Boogie Down Productions

Boogie Down Productions was a hip hop group composed of KRS-One, D-Nice, DJ Scott La Rock. DJ Scott La Rock was murdered on August 27, 1987, five months after the release of BDP's debut album, Criminal Minded; the name of the group, Boogie Down, derives from a nickname for the South Bronx section of The Bronx, one of the five boroughs of New York City. The group pioneered the fusion of dancehall reggae and hip hop music and their debut LP Criminal Minded contained frank descriptions of life in the South Bronx during the late 1980s, thus setting the stage for what would become gangsta rap; the membership of BDP changed continuously throughout its existence, the only constant being KRS-One. The group was founded by KRS-One and DJ Scott La Rock, with producer Lee Smith, essential in the production of the songs in the group's first album Criminal Minded, being added as a member shortly after. From those beginnings, BDP members and collaborators included Lee Smith, Scott La Rock, D-Nice, Henry Wilkerson PoppyDa, Kenny Parker, Just-Ice, ICU, McBoo, Ms. Melodie, Heather B.

Scottie Morris, Tony Rahsan, Willie D. RoboCop, Harmony, DJ Red Alert, Jay Kramer, D-Square, Rebekah Foster, Scott Whitehill, Scott King, Chris Tait and Sidney Mills. BDP as a group ended because KRS-One began recording and performing under his own name rather than the group name. Original member Lee Smith, who has co-producer credit on the original 12” "South Bronx" single, was the last to be inexplicably jettisoned by KRS-One and the future new label after Scott's death. In the liner notes on BDP's 1992 album Sex and Violence, KRS-One writes: "BDP in 1992 is KRS-One, Willie D, Kenny Parker! BDP is not D-Nice, Jamal-ski, Harmony, Ms. Melodie, Scottie Morris, they are not down with BDP so stop frontin'." Steve "Flash" Juon of claimed. A conflict arose in the late 1980s concerning the origins of hip-hop, BDP made conscious efforts in its early work to establish its interpretation of the issue; the origins of hip-hop to many, including BDP, are believed to be from the Bronx. A rival hip-hop collective, known as the Juice Crew's lyrics, were misunderstood to contain a claim in the song "The Bridge" that hip hop was directly a result of artists originating from Queensbridge.

Boogie Down and KRS retorted angrily with songs such as “The Bridge is Over” and “South Bronx,” which started one of the first notable hip hop wars as MC Shan, Marley Marl, Roxanne Shanté and Blaq Poet all released songs featuring verses attacking KRS and Scott La Rock. The Bridge Wars, were only short-lived, after the death of Scott La Rock prior to the group's second album, KRS began to concentrate on conscious music. While Criminal Minded contained vivid descriptions of South Bronx street life, BDP changed after Scott's death. Producer Lee Smith was dropped and KRS-One adopted the Teacha moniker and made a deliberate attempt at creating politically and conscious hip-hop. BDP was influential in provoking social consciousness in hip-hop. However, the group was sometimes overshadowed by Public Enemy; the Jamaican influence present in Criminal Minded is well illustrated by the use of the "Mad Mad" or "Diseases" riddim started in 1981 with reggae star Yellowman's song "Zunguzung." BDP used this riff in the song "Remix for P is Free," and it was resampled by artists such as Black Star and dead prez.

As an album regarded by many as the start of the gangsta rap movement, Criminal Minded played an important role in reaffirming the social acceptance of having Jamaican roots. BDP referenced reggae in a way. From its start, BDP was impactful in both the development of hip-hop and giving a sincere voice to the reality of life in the South Bronx, a section of New York City, clouded with poverty and crime. With its debut album Criminal Minded, this early hip-hop group combined the sounds of LaRock's harsh, reggae-influenced beats and KRS-One's long-winded rhyme style on underground classics such as “9mm Goes Bang” and “South Bronx,” the album's gritty portrait of life on the streets influenced the gangsta rap movement that began in earnest two years later; the influence of BDP in the creation and development of gangsta rap highlights the cultural significance and impact of the type of music BDP and other early hip-hop artists like it created. This subgenre of hip-hop is most associated with hard-core hip-hop and is misinterpreted as promoting violence and gang activity.

This misinterpretation or stigma is related to Boogie Down Productions and the general purpose behind their underlying themes of violence. For instance, the cover art of Criminal Minded displays the two artists in this group brandishing drawn guns and displaying other firearms; this is not an encouragement of the violence described in BDP's music, but rather a portrayal or hinting at the violence present in the South Bronx as a means of expression and condemnation. This album art is not meant to advocate for violence but to challenge the conception of a criminal, to assert that those who are criminally minded are those who hold power; the music of BDP became more politically astute after the death of disc jockey Scott La Rock, KRS-One's went on to publish four more albums under the title of Boogie Down Productions, each one was innovative and expanded from the thuggish imagery of Criminal Minded and began to explore themes like black-on-black crime, black radicalism, using a riff on the words of Malcolm X, “by any means necessary”, which became the title of the second BDP album, st


Kourtaka or Kourdaka is an abandoned Turkish Cypriot village in the Paphos District of Cyprus, located 8 km west of Ayios Photios. A settlement between Choulou and Letymvou, Kourdaka is a rare case of a community that has overcome desertion and abandonment, instead, it has gained new life since 2012 with newcomers who have chosen to live in the area; this small mountain village of Pafos, under the Frankish and Venetian domination, was a royal fief that changed hands, was gifted or leased among royal families and feudal lords of the time. Although it was a Greek village, during the Ottoman domination, more in the 17th-18th century, its population changed its faith and were turned into Muslims, something confirmed by censuses during the British domination of the island. Kourtaka is located 380 m above sea level. Lemona is located 1.5 km away

Nicolas Meloche

Nicolas Meloche is a Canadian professional ice hockey defenceman. He is playing with the San Jose Barracuda in the American Hockey League as a prospect to the San Jose Sharks of the National Hockey League. Meloche was selected 40th overall by the Colorado Avalanche in the 2015 NHL Entry Draft. Meloche was drafted by the Baie-Comeau Drakkar in the 1st round of the 2013 QMJHL Entry Draft. During his first season with Baie-Comeau, Meloche scored 25 points in 54 games to set a franchise record for most points by a rookie defenceman, his outstanding play was recognized when he was named to the 2013–14 QMJHL All-Rookie Team; the following season he was chosen to play with the Canada men's national under-18 ice hockey team at the 2014 Ivan Hlinka Memorial Tournament where he helped Canada win the gold medal. Meloche was named to the play with the QMJHL All-Stars at the 2014 Subway Super Series, was selected to participate in the 2015 CHL/NHL Top Prospects Game. Rated as a top prospect, projected to be a possible first round selection in the 2015 NHL Entry Draft.

Meloche was subsequently selected 40th overall by the Colorado Avalanche. After attending the Avalanche's 2015 training camp, Meloche began the 2015–16 season in his third year with a rebuilding Drakkar. Despite languishing in the standings, Meloche was leading the defense in scoring with 16 points in 25 games before he was traded by Baie-Comeau to title contenders, Gatineau Olympiques, in exchange for a prospect and two draft picks on December 16, 2015. In being depended upon in a more defensive orientated role with the Olympiques, Meloche contributed with 5 goals and 17 points to end the regular season, he added three points in 9 post-season games before the Olympiques were eliminated in the second-round. In his final junior season in 2016–17, Meloche was unable to prevent Gatineau from a slow start in the standings. Despite leading the blueline in scoring with 21 points in 26 games, Meloche was again traded to a title contender, in a seven player deal with the Charlottetown Islanders on December 21, 2016.

On March 6, 2017, it was announced that Meloche signed his first NHL contract, agreeing to a three-year entry-level deal with the Colorado Avalanche. Having completed his junior career, Meloche attended the 2017 Colorado Avalanche training camp and played in the opening pre-season game before he was reassigned to AHL affiliate, the San Antonio Rampage, on September 20, 2017. Prior to the 2019–20 season, unable to make his breakthrough to the NHL with the Avalanche, Meloche was traded to the San Jose Sharks in exchange for Antoine Bibeau on September 27, 2019. Biographical information and career statistics from, or The Internet Hockey Database