1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
U.S. Route 63
U. S. Route 63 is a major 1,286-mile north–south United States highway in the Midwestern United States; the southern terminus of the route is at Interstate 20 in Louisiana. The northern terminus is at U. S. Route 2 in Benoit, about 60 miles east of Duluth, Minnesota. U. S. 63 overlaps US 167 for its entire route in Louisiana, from Ruston north, to Junction City, at the Arkansas state line, a distance of 35 miles. U. S. 63 overlaps numerous other Interstate and U. S. highways on its way from Junction City, at the Louisiana line, north to Mammoth Spring, at the Missouri line. S. highway twice, just misses crossing three others twice: Continuing from Ruston, Louisiana, U. S. 167 from Junction City to El Dorado I-530 and U. S. 65, along with U. S. 79, in Pine Bluff U. S. 79 again from Pine Bluff to Stuttgart U. S. 165 in Stuttgart U. S. 70 in Hazen I-40 from Hazen to West Memphis. A concurrent segment of U. S. 70 and U. S. 79 serves as its service road just west of West Memphis. S. 49 at Brinkley. I-55 from West Memphis to Turrell, silently picking up U.
S. 61 at Turrell and U. S. 64 at Marion U. S. 49 again in Jonesboro U. S. 412 alone from Portia to Imboden U. S. 62 and U. S. 412 from Imboden to Hardy. S. 167 again at its northern terminus at Ash Flat, near HardyMany of these concurrencies and multiple crossings occurred when the south end of U. S. 63 was extended from Turrell to Ruston in 1999, in a different direction from the Mammoth Spring-to-Turrell segment. In addition, U. S. 63 from Jonesboro to Turrell is now designated as Interstate 555, which involved building service roads and a few other upgrades to interstate standards. It has been questioned as to whether or not U. S. 63 will be rerouted to eliminate the dogleg from Jonesboro to West Memphis to Hazen. Possible reroutings could be U. S. 63/49 from Jonesboro to Brinkley and U. S. 63/70 from Brinkley to Hazen or U. S. 63/AR 1 from Jonesboro to Forrest City and U. S. 63/70 from Forrest City to Hazen. The highway passes south-to-north through Missouri, from Arkansas to Iowa, serving cities such as Rolla, Jefferson City, Moberly and Kirksville.
Notable routes that are intersected include U. S. Route 60 in Howell County, Interstate 44 at Rolla, U. S. Route 50, U. S. Route 54, Interstate 70 at Columbia, U. S. Route 24 at Moberly, U. S. Route 36 at Macon, U. S. Route 136 at Lancaster. U. S. 63 in Missouri was Route 7 from 1922 to 1926. U. S. 63 passes south-to-north through Iowa. It enters the state from Missouri south of Bloomfield. Between Ottumwa and Oskaloosa, the highway overlaps Iowa Highway 163; this segment is an expressway which connects Des Moines with Burlington, with freeway bypasses of Ottumwa and Eddyville. Near Malcom, U. S. 63 meets Interstate 80. Only a few miles it joins U. S. 6 westbound for several miles near Grinnell goes north again. At Toledo, it intersects U. S. 30 and at Waterloo, U. S. 63 meets U. S. 20. An expressway section opened in October 2012, completing the four-lane link between Waterloo and New Hampton; the highway enters Minnesota just north of Chester. U. S. 63 enters Minnesota from Iowa south of Spring Valley. After meeting Interstate 90, U.
S. 63 serves the local airport and intersects with U. S. Route 52. In this area, U. S. 63 is an expressway, but plans are to upgrade the highway to a freeway between Stewartville and the U. S. 52 interchange. In 2014, U. S. 63 was rerouted around downtown Rochester, running concurrently with U. S. 52 to 75th St NW, jutting back to the east to the existing route. North of Rochester, the highway meets U. S. Route 61 at Lake City. From there, the two routes run concurrent to Red Wing, where U. S. 63 crosses the Mississippi River to enter Wisconsin over the Eisenhower Bridge. The Minnesota section of U. S. 63 is defined as Routes 59 and 161 in Minnesota Statutes §§ 161.114 and 161.115. U. S. 63 enters Wisconsin south of Hager City. Near Baldwin, U. S. 63 intersects Interstate 94. The highway overlaps near Spooner with U. S. Route 53. At Trego, they separate and U. S. 63 runs southwest to northeast, ending near Benoit at U. S. Route 2. Though US 63 as a stand-alone highway had always ended at Turrell, Arkansas before the 1999 extension, in the past it was concurrent with US 61/US 64/US 70/US 79 on into Memphis, over the Memphis & Arkansas Bridge.
Unlike the 1999 extension, this concurrency to Memphis was in line with the rest of US 63. Though some maps continued to show this concurrency until 1999, Arkansas had not recognized US 63 south of Turrell for many years, since at least the 1960s. Louisiana I‑20 / US 167 in Ruston. US 63/US 167 travels concurrently to Arkansas. Arkansas US 82 in El Dorado Future I‑69 south of Warren US 278 in Warren I‑530 / US 65 / US 79 in Pine Bluff. I-530/US 63/US 65 travels concurrently through the city. US 63/US 79 travels concurrently to Stuttgart. I‑530 / US 65 / US 425 in Pine Bluff US 165 in Stuttgart US 70 in Hazen; the highways travel concurrently through the city. I‑40 in Hazen; the highways travel concurrently to West Memphis. US 49 in Brinkley US 79 south of Jennette; the highways travel concurrently to West Memphis. I‑40 / I‑55 / US 61 / US 64 / US 79 in West Memphis. I-55/US 63 travels concurrently to Turrel
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Jonesboro is a city located on Crowley's Ridge in the northeastern corner of the U. S. State of Arkansas. Jonesboro is one of the home of Arkansas State University. According to the 2010 Census, the city had a population of 71,551 and is the fifth-largest city in Arkansas. Jonesboro is the economic center of northeastern Arkansas, it is the principal city of Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 2010, the Jonesboro metropolitan area had a population of 121,026 and a population of 163,116 in the Jonesboro-Paragould Combined Statistical Area. Jonesboro is a regional center for manufacturing, medicine and trade; the Jonesboro area was first inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous peoples. At the time of European encounter, historic tribes included the Osage, the Caddo, the Quapaw; the name of the state of Arkansas comes from the Quapaw language. French and Spanish traders and trappers had relations with these groups. After the United States acquired this territory in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, American settlers made their way to the area where Jonesboro is located.
They began exploring, hunting and trading with the local Indian tribes. A permanent settlement of Jonesboro was set up shortly after 1815. In 1859, land was taken from nearby Greene and Poinsett counties and was used to form Craighead County. Jonesboro was designated as the original county seat; as the population increased in the west of the county, Lake City was named as the second seat. In 1859 Jonesboro had 150 residents, it was named after State Senator William A. Jones in recognition of his support for the formation of Craighead County. Spelled Jonesborough, the city name was shortened to its present-day spelling. During the late 19th century, the city tried to develop its court system and downtown infrastructure. Shortly after being named county seat, the highest point in Jonesboro was identified and a court house was planned for construction; this was delayed for several years. The first court house was completed but was destroyed by a fire in 1869. A store across from this site was used as a court house.
It was destroyed in an 1876 fire. Another building was constructed on the same site, but it fell to a fire in 1878, a major one that destroyed most of downtown Jonesboro. Soon afterward, another court house was constructed, it still stands; the St. Louis Southwestern Railway, known as the Cotton Belt Railroad was constructed through Jonesboro, with its tracks passing just north of the center of the city. During the first train's journey, it became stuck and supplies had to be carried into town, it connected St. Louis to points in Texas. Other major railways began to construct tracks to and from Jonesboro, including the St. Louis–San Francisco Railway and Missouri Pacific Railroad; some of the rail companies still use the tracks that run through Jonesboro. The city set up the Jonesboro School District in 1899. In 1900, St. Bernard's Regional Medical Center was established by the Olivetan Benedictine Sisters; the Grand Leader Department Store, the first department store in the city, was opened in 1900.
Woodland College and two schools within the Jonesboro School District were opened in 1904. Arkansas State College was established in 1909, a year in which the first horseless carriages were driven in the city. There is a recording on a Sanborn Fire Insurance Map dating back to March 1897 of a Presbyterian Church existing at the corner of Church St. and Monroe, a Christian church located at the corner of Union and Huntington Ave. Other early churches of the city were started in the 1910s. First Baptist Church was founded in 1911, First Methodist Church in 1916. On September 10, 1931, Governor Harvey Parnell authorized the Arkansas National Guard to be deployed in Jonesboro to quell the Church War, a clash between the followers of Joe Jeffers and Dow H. Heard, the pastor of the First Baptist Church of Jonesboro. Jeffers' supporters attacked the mayor and police chief, resulting in front-page coverage of the incident in The New York Times. During the 20th century, Jonesboro began to diversify its economy, with industrial businesses that allowed it to grow beyond the cotton culture.
The university attracts educated residents. The Jonesboro Lynching of 1881 took place at midnight on March 12; the Decatur Daily Republican reported that four black men—Green Harris, Giles Peck, John Woods, Burt Hoskins —had been arrested and tried before magistrates Jackson and Akers at New Haven Church, eight miles north of Jonesboro. The hearing, which found that the men were guilty, was attended by several hundred people. According to this and several other reports, the accused made a complete confession; the magistrates bound them over to the grand jury, they were ordered taken to the jail in Jonesboro. The hour being late, however, it was decided to hold them overnight in the church under a strong guard; the large crowd dispersed, “muttering threats of vengeance.” Around midnight, between 200 and 300 masked men surrounded the church, overpowered the guards, broke in the doors and windows. They seized the accused, dragged them to a tree about 200 yards away, hanged them. Once again, the crowd dispersed, “leaving the bodies of their victims dangling in the air and presenting a horrible spectacle in the moonlight.”
According to the Republican, “The crime and punishment form one of the blackest pages in the annals of the state.” On May 15, 1968 an F4 tornado struck Jonesboro. The Westside Middle
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Paul David Hewson, KBE OL, known by his stage name Bono, is an Irish singer-songwriter, venture capitalist and philanthropist. He is best known as the lead vocalist and primary lyricist of rock band U2. Bono was raised in Dublin, Ireland, he attended Mount Temple Comprehensive School where he met his future wife, Alison Stewart, as well as schoolmates with whom he founded U2 in 1976. Bono soon established himself as a passionate frontman for the band through his expressive vocal style and grandiose gestures and songwriting, his lyrics are known for their social and political themes, for their religious imagery inspired by his Christian beliefs. During U2's early years, Bono's lyrics contributed to the group's spiritual tone; as the band matured, his lyrics became inspired more by personal experiences shared with the other members. As a member of U2, Bono has received 22 Grammy Awards and has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Bono is well known for his activism both through U2 and as an individual.
He is active in campaigning for Africa, for which he co-founded DATA, EDUN, the ONE Campaign, Product Red. In pursuit of these causes, he has participated in benefit concerts and met with influential politicians. Bono has been praised for his philanthropic efforts. In 2005, Bono was named one of the Time Persons of the Year. Outside the band, he has recorded with numerous artists, he has collaborated with U2 bandmate the Edge on several projects, including: songs for Roy Orbison and Tina Turner. He is Managing Director and a Managing Partner of the private equity firm Elevation Partners, which has invested in several companies. Bono was born in the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, on 10 May 1960, he was raised in the Northside suburb of Finglas with his brother by their mother, Iris, a member of the Church of Ireland, their father, Brendan Robert "Bob" Hewson, a Roman Catholic. His parents agreed that the first child would be raised Anglican and the second Catholic. Although Bono was the second child, he attended Church of Ireland services with his mother and brother.
He went to the local primary Glasnevin National School. Bono's mother died on 10 September 1974, after suffering a cerebral aneurysm at her father's funeral. Many U2 songs, including "I Will Follow", "Mofo", "Out of Control", "Lemon" and "Tomorrow" focus on the loss of his mother. Bono attended a multi-denominational school in Clontarf. During his childhood and adolescence and his friends were part of a surrealist street gang called "Lypton Village". Bono met one of Guggi, in Lypton Village; the gang had a ritual of nickname-giving. Bono had several names: first, he was "Steinhegvanhuysenolegbangbangbang" just "Huyseman", followed by "Houseman", "Bon Murray", "Bono Vox of O'Connell Street", just "Bono". "Bono Vox" is an alteration of Bonavox, a Latin phrase which translates to "good voice". It is said he was nicknamed "Bono Vox" by his friend Gavin Friday, he disliked the name. Hewson has been known as "Bono" since the late 1970s. Although he uses Bono as his stage name, close family and friends refer to him as Bono, including fellow band members.
After he left school, his father Bob Hewson, told him he could live at home for one year but if he was not able to pay his own way, he would have to leave the house. Bono is married to businesswoman Alison Hewson; the couple have four children: daughters Jordan and Memphis Eve and sons Elijah Bob Patricius Guggi Q and John Abraham. Bono was a close friend to INXS frontman Michael Hutchence. Bono is never seen in public without sunglasses, as he suffers from glaucoma. During a Rolling Stone interview he stated: sensitive eyes to light. If somebody takes my photograph, I will see the flash for the rest of the day. My right eye swells up. I've a blockage there. So it's it's part privacy and part sensitivity. In the late 1980s or early 90s, Bono bought a top-floor duplex apartment in Manhattan's San Remo apartment building from Steve Jobs for $15 million. Jobs never moved in. In 2004, Bono was given an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from the University of Pennsylvania. In May 2010, Bono suffered a spinal injury while preparing for a U2 tour, was taken to a German clinic in Munich for emergency neurosurgery.
The North American leg of the tour was postponed and rescheduled for 2011. Bono was named one of the 17 Irish artists to be proud of by the Irish Post on 9 April 2013. Time magazine ranked him at the 8th place on its list of the "Most Influential Celebrities" in 2013. Bono's work as an activist, due to his Christian beliefs, began in earnest when, inspired by Live Aid, he travelled to Ethiopia to work in a feeding camp with his wife Alison and the charity World Vision, an Evangelical Christian humanitarian aid and advocacy organisation. With regard to Bono's 2013 declarations in interviews published and videotaped of his faith in Jesus Chri