The bonobo historically called the pygmy chimpanzee and less the dwarf or gracile chimpanzee, is an endangered great ape and one of the two species making up the genus Pan. Although bonobos are not a subspecies of chimpanzee, but rather a distinct species in their own right, both species are sometimes referred to collectively using the generalized term chimpanzees, or chimps. Taxonomically, the members of the chimpanzee/bonobo subtribe; the bonobo is distinguished by long legs, pink lips, dark face, tail-tuft through adulthood, parted long hair on its head. The bonobo is found in a 500,000 km2 area of the Congo Basin in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central Africa; the species is omnivorous and inhabits primary and secondary forests, including seasonally inundated swamp forests. Because of political instability in the region and the timidity of bonobos, there has been little field work done observing the species in its natural habitat. Along with the common chimpanzee, the bonobo is the closest extant relative to humans.
As the two species are not proficient swimmers, the formation of the Congo River 1.5–2 million years ago led to the speciation of the bonobo. Bonobos live south of the river, thereby were separated from the ancestors of the common chimpanzee, which live north of the river. There are no concrete data on population numbers, but the estimate is between 29,500 and 50,000 individuals; the species is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List and is threatened by habitat destruction and human population growth and movement, though commercial poaching is the most prominent threat. Bonobos live 40 years in captivity. Despite the species' common name "pygmy chimpanzee", the bonobo is not diminutive when compared to the common chimpanzee, with exception of its head; the appellative "pygmy" is attributable to the species' namer, Ernst Schwarz, who classified the species on the basis of a mislabeled bonobo cranium, noting its diminutive size compared to chimpanzee skulls. The name "bonobo" first appeared in 1954, when Eduard Paul Tratz and Heinz Heck proposed it as a new and separate generic term for pygmy chimpanzees.
The name is thought to derive from a misspelling on a shipping crate from the town of Bolobo on the Congo River near the location from which the first bonobo specimens were collected in the 1920s. Fossils of Pan species were not described until 2005. Existing chimpanzee populations in West and Central Africa do not overlap with the major human fossil sites in East Africa. However, Pan fossils have now been reported from Kenya; this would indicate that both humans and members of the Pan clade were present in the East African Rift Valley during the Middle Pleistocene. According to A. Zihlman, bonobo body proportions resemble those of Australopithecus, leading evolutionary biologist Jeremy Griffith to suggest that bonobos may be a living example of our distant human ancestors. German anatomist Ernst Schwarz is credited with being the first to scientifically recognise the bonobo as being distinctive, in 1928, based on his analysis of a skull in the Tervuren museum in Belgium, thought to have belonged to a juvenile chimpanzee.
Schwarz published his findings in 1929. In 1933, American anatomist Harold Coolidge offered a more detailed description of the bonobo, elevated it to species status; the American psychologist and primatologist Robert Yerkes was one of the first scientists to notice major differences between bonobos and chimpanzees. These were first discussed in detail in a study by Eduard Paul Tratz and Heinz Heck published in the early 1950s; the first official publication of the sequencing and assembly of the bonobo genome became publicly available in June 2012. The genome of a female bonobo from the Leipzig zoo was deposited with the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration under the EMBL accession number AJFE01000000 after a previous analysis by the National Human Genome Research Institute confirmed that the bonobo genome is about 0.4% divergent from the chimpanzee genome. Studies showed that chimpanzees and bonobos are more related to humans than to gorillas. In the crucial Nature paper reporting on initial genome comparisons, researchers identified 35 million single-nucleotide changes, five million insertion or deletion events, a number of chromosomal rearrangements which constituted the genetic differences between the two Pan species and humans, covering 98% of the same genes.
While many of these analyses have been performed on the common chimpanzee rather than the bonobo, the differences between the two Pan species are unlikely to be substantial enough to affect the Pan-Homo comparison significantly. There still is controversy, however. Scientists such as Jared Diamond in The Third Chimpanzee, Morris Goodman of Wayne State University in Detroit suggest that the bonobo and common chimpanzee are so related to humans that their genus name should be classified with the human genus Homo: Homo paniscus, Homo sylvestris, or Homo arboreus. An alternative philosophy suggests that the term Homo sapiens is the misnomer rather, that humans should be reclassified as Pan sapiens, though this would violate the Principle of Priority, as Homo was named before Pan. In either case, a name change of the genus would have implications on the taxonomy of extinct species related to humans, including Australopithecus; the current line between Homo and non-Homo species is drawn about
Come My Fanatics… is the second studio album by English heavy metal band Electric Wizard. The album was released in January 1997 on Rise Above Records and was produced by Rolf Startin, Mike Hurst and band member Jus Oborn, it was the group's follow-up to their eponymous album Electric Wizard. Oborn described the release as a reaction to the music on the earlier album, which he had felt was not as heavy as he wanted the group to sound; the songs on Come My Fanatics… were described by Lee Dorrian, Rise Above Records owner, as breaking from the traditional doom metal style, with an unpolished and chaotic approach. The thematic elements of the album draw from 1970s horror films, biker movies and the writings of H. P. Lovecraft; the album release was followed by a tour with the band Cathedral and positive reviews from heavy metal magazines Metal Hammer and Kerrang!. Come My Fanatics… continued to receive praise in retrospective reviews, with Terrorizer declaring it "the wake-up that the UK doom scene needed" and Dorrian describing it as "the turning point of everything".
Prior to recording with Electric Wizard, lead singer Jus Oborn was interested in the death metal genre. After listening to Black Sabbath under the influence of mushrooms, he was inspired to take his music in a different direction. At the time, Oborn was a member of a group called Eternal; the rest of the guys were just into Alice in Chains."After forming in 1993, Electric Wizard recorded their self-titled debut album, released in 1996. AllMusic editor Eduardo Rivadavia described the album as "impressive" but considered Electric Wizards music to be "pretty standard doom fare for the time." Oborn was not happy with the recording of Electric Wizard, finding it lighter-sounding than they had wanted. He said, "We went to a big fancy studio and we were like,'Oh no, we've gotta do as we're told"; this led to the sound of their follow-up album, Come My Fanatics.... About the recording period, Oborn said, "Our country wasn't in a great state, and metal was fucked at that point. We were making a musical statement.
When you're younger everything is a reaction against the world." Oborn found producer Rolf Startin, who shared the band's desire for rawness and feeling, listed in the Yellow Pages. Startin was prepared to build the studio around the band, supplying the band with vintage amplifiers. Come My Fanatics... was recorded at Red Dog Studios in July 1996. Oborn described the album's production as "very technically inept", said it was "very difficult to deliberately do things badly, it just happened. It was the sound we were trying to create."Some songs on the album contain samples from films such as "Return Trip", which contains a sample of the film Cannibal Ferox. The horror film samples came from video nasties passed under the table at the market stall in Wimborne in Dorset, where the members of the group lived; the song "Invixor B/Phase Inducer" is an instrumental track, with an introduction that came about by accident when the band experimented with a drum & bass sampler in the studio. Oborn said the group were "quite impressed though we didn’t like the music".
He mentioned specific albums, such as Six Million Ways to Die "seemed quite brutal in the use of samples and, something we thought we could bring to our music". The album's closing track, "Solarian 13" is an instrumental track. Rise Above Records owner Lee Dorian stated that the group's sound on the record "somehow managed to break the mould of traditional doom metal", noting that previous doom metal groups are "very morose and slow and heavy which can be off-putting" while Electric Wizard had a guitar sound that had a "completely unpolished approach to the way they present themselves". Dan Franklin, writing for The Quietus, stated the group's style of music was "completely contrary to the spiritual tendencies of Trouble and others", noting its "thick and crushing sound". A 29 second sample of Electric Wizards's "Wizard in Black" featuring the groups use of sampling echoed these statements, noting that the album "somehow upped the sonic ante through a wall of sludge so thick that the most experienced of metal heads couldn't help but be overwhelmed by its power".
Dorian found the album difficult on a first listen, stating: When I first listened to it I was like'Fucking hell I can't hear the drums' but realized that it was a good thing that they were buried. I just got stoned and listened to it on my bed and thought it was the most amazing thing I'd heard; the music on the album draws influences from 1970s horror films, biker movies and the works of H. P. Lovecraft. Oborn had read Lovecraft since his early teenage years and admired his work the idea "that art should be otherworldly and have this sense of fear and something beyond our understanding. I took that as more of an influence than talking about tentacle-headed monsters, which only crosses the surface level." Oborn said Come My Fanatics... was conceived as a "piece of escapism", developed from an "insular, underground feeling that we were heading to our doom as a planet and no-one overground had a fucking clue about it". He stated that final three songs on the album, "Ivixor B / Phase Inducer", "Son of Nothing" and "Solarian 13", were a concept about leaving Earth because it was "so fucked up".
He said the ethic was that the planet was heading towards an environmental disaster and:... the powers that be aren’t doing anything about it and don’t care about the poorer people. So, behind it all, it might seem more recogni
The year 2013 is the 21st year in the history of the Ultimate Fighting Championship, a mixed martial arts promotion based in the United States. 2013 started with UFC on FX: Belfort vs. Bisping. 2013 saw the introduction of the women's bantamweight weight class with UFC 157: Rousey vs. Carmouche; the following fighters fought their first UFC fight in 2013: UFC on FX: Belfort vs. Bisping was a mixed martial arts event held by the Ultimate Fighting Championship on January 19, 2013, at Ginásio do Ibirapuera in São Paulo, Brazil; the main fight featured middleweights Vitor Belfort. The event held the first UFC fight for Daniel Sarafian, middleweight finalist on the first season of The Ultimate Fighter: Brazil. Sarafian was injured before the championship fight with Cezar Ferreira. Johnny Eduardo was linked to a bout at this event against Iuri Alcântara, but was replaced by George Roop. Roop was injured and replaced by UFC newcomer Pedro Nobre. Thiago Perpetuo was expected to face Michael Kuiper at the event.
On December 27, it was announced that Magalhaes had pulled out of the bout and that Kuiper would be shifted to UFC on Fox 6 on January 26, 2013 to face Buddy Roberts. Roger Hollett was expected to face Wagner Prado at the event. Fighters were awarded $50,000 bonuses. Fight of the Night: C. B. Dollaway vs. Daniel Sarafian Knockout of the Night: Vitor Belfort Submission of the Night: Ildemar Alcântara UFC on Fox: Henderson vs. Melendez was a mixed martial arts event held on April 20, 2013, at the HP Pavilion in San Jose, California; the event was broadcast live on FOX. The event was headlined by a UFC Lightweight Championship bout between defending champion Benson Henderson and Strikeforce Lightweight Champion Gilbert Melendez. Featured on the card was a bout between two time UFC Heavyweight Champion Frank Mir and Strikeforce Heavyweight Grand Prix Champion Daniel Cormier. Clay Guida was expected to face Chad Mendes at this event; however it was revealed on March 15 that Guida had pulled out of the bout citing an injury and was replaced by Darren Elkins.
Dan Hardy was expected to face Matt Brown at the event. However, Hardy was forced out of the bout due to medical issues regarding his heart and was replaced by Jordan Mein. Francisco Rivera was expected to face Hugo Viana at the event. However, Rivera was forced out of the bout with an injury and replaced by T. J. Dillashaw. A scheduled bout between Jon Tuck and Norman Parke was scrapped during the week leading up to the event, as Tuck was forced out of the bout with an injury. Fighters were awarded $50,000 bonuses. Fight of the Night: Matt Brown vs. Jordan Mein Knockout of the Night: Josh Thomson and Yoel Romero Submission of the Night: None The following is the reported payout to the fighters as reported to the California State Athletic Commission, it does not include sponsor money and does not include the UFC's traditional "fight night" bonuses or Pay-Per-View quotas. Benson Henderson: $200,000 def. Gilbert Melendez: $175,000 Daniel Cormier: $126,000 def. Frank Mir: $200,000 Josh Thomson: $95,000 def.
Nate Diaz: $15,000 Matt Brown: $60,000 def. Jordan Mein: $16,000 Chad Mendes: $56,000 def. Darren Elkins: $24,000 Francis Carmont: $38,000 def. Lorenz Larkin: $23,000 Myles Jury: $16,000 def. Ramsey Nijem: $14,000 Joseph Benavidez: $66,000 def. Darren Uyenoyama: $12,000 Jorge Masvidal: $60,000 def. Tim Means: $10,000 T. J. Dillashaw: $28,000 def. Hugo Viana: $8,000 Anthony Njokuani: $36,000 def. Roger Bowling: $12,000 Yoel Romero: $20,000 def. Clifford Starks: $8,000 UFC List of UFC champions List of UFC events UFC past events on UFC.com UFC events results at Sherdog.com