisdiction all 53 parishes and reducing its spiritual jurisdiction to the abbey itself—while retaining its status as a territorial abbey; the former territory of the Abbey, except the land on which the abbey church and monastery sit, was transferred to the diocese of Sora-Cassino-Aquino-Pontecorvo.
The history of Monte Cassino is linked to the nearby town of Cassino, first settled in the fifth century B. C. by the Volsci people who held much of central and southern Italy. It was the Volsci; the Volsci in the area were defeated by the Romans in 312 B. C; the Romans built a temple to Apollo at the citadel. Modern excavations have found no remains of the temple, but ruins of an amphitheatre, a theatre, a mausoleum indicate the lasting presence the Romans had there. Generations after the Roman Empire adopted Christianity the town became the seat of a bishopric in the fifth century A. D. Lacking strong defences the area was subject to barbarian attack and became abandoned and neglected with only a few struggling inhabitants holding out. According to Gregory the Great's biography of Benedict, Life of Saint Benedict of Nursia, the monastery was constructed on an older pagan site, a temple of Apollo that crowned the hill; the biography records that the area was still pagan at the time. He reused the temple, dedicating it to Saint Martin, built another chapel on the site of the altar dedicated to Saint John the Baptist.
Pope Gregory I's account of Benedict's seizure of Monte Cassino: "Now the citadel called Casinum is located on the side of a high mountain. The mountain shelters this citadel on a broad bench, it rises three miles above it as if its peak tended toward heaven. There was an ancient temple there in which Apollo used to be worshipped according to the old pagan rite by the foolish local farmers. Around it had grown up a grove dedicated to demon worship, where at that time a wild crowd still devoted themselves to unholy sacrifices; when the man of God arrived, he smashed the idol, overturned the altar and cut down the grove of trees. He built a chapel dedicated to St. Martin in the temple of Apollo and another to St. John where the altar of Apollo had stood, and he summoned the people of the district to the faith by his unceasing preaching." Pope Gregory I's biography of Benedict claims. In one story, Satan invisibly sits on a rock making it too heavy to remove until Benedict drives him off. In another story, Satan taunts Benedict and collapses a wall on a young monk, br
Metten is a municipality in the district of Deggendorf in Bavaria in Germany. The town grew up around Metten Abbey, founded in 766. Metten is the birthplace of former Bayern Munich goalkeeper Sepp Maier
Infant baptism is the practice of baptising infants or young children. In theological discussions, the practice is sometimes referred to as paedobaptism, or pedobaptism, from the Greek pais meaning "child"; this can be contrasted with what is called "believer's baptism", or credobaptism, from the Latin word credo meaning "I believe", the religious practice of baptising only individuals who confess faith in Jesus, therefore excluding underage children. Opposition to infant baptism is termed catabaptism. Infant baptism is called "christening" by some faith traditions. Most Christians belong to denominations that practice infant baptism. Branches of Christianity that practice infant baptism include Catholics and Oriental Orthodox, among Protestants, several denominations: Anglicans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists and other Reformed denominations and some Nazarenes, the Moravian Church; the exact details of the baptismal ceremony vary among Christian denominations. Many follow a prepared ceremony, called a liturgy.
In a typical ceremony, parents or godparents bring their child to their congregation's priest or minister. The rite used would be the same as that denomination's rite for adults, i.e. by pouring holy water or by sprinkling water. Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic traditions practise total immersion and baptise babies in a font, this practice is the first method listed in the baptismal ritual of the Roman Catholic, although pouring is the standard practice within the Latin branch of Catholicism. Catholic and Orthodox churches that do this do not sprinkle. At the moment of baptism, the minister utters the words "I baptise you in the name of the Father, of the Son, of the Holy Spirit". Although it is not required, many parents and godparents choose to dress the baby in a white gown called a christening gown for the baptism ceremony. Christening gowns become treasured keepsakes that are used by many other children in the family and handed down from generation to generation. Traditionally, this gown is white or off white and made with much lace and intricate detail.
In the past, a gown was used for both girls. Made of white fabric, the outfit consists of a romper with a vest or other accessories; these clothes are kept as a memento after the ceremony. It is a naval tradition to baptise children using the ship's bell as a baptismal font and to engrave the child's name on the bell afterwards. Tracking down and searching for an individual's name on a specific bell from a ship may be a difficult and time-consuming task. Christening information from the bells held by the Canadian Forces Base Esquimalt Museum has been entered into a searchable data archive, accessible to any interested web site visitors. Scholars disagree on the date; some believe that 1st-century Christians did not practice it, noting the lack of any explicit evidence of paedobaptism. Others, noting the lack of any explicit evidence of exclusion of paedobaptism, believe that they did, understanding biblical references to individuals "and household" being baptised as well as "the promise to you and your children" as including young children.
The earliest extra-biblical directions for baptism, which occur in the Didache, are taken to be about baptism of adults, since they require fasting by the person to be baptised. However, inscriptions dating back to the 2nd century which refer to young children as "children of God" may indicate that Christians customarily baptised infants too; the earliest reference to infant baptism was by Irenaeus in his work Against Heresies. Due to its reference to Eleutherus as the current bishop of Rome, the work is dated c. 180. Irenaeus speaks of children being "born again to God." This reference has been described as "obscure." Three passages by Origen mention infant baptism as customary. While Tertullian writing c. 198–203 advises the postponement of baptism of little children and the unmarried, he mentions that it was customary to baptise infants, with sponsors speaking on their behalf. The Apostolic Tradition, sometimes attributed to Hippolytus of Rome, describes how to perform the ceremony of baptism.
From at least the 3rd century onward Christians baptised infants as standard practice, although some preferred to postpone baptism until late in life, so as to ensure forgiveness for all their preceding sins. In the 21st century, a number of incidents surrounding particularly "rough", "aggressive" or "violent" infant baptisms according to the Eastern Orthodox submersion or immersion rite have sparked controversies as to whether they constituted child abuse. In January 2017, Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia Ilia II performed a mass infant baptism of hundreds of children at the Holy Trinity Cathedral of Tbilisi during the Georgian Orthodox Church's celebration of Epiphany. Many foreign observers found this "shocking" and wondered whether such baptisms should be considered child abuse. A May 2018 viral video of an infant baptism – performed in Ayia Napa, Cyprus, at a Greek Orthodox church, although this remains unconfirmed – received much media attention. In a statement, the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia condemned the practice as "physically abusive", but claimed the performer was'not Greek Orthodo
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Saint Vincent Archabbey
Saint Vincent Archabbey, is a Roman Catholic Benedictine Monastery in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania in the city of Latrobe. A member of the American-Cassinese Congregation, it is the oldest Benedictine monastery in the United States and the largest in the Western Hemisphere; the Benedictine monks of St. Vincent operate and teach Saint Vincent Basilica Parish, Saint Vincent College, Saint Vincent Seminary; the monks provide pastoral care for Catholics in the Dioceses of Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Altoona-Johnstown, Richmond. The monks run a military school in Savannah, Georgia; the Archabbey oversees Wimmer Priory in Taiwan, Saint Benedict Priory in Brazil. The original abbey structures were designed by the German-American architect, J. William Schickel and built between 1891 and 1905; the current archabbot of St. Vincent's is Rt. Reverend Douglas Robert Nowicki, O. S. B., elected by the monastic community in 1991 and reelected in 2010. Prior to Rev. Nowicki, the Archabbey had had ten archabbots: Boniface Wimmer Andrew Hintenach Leander Schnerr Aurelius Stehle Alfred Koch Denis Strittmatter Rembert Weakland Egbert Donovan Leopold Krul Paul Maher The monks operate St. Vincent Archabbey Gristmill, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978.
Monks from this abbey founded Newark Abbey, Saint John's Abbey, Saint Bernard Abbey, Saint Benedict Abbey, Saint Mary's Abbey, Saint Bede Abbey, Saint Procopius Abbey, Mary Help of Christians Abbey. Oetgen, Jerome. Mission to America: A History of Saint Vincent Archabbey, the First Benedictine Monastery in the United States. Washington: Catholic University of America Press. ISBN 0-8132-0957-9. Curran, Kathleen; the Romanesque Revival: Religion and Transnational Exchange. State College: Penn State University Press. ISBN 9780271022154. Saint Vincent Archabbey Saint Vincent Archabbey cemetery record Boniface Wimmer Saint Vincent Oblates
Pontifical Gregorian University
The Pontifical Gregorian University is a higher education ecclesiastical school located in Rome, Italy. It was a part of the Roman College founded in 1551 by Ignatius of Loyola, included all grades of schooling; the university division of philosophy and theology of the Roman College was given Papal approval in 1556, making it the first university founded by the Society of Jesus. In 1584 the Roman College was given a grandiose new home by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom it was renamed, it was making its mark not only in sacred but in natural science. Only the theology and philosophy departments survived the political turmoil in Italy after 1870, its international faculty serves around 3,800 students from over 150 countries. Saint Ignatius of Loyola, the founder of the Society of Jesus, established a School of Grammar and Christian Doctrine on 18 February 1551 in a building at the base of the Capitoline Hill, on today's Piazza d'Aracoeli. Saint Francis Borgia, the viceroy of Catalonia, who became a Jesuit himself, provided financial patronage.
With a small library connected to it, the school was called the Roman College. In September 1551, the site was transferred to a larger facility behind the Church of San Stefano del Cacco because so many students seeking enrollment. After only two years of existence, the Roman College had 250 alumni. In January 1556, Pope Paul IV authorized the College to confer academic degrees in theology and philosophy, thereby raising the school to the rank of university. During the following two decades, again because of an increased number of students, the university changed its location twice. A chair in moral philosophy was added, a chair in Arabic was added to the existing chairs in Latin and Hebrew. With the university now having more than 1000 pupils at this point, Pope Gregory XIII wanted to give it a more suitable headquarters. Two blocks near the Via del Corso were expropriated, the architect Bartolomeo Ammannati was commissioned to design a grand new edifice for the institute; the new building was inaugurated in 1584 in what became known as the Piazza Collegio Romano, across from the Palazzo Doria Pamphilj.
For his sponsorship of the Roman College, Gregory XIII became known as its "founder and father" and the school was called the "Gregorian University". The new space allowed the university to teach more disciplines. New chairs of Church history and liturgy were added; the university also attained great prestige in the fields of mathematics and astronomy. The "Gregorian calendar", named because it was established by Gregory XIII in October 1582 and the main one in the world, was developed by the Jesuit Christopher Clavius a professor of the university; the illustrious Jesuit mathematician and inventor Athanasius Kircher later taught there. Not long after the new site was opened, there were 2000 students; the university chapel, too small for so many students, was rebuilt as the Church of Sant'Ignazio between 1626 and 1650 and became one of the major Baroque churches of the area. In 1773, following the suppression of the Society of Jesus, the university was given over to diocesan clergy of Rome, it was reverted to the Jesuits on 17 May 1824 by Pope Leo XII, after the refoundation of their order.
Following the Capture of Rome by the revolutionary army of the new Kingdom of Italy in 1870, the new Italian government confiscated the property and the building of the university, which became the Ennio Quirino Visconti Liceo Ginnasio, which forced the university to move. Now in the Palazzo Gabrielli-Borromeo, on Via del Seminario, it was permitted by Pope Pius IX to use the title of "Pontifical University". With the difficult situation after Rome's takeover, the university was affected; the lack of space made the university drop all faculties except for philosophy. The number of students had dropped as well and in 1875, there were no more than 250 students. However, the university was able to rebuild itself. In 1876, the Faculty of Canon Law was transferred from the University of Rome La Sapienza to the Gregorian, the university was able to resume the teaching of many disciplines. After World War I, Pope Benedict XV and his successor, Pope Pius XI, worked to create a new site for the university that would be better suited to its needs.
Benedict XV was able to acquire an area at the base of Quirinal Hill, adjacent to another school under the Jesuits, the Pontifical Biblical Institute, or Biblicum, founded in 1909. Pius XI laid the first stone of the new seat of the university on 27 December 1924. Designed by architect Giulio Barluzzi in Neoclassical style, it was completed by 1930. After moving, the university continued to expand its number of faculties and disciplines taught as well as its geographical location; the Pontifical Institute Regina Mundi, dedicated to the theological formation of women, celebrated existed from 1955 to 2005. Today, the school has about 3,800 students from more than 150 countries, it discontinued, in the late 1960s/early 1970s, the use of Latin as the principal language of lecturers and examiners. Most students are priests and members of religious orders. After the Second Vatican Council, the first women to earn doctoral degrees at the university were Sandra Schneiders, I. H. M. and Mary Milligan, R.
S. H. M. Both became authorities in New Testament Christian Spirituality. Most professors are Jesuits. In recent years, there has been an increase in laity in both the