A tram is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets. The lines or networks operated by tramcars are called tramways; the term electric street railways was used in the United States. In the United States, the term tram has sometimes been used for rubber-tyred trackless trains, which are unrelated to other kinds of trams. Tram vehicles are lighter and shorter than main line and rapid transit trains. Today, most trams use electrical power fed by a pantograph sliding on an overhead line. In some cases by a contact shoe on a third rail is used. If necessary, they may have dual power systems—electricity in city streets, diesel in more rural environments. Trams carry freight. Trams are now included in the wider term "light rail", which includes grade-separated systems; some trams, known as tram-trains, may have segments that run on mainline railway tracks, similar to interurban systems. The differences between these modes of rail transport are indistinct, a given system may combine multiple features.
One of the advantages over earlier forms of transit was the low rolling resistance of metal wheels on steel rails, allowing the trams to haul a greater load for a given effort. Problems included the fact that any given animal could only work so many hours on a given day, had to be housed, groomed and cared for day in and day out, produced prodigious amounts of manure, which the streetcar company was charged with disposing of. Electric trams replaced animal power in the late 19th and early 20th century. Improvements in other forms of road transport such as buses led to decline of trams in mid 20th century. Trams have seen resurgence in recent years; the English terms tram and tramway are derived from the Scots word tram, referring to a type of truck used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran. The word tram derived from Middle Flemish trame; the identical word la trame with the meaning "crossbeam" is used in the French language. Etymologists believe that the word tram refers to the wooden beams the railway tracks were made of before the railroad pioneers switched to the much more wear-resistant tracks made of iron and steel.
The word Tram-car is attested from 1873. Although the terms tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English; the term streetcar is first recorded in 1840, referred to horsecars. When electrification came, Americans began to speak of trolleycars or trolleys. A held belief holds the word to derive from the troller, a four-wheeled device, dragged along dual overhead wires by a cable that connected the troller to the top of the car and collected electrical power from the overhead wires. "Trolley" and variants refer to the verb troll, meaning "roll" and derived from Old French, cognate uses of the word were well established for handcarts and horse drayage, as well as for nautical uses. The alternative North American term'trolley' may speaking be considered incorrect, as the term can be applied to cable cars, or conduit cars that instead draw power from an underground supply. Conventional diesel tourist buses decorated to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the US.
Furthering confusion, the term tram has instead been applied to open-sided, low-speed segmented vehicles on rubber tires used to ferry tourists short distances, for example on the Universal Studios backlot tour and, in many countries, as tourist transport to major destinations. The term may apply to an aerial ropeway, e.g. the Roosevelt Island Tramway. Although the use of the term trolley for tram was not adopted in Europe, the term was associated with the trolleybus, a rubber-tyred vehicle running on hard pavement, which draws its power from pairs of overhead wires; these electric buses, which use twin trolley poles, are called trackless trolleys, or sometimes trolleys. The New South Wales, government has decided to use the term "light rail" for their trams; the history of trams, streetcars or trolley systems, began in early nineteenth century. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used; the world's first passenger train or tram was the Swansea and Mumbles Railway, in Wales, UK.
The Mumbles Railway Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1804, horse-drawn service started in 1807. The service was restarted in 1860, again using horses, it was worked by steam from 1877, from 1929, by large electric tramcars, until closure in 1961. The Swansea and Mumbles Railway was something of a one-off however, no street tramway would appear in Britain until 1860 when one was built in Birkenhead by the American George Francis Train. Street railways developed in America before Europe due to the poor paving of the streets in American cities which made them unsuitable for horsebuses, which were common on the well-paved streets of European cities. Running the horsecars on rails allowed for a much smoother ride. There are records of a street railway running in Baltimore as early as 1828, however the first authenticated streetcar in America, was the New York and Harle
Meriwether is a neighborhood two miles southeast of downtown Louisville, Kentucky, USA, just east of the University of Louisville. It was laid out by David Meriwether in 1871 and the first houses were built in 1891. Nearly all of the homes are shotgun houses, its boundaries are the CSX railroad tracks to the north, Shelby Street to the east, E Brandeis Ave to the south and I-65 to the west. Lincoln Park and Preston Park are located in the neighborhood, it is referred to as part of greater Schnitzelburg. Meriwether is sometimes confused with Louisville's Germantown neighborhood; as of 2000, the population of Meriwether was 1,442, of which 64.9% are white, 29.8% are black, 4.2% are listed as other, 1% are Hispanic. College graduates are 10.4% of the population, people w/o a high school degree are 23.9%, people with 1+ years of college w/o a degree are 13.6%. Females outnumber males 53% to 47%. ^ "Community Resource Network". Retrieved 2005-11-18. Images of Meriwether in the University of Louisville Libraries Digital Collections
Cherokee Triangle, Louisville
The Cherokee Triangle is a historic neighborhood in Louisville, Kentucky, USA, known for its large homes displaying an eclectic mix of architectural styles. Its boundaries are Bardstown Road to the southwest, Cherokee Park and Eastern Parkway to the southeast, Cave Hill Cemetery to the north, is considered a part of a larger area of Louisville called The Highlands, it is named for nearby Cherokee Park, a 409 acres park designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, the designer of New York's Central Park. The land was part of a 6,000-acre military land grant in 1774 to Southall and Charlton, changed hands numerous times between and 1863, when most of the land, today's neighborhood was purchased by George Douglass, his home was located at the corner of Dearing Court and Dudley Avenue, is now included in the grounds of Cave Hill. In 1869, he sold 125 acres to realtors James W. Henning and Josiah S. Speed for $135,000; the largest portion of Cherokee Triangle was developed by Henning and Speed in the 1880s, as an early streetcar suburb of Louisville.
While the two were long-time developers, they had plans to establish residences for themselves there and develop the neighborhood as "the best possible environment of suburban living." They laid out the first subdivision, the Highland Addition, in 1870, containing just 150 lots, with an average size of 60 by 180 feet. The first house in the neighborhood, located at the corner of Transit Avenue and New Broadway, was completed in 1871 as a wedding present for Henning's daughter. Henning and Speed sold lots briskly for an average of $1,200 each, between 1870 and 1873, but development halted in Cherokee Triangle and everywhere else after an economic depression known as the Panic of 1873. Development was slow until 1883, when the opening of Louisville's Southern Exposition, which had the greatest impact on Old Louisville, stimulated the real estate market in the Highlands. Clayton Longest subdivided his property in 1884, but prices for lots were still low. After the opening of Cherokee Park in 1891, The area became a popular site for affluent families to build homes, the Baringer Farms subdivision, as well as the rest of the undeveloped land in the area, was soon developed.
Much of Cherokee Triangle was part of a city called Enterprise, which had incorporated in 1884 for tax reasons and to keep liquor sales out of the community. Enterprise had a school, now Bloom Elementary; the city was annexed by Louisville in 1896. Many wealthy residents left for new suburbs after World War II, as was typical of older affluent neighborhoods such as Old Louisville, large multi-story buildings were split up into inexpensive apartments; the Cherokee Triangle Association formed in 1962, new rules and down-zoning slowed the trend. It was designated a preservation district in 1975, with suburban-style zoning restrictions to prevent developments such as modern apartment complexes that were seen as out of place; as a result of the preservation district status, the neighborhood has undergone a period of sustained gentrification and enjoyed the greatest appreciation in property values in the city over the past decade. The Aquarius Apartments on Cherokee Road, the construction of, a major factor in establishing the preservation district, was cited as an example of an "incompatible intrusion".
As a sign of how the neighborhood has appreciated in recent years, the property was purchased by a developer who submitted a controversial plan to raze the apartments and build a 29-unit luxury condominium building on the site. Though his proposal was rejected by the local Architectural Review Committee due to its size, it is reflective of the increased attractiveness of the neighborhood; the neighborhood is known for its annual art fair, which occurs over a weekend in late April, one week before the Kentucky Derby. A local landmark is a statue of General John Breckinridge Castleman, dedicated in 1913, the only equestrian statue in the world for which the horse posed also; as of 2000, the population of Cherokee Triangle was 4,290, of which 94.1% are white, 2.2% are listed as other, 2% are Hispanic, 1.7% are black. College graduates are 51.8% of the population, people w/o a high school degree are 5.9%. Females outnumber males 50.2% to 49.8%. Episcopal Church of the Advent Old Louisville West Main District, Louisville List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area Anne S. Karen, The Cherokee Area: A History Cherokee Triangle, Kentucky Street map of Cherokee Triangle Images of Cherokee Triangle in the University of Louisville Libraries Digital Collections "Cherokee Triangle: Built for the High-minded, New Eastern Suburb Attracted Prominent Figures, Array of Diversions to Give It Many Sides" — Article by Wendy Conlin of The Courier-Journal
Camp Taylor, Louisville
Camp Taylor is a neighborhood and former military base six miles southeast of downtown Louisville, United States. First announced on June 11, 1917 it was a military camp named for former president Zachary Taylor. For a time it was America's largest military training camp, housing 47,500 men at one time, spurred development in an area, dominated by farmland. Most of the camp was dismantled after World War I and a residential neighborhood emerged, composed of small bungalow and Cape Cod homes, many built or purchased by soldiers returning from the war. Many of these buildings were built from lumber and other materials from the dismantled military buildings; the working class community was annexed by Louisville in 1950. F. Scott Fitzgerald was mentions it in his novel The Great Gatsby. Bellarmine University is built on part of the location of the former Camp Taylor. In the 2000 census, the population of Camp Taylor was 1,402, of which 94.3% are white, 3.6% are listed as other, 1.9% are black, 0.2% are Hispanic.
College graduates are 10.9% of the population, people without a high school degree are 27.3%. Females outnumber males 54.9% to 45.1%. ^ "Community Resource Network". Retrieved 2006-09-16. Camp Zachary Taylor Historical Society Camp Zachary Taylor, Louisville,Ky. On Facebook Camp Zachary Taylor Neighborhood Association US Census Analysis: Camp Taylor Street Map: Camp Taylor Dead Link Images of Camp Taylor in the University of Louisville Libraries Digital Collections "Camp Taylor: The Military's Influence Lived on Long After World War I in Area's Houses, Camaraderie" — Article by Grace Schneider of The Courier-Journal
Germantown is a neighborhood three miles southeast of downtown Louisville, Kentucky, USA. Germantown is a general term for an area of Louisville from the Original Highlands to St Joseph and Bradley neighborhoods that were predominantly settled by Germans; the actual neighborhood is bounded by Barrett Ave, Eastern Parkway, the South Fork of Beargrass Creek. The area was settled as small farms and butcher shops by German immigrants in the 1870s. At this time area was nicknamed'Frogtown' because the adjacent Beargrass Creek flooded the area, causing numerous epidemics of malaria; the flooding problem was solved. The area was subdivided and developed during the 1890s, when the largest collection of shotgun houses in the city of Louisville was built. In 1907, a bridge was built across the South Fork of Beargrass Creek which allowed French settlers north of the creek, in an area called Paristown, to attend the one Catholic church in the area; the German-Paristown Neighborhood Association was founded in 1973, making it one of Louisville's first neighborhood associations.
Today the area is undergoing a transition to a younger, more educated demographic. Many homes in the neighborhood are being renovated and urban homesteading is common; as of 2000, the population of Germantown was 3,867, of which 93.9% are white, 4.2% are black, 1.6% are listed as other, 0.7% are Hispanic. College graduates are of the 17.9% population, people without a high school degree are 29.3%. Females outnumber males 52.9% to 47.1%. Butchertown, Louisville History of the Germans in Louisville Images of Germantown in the University of Louisville Libraries Digital Collections
Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century. Victorian refers to the reign of Queen Victoria, called the Victorian era, during which period the styles known as Victorian were used in construction. However, many elements of what is termed "Victorian" architecture did not become popular until in Victoria's reign; the styles included interpretations and eclectic revivals of historic styles. The name represents the British and French custom of naming architectural styles for a reigning monarch. Within this naming and classification scheme, it followed Georgian architecture and Regency architecture, was succeeded by Edwardian architecture. During the early 19th century, the romantic medieval Gothic revival style was developed as a reaction to the symmetry of Palladianism, such buildings as Fonthill Abbey were built. By the middle of the 19th century, as a result of new technology, construction was able to incorporate steel as a building component.
Paxton continued to build such houses as Mentmore Towers, in the still popular English Renaissance styles. New methods of construction were developed in this era of prosperity, but the architectural styles, as developed by such architects as Augustus Pugin, were retrospective. In Scotland, the architect Alexander Thomson who practiced in Glasgow was a pioneer of the use of cast iron and steel for commercial buildings, blending neo-classical conventionality with Egyptian and oriental themes to produce many original structures. Other notable Scottish architects of this period are Archibald Simpson and Alexander Marshall Mackenzie whose stylistically varied work can be seen in the architecture of Aberdeen. While Scottish architects pioneered this style it soon spread right across the United Kingdom and remained popular for another 40 years, its architectural value in preserving and reinventing the past is significant. Its influences were diverse but the Scottish architects who practiced it were inspired by unique ways to blend architecture and everyday life in a meaningful way.
Jacobethan Renaissance Revival Neo-Grec Romanesque Revival Second Empire Queen Anne Revival Scots Baronial British Arts and Crafts movement While not uniquely Victorian, part of revivals that began before the era, these styles are associated with the 19th century owing to the large number of examples that were erected during that period. Victorian architecture has many intricate window frames inspired by the famous architect Elliot Rae. Gothic Revival Italianate Neoclassicism During the 18th century, a few English architects emigrated to the colonies, but as the British Empire became established during the 19th century, many architects emigrated at the start of their careers; some chose the United States, others went to Canada and New Zealand. They applied architectural styles that were fashionable when they left England. By the latter half of the century, improving transport and communications meant that remote parts of the Empire had access to publications such as the magazine The Builder, which helped colonial architects keep informed about current fashion.
Thus, the influence of English architecture spread across the world. Several prominent architects produced English-derived designs around the world, including William Butterfield and Jacob Wrey Mould; the Victorian period flourished in Australia and is recognised as being from 1840 to 1890, which saw a gold rush and population boom during the 1880s in the state of Victoria. There were fifteen styles that predominated: The Arts and Crafts style and Queen Anne style are considered to be part of the Federation Period, from 1890 to 1915. During the British colonial period of British Ceylon: Sri Lanka Law College, Sri Lanka College of Technology and the Galle Face Hotel. In the United States,'Victorian' architecture describes styles that were most popular between 1860 and 1900. A list of these styles most includes Second Empire, Stick-Eastlake, Folk Victorian, Queen Anne, Richardsonian Romanesque, Shingle; as in the United Kingdom, examples of Gothic Revival and Italianate continued to be constructed during this period, are therefore sometimes called Victorian.
Some historians classify the years of Gothic Revival as a distinctive Victorian style named High Victorian Gothic. Stick-Eastlake, a manner of geometric, machine-cut decorating derived from Stick and Queen Anne, is sometimes considered a distinct style. On the other hand, terms such as "Painted Ladies" or "gingerbread" may be used to describe certain Victorian buildings, but do not constitute a specific style; the names of architectural styles varied between countries. Many homes combined the elements of several different styles and are not distinguishable as one particular style or another. In the United States of America, notable cities which developed or were rebuilt during this era include Alameda, Albany, Troy, Boston, the Brooklyn Heights and Victorian Flatbush sections of New York City, Rochester, Columbus, Eureka, Galveston, Grand Rapids, Jersey City/Hoboken, Cape May, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Richmond, Saint Paul, Midtown in Sacramento, Angelino Heigh
Anchorage is a home rule-class city in eastern Jefferson County, United States. The population was 2,348 at the 2010 census and an estimated 2,425 in 2016, it is one of a suburb of Louisville. The land, now Anchorage was a part of Isaac Hite's 1773 land grant, which awarded most of the land in today's Jefferson County to officers in the Virginia militia, in exchange for their service in the French and Indian War. Early maps refer to the area as "Hite's Mill", it has been known as "Hobbs Station". Part of Hite's original grant now makes up the grounds of Central State Hospital and E. P. "Tom" Sawyer State Park. The nautical name is a bit odd, considering the city is over 12 miles from the Ohio River; the origin is The Anchorage, the estate of riverboat captain and early resident James W. Goslee, was chosen to honor him when the city incorporated in 1878, three years after his death. Tradition says that an anchor hanging inside the rim of a locomotive wheel at the center of town was taken by Goslee from his ship, the Matamora.
The Louisville and Frankfort Railroad was built through the area in 1849. The development of an interurban rail line in 1901 allowed faster travel between Anchorage and Louisville, as well as other towns in the area; the shaded city, with temperatures noticeably cooler than in Downtown Louisville, became a popular location for summer homes for wealthy Louisvillians. One such resident was brewing magnate Isaac Wolfe Bernheim, still remembered locally for his philanthropy. In 1914, Bernheim commissioned the firm of Frederick Law Olmsted to design a plan for Anchorage, which would incorporate stone bridges and triangle intersections, similar to Olmsted's plans for Louisville's park system; the city has long been known as home of some of the area's wealthiest citizens, though the large old estates have been divided up and many new, still upscale, houses have been built in the area since 1977. Part of the city is designated as the Anchorage Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982.
Papa John's Pizza founder John Schnatter is a resident and owns about 6% of the land in Anchorage, including much of the city center. He restored an interurban rail station, three historic buildings and built a fourth in a similar style in the city's center, with plans to build a bank, an upscale restaurant, a hiking trail, which opened as the Anchorage Trail in June 2008. In an interview, he told the Courier-Journal that his goal was purely to "preserve the city's character". Anchorage is located in northeastern Jefferson County at 38°15′55″N 85°32′15″W, it is bordered to the south by Middletown. Downtown Louisville is 15 miles to the west. Interstate 265 passes north and east of Anchorage, with access from Exits 29 and 30. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.0 square miles, of which 0.01 square miles, or 0.38%, are water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,264 people, 729 households, 643 families residing in the city; the population density was 744.0 people per square mile.
There were 750 housing units at an average density of 246.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.13% White, 0.84% Black or African American, 1.33% Asian, 0.27% from other races, 0.44% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.75% of the population. There were 729 households out of which 52.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 81.9% were married couples living together, 3.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 11.7% were non-families. 10.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.09 and the average family size was 3.33. In the city, the population was spread out with 35.0% under the age of 18, 4.0% from 18 to 24, 20.8% from 25 to 44, 32.2% from 45 to 64, 8.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $133,969, the median income for a family was $147,050.
Males had a median income of $100,000 versus $47,188 for females. The per capita income for the city was $63,988. About 1.1% of families and 1.87% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.2% of those under age 18 and 2.5% of those age 65 or over. Depending on location, families in Anchorage are provided K-12 education by either Jefferson County Public Schools, or by Anchorage Public School. Anchorage Public School is part of the Anchorage Independent Schools School District. Kelley Ransdell is the Superintendent of Schools. Joan Osborne, singer-songwriter David C. Novak, CEO of Yum! Brands Virginia Pearson, silent movie star John Schnatter and former CEO of Papa John's Pizza The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Anchorage has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. National Register of Historic Places listings in Anchorage, Kentucky City of Anchorage official website Anchorage Trail—19th National Trails Symposium – November 2008 Anchorage, KY Climate Info, Weather Conditions and Forecast "Anchorage: Edward Hobbs' Actions Gave Town Strong Roots for Growth.