Collins English Dictionary
The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English. It is published by HarperCollins in Glasgow; the edition of the dictionary in 1979 with Patrick Hanks as editor and Lawrence Urdang as editorial director, was the first British dictionary to use the full power of computer databases and typesetting in its preparation. This meant that, for instance, subject editors could control separate definitions of the same word and the results could be blended into the result, rather than one editor being responsible for a word. In a edition, they used the Bank of English established by Hanks at COBUILD to provide typical definitions rather than examples composed by the lexicographer; the current edition is the 13th edition, published in November 2018. The previous edition was the 12th edition, published in October 2014. A special "30th Anniversary" 10th edition was published in 2010, with earlier editions published once every 3–4 years; the unabridged Collins English Dictionary was published on the web on 31 December 2011 on CollinsDictionary.com, along with the unabridged dictionaries of French, German and Italian.
The site includes example sentences showing word usage from the Collins Bank of English Corpus, word frequencies and trends from the Google Ngrams project, word images from Flickr. In August 2012, CollinsDictionary.com introduced Facebook-linked crowd-sourcing for neologisms, whilst still maintaining overall editorial control to remain distinct from Wiktionary and Urban Dictionary. This followed an earlier launch of a discussion forum for neologisms in 2004. In May 2015, CollinsDictionary.com added 6500 new Scrabble words to their Collins Official Scrabble Wordlist. The words are based on terms related to and influenced by slang, social media, food and more. CollinsDictionary.com – Collins English Dictionary, American English Dictionary, French, German and Spanish
Richard David Bach is an American writer. Bach is known as the author of some of the 1970s biggest-sellers, including Jonathan Livingston Seagull and Illusions: The Adventures of a Reluctant Messiah. Bach has written numerous works of fiction, non-fiction flight-related titles. Most of Bach's books have been semi-autobiographical, using actual or fictionalized events from his life to illustrate his philosophy. Bach's books espouse his philosophy that our apparent physical limits and mortality are appearance. Bach is noted for his love of aviation and for his books related to flying in a metaphorical context. Bach has pursued flying as a hobby since the age of 17. In late August 2012, Bach was badly injured when on approach to landing at Friday Harbor, his aircraft clipped some power lines and crashed upside down in a field. Bach was born in Oak Park, Illinois to Roland R. Bach, an American Red Cross chapter manager, Ruth, he attended Long Beach State College in 1955. Bach's first airplane flight occurred at age 14, when his mother was campaigning for a seat on the council of Long Beach, California.
Her campaign manager, Paul Marcus, mentioned that he flew airplanes, invited Richard on a flight in his Globe Swift. Bach served in the United States Navy Reserve in the New Jersey Air National Guard's 108th Fighter Wing, 141st Fighter Squadron, as a Republic F-84F Thunderstreak fighter pilot, he worked at a variety of jobs, including as a technical writer for Douglas Aircraft and as a contributing editor for Flying magazine. He served in the USAF reserve and was deployed in France in 1960, he became a barnstormer. During the summer of 1970, Bach and his friend Chris Cagle traveled to Ireland, where they participated in flying sequences for Roger Corman's film Von Richthofen and Brown, they flew a variety of World War I aircraft of the Blue Max collection owned by ex-RCAF pilot Lynn Garrison. Bach and Garrison first met when Bach wrote articles for Garrison's aviation publication. Most of Bach's books involve flight in some way, from the early stories which are purely about flying aircraft, to Stranger to the Ground, his first book, to his works, in which he used flight as a philosophical metaphor.
Richard Bach's first book, the autobiographical Stranger to the Ground described the deployment to France of his Air National Guard unit, was well reviewed, for example by Edmund Fuller in the Wall Street Journal. In 1970, Jonathan Livingston Seagull, a story about a seagull who flew for the love of flying rather than to catch food, was published by Macmillan Publishers after the manuscript was turned down by several others, it had been first published, free, in SOARING, the monthly magazine of the Soaring Society of America. The book, which included photos of seagulls in flight by photographer Russell Munson, became a number-one bestseller; the book contained fewer than 10,000 words. The surprise success of the book was reported in the media in the early 1970s. In 1973, Jonathan Livingston Seagull was turned into a film of the same name, produced by Paramount Pictures Corporation, with a soundtrack by Neil Diamond. In 1975, Bach was the driving force behind Nothing by Chance, a documentary film, based on his book of the same name.
The film centers on modern barnstorming around the United States in the 1970s. Bach recruited a group of his friends. A second book, Illusions: The Adventures of a Reluctant Messiah, published in 1977, tells of an encounter with a modern-day messiah who has decided to quit. On August 31, 2012, Bach was injured in an aircraft landing accident on San Juan Island in Washington, he was landing his aircraft, a 2008 Easton Gilbert G Searey that he nicknamed Puff, at a private airport when the landing gear clipped some power lines. He crashed upside down in a field about two miles from Friday Harbor, taking down two poles and sparking a small grass fire; the day after the accident, Bach was reported to be in serious but stable condition with a head injury and broken shoulder. Bach was hospitalized for four months, he reported that his near-death experience inspired him to finish the fourth part of Jonathan Livingston Seagull, published in three parts. In December 2012, Publishers Weekly reported that Travels with Puff, the book Bach wrote about crossing the United States in Puff, had been sent to his publisher the day before his accident.
Travels with Puff was released on March 19, 2013. In 2014, Bach published his long-awaited sequel to Illusions: The Adventures of a Reluctant Messiah, which he called Illusions II: The Adventures of a Reluctant Student; the story incorporates Bach's real-life aircraft crash, with the author imagining he is being visited by the "messiah" Don Shimoda, who helps him through his difficult medical recovery. Other fictional characters and references appear. Bach had six children with Bette Jeanne Franks. A pilot, she is the author of Patterns: Tales of Flying and of Life, a book about her life as a pilot and single mother, she edited most of Richard's aviation writing. They divorced in 1970, Bach spent years without seeing his children. Richard and Bette's son Jonathan, named after the titular character in Bach's bestseller, Jonathan Livingston Seagull, is a software engineer and journalist, he wrote the 1993 book Above the Clouds, about growing up without knowing his father and later meeting him as a college student.
Richard gave his approval, although he noted that it included some personal history he would "rather not see in print."Their other children are Robert, a commercial airline pilot.
84, Charing Cross Road
84, Charing Cross Road is a 1970 book by Helene Hanff made into a stage play, television play, film, about the twenty-year correspondence between the author and Frank Doel, chief buyer of Marks & Co antiquarian booksellers, located at the eponymous address in London, England. Hanff was in search of obscure classics and British literature titles that she had been unable to find in New York City when she noticed an ad in the Saturday Review of Literature, she first contacted the shop in 1949 and it fell to Doel to fulfil her requests. In time, a long-distance friendship developed between the two and between Hanff and other staff members, as well, with an exchange of Christmas packages, birthday gifts and food parcels to help with the post-World War II food shortages in Britain, their letters included discussions about topics as diverse as the sermons of John Donne, how to make Yorkshire Pudding, the Brooklyn Dodgers and the coronation of Elizabeth II. Hanff postponed visiting her English friends until too late.
Hanff did visit Charing Cross Road and the empty shop in the summer of 1971, a trip recorded in her 1973 book The Duchess of Bloomsbury Street. The five-story building where Marks & Co. was located during the events of the book still exists. A circular brass plaque on a pilaster on the street frontage acknowledges the story and marks the site; the premises were occupied by a music and CD shop in the early 1990s, other retail outlets. In 2009 they housed a Med Kitchen restaurant. Partial list of the books that Helene Hanff ordered from Marks & Co. and mentioned in 84 Charing Cross Road: Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice, Francis trans. Memoirs of the Duc de Saint-Simon Belloc, Hillaire. Essays. Catullus – Loeb Classics Chaucer, Geoffrey The Canterbury Tales translated by Hill, published by Longmans 1934) Delafield, E. M. Diary of a Provincial Lady Dobson, Austen ed.. The Sir Roger De Coverley Papers Donne, John Sermons Elizabethan Poetry Grahame, The Wind in the Willows Greek New Testament Grolier Bible Hazlitt, William.
Selected Essays Of William Hazlitt 1778 To 1830, Nonesuch Press edition. Horace – Loeb Classics Hunt, Leigh. Essays. Johnson, Samuel, On Shakespeare, Intro by Walter Raleigh Jonson, Ben. Timber Lamb, Charles. Essays of Elia. Landor, Walter Savage. Vol II of The Works and Life of Walter Savage Landor – Imaginary Conversations Latin Anglican New Testament Latin Vulgate Bible / Latin Vulgate New Testament Latin Vulgate Dictionary Leonard, R. M. ed. The Book-Lover's Anthology. Newman, John Henry. Discourses on the Scope and Nature of University Education. Addressed to the Catholics of Dublin- "'Idea of a University" Pepys, Samuel. Pepys Diary – 4 Volume Braybrook ed. Plato's Four Socratic Dialogues, 1903 Quiller-Couch, The Oxford Book Of English Verse Quiller-Couch, The Pilgrim's Way Quiller-Couch, Oxford Book of English Prose Sappho – Loeb Classics St. John, Christopher Ed. Ellen Terry and Bernard Shaw: A Correspondence / The Shaw – Terry Letters: A Romantic Correspondence Sterne, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Stevenson, Robert Louis.
Virginibus Puerisque de Tocqueville, Alexis Journey to America Wyatt, Thomas. Poems of Thomas Wyatt Walton, Izaak; the Compleat Angler. J Major's. Walton, Izaak; the Lives of – John Donne – Sir Henry Wotton – Richard Hooker – George Herbert & Robert Sanderson Woolf, The Common Reader, 1932. Hugh Whitemore adapted 84, Charing Cross Road for the BBC's Play for Today, a television anthology series, it was first broadcast on 4 November 1975, starring Anne Jackson. In 1981, James Roose-Evans adapted it for the stage in a two-character version first produced at the Salisbury Playhouse with Rosemary Leach and David Swift, it transferred to the West End. A second production at the Playhouse ran from 5–28 February 2015, with Clive Francis and Janie Dee in the lead roles. After fifteen previews, the Broadway production opened to mixed reviews on 7 December 1982 at the Nederlander Theatre with Ellen Burstyn and Joseph Maher, it ran for 96 performances. Virginia Browns adapted the story for BBC Radio drama, it was broadcast on Radio 3 on 15 January 1976, with Margaret Robertson as Hanff and Lyndon Brook as Doel.
The play was produced by Christopher Venning. James Roose-Evans again adapted the play for a 2007 radio production starring Gillian Anderson and Denis Lawson, broadcast on Christmas Day on BBC Radio 4. Whitemore returned to the project to write the screenplay for the 1987 film adaptation starring Anne Bancroft and Anthony Hopkins; the dramatis personae were expanded to include Hanff's Manhattan friends, the bookshop staff, Doel's wife Nora, played by Judi Dench. Bancroft won a BAFTA Award as Best Actress; the Chinese-Hong Kong film Book of Love or Finding Mr. Right 2 references, is loosely inspired by, 84, Charing Cross Road. 84 Charing Cross Road – Play for Today, 1975 on IMDb 84 Charing Cross Road – film, 1987 on IMDb Marks & Co
Concise Oxford English Dictionary
The Concise Oxford English Dictionary is the best-known of the'smaller' Oxford dictionaries. The latest edition of the Concise Oxford English Dictionary contains over 240,000 entries and 1,728 pages, its 12th edition, published in 2011, is used by both the United Nations and NATO as the current authority for spellings in documents written in English for international use. It is available as an e-book for a variety of handheld device platforms. In addition to providing information for general use, it documents local variations such as United States and United Kingdom usage, it was started as a derivative of the Oxford English Dictionary, although section S–Z had to be written before the Oxford English Dictionary reached that stage. However, starting from the 10th edition, it is based on the Oxford Dictionary of English rather than the OED; the most recent edition is the 12th edition, published in 2011. Until 2000, it was the dictionary used on the UK game show Countdown. 1st Edition: The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, adapted by H. W. Fowler and F. G. Fowler... from the Oxford Dictionary.
2nd Edition: The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English H. W. Fowler alone. 3rd Edition: was revised by H. W. Fowler and H. G. Le Mesurier. 4th and 5th Editions were revised by E. McIntosh, who introduced the space-saving swung dash that stands for the headword; the title page still read The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English. 6th and 7th Editions were still called The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, but the subtitle now read based on the Oxford English dictionary and its supplements first edited by H. W. Fowler and F. G. Fowler, it was edited by J. B. Sykes. In the 7th Edition, symbols were introduced to mark uses considered offensive. 8th Edition: The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, first edited by H. W. Fowler and F. G. Fowler was edited by Robert E. Allen. Being computer-based, this edition changed the original structure to a large extent. 9th Edition was edited by Della Thompson. 1st Edition 100th Anniversary Edition: The Concise Oxford Dictionary The 1911 First Edition includes the photocopied version of the 1st Edition dictionary, an introductory essay by renowned language expert David Crystal, a timeline of the chronology through 100 years of COED.
ISBN 978-0-19-969612-3 1st impression 10th Edition became The Concise Oxford English Dictionary. It was edited by Judy Pearsall. Rather than being a direct revision of the 9th edition, it was based on the larger New Oxford Dictionary of English, which Pearsall had edited, its compilation had involved a re-analysis of much of the core vocabulary using the British National Corpus. The 10th edition was issued as an electronic resource, as a computer optical disc; this edition was to be the last Concise Oxford Dictionary to be used on Countdown, as contestant Helen Wrigglesworth declared ROADSIDE and it was declared illegal. After further inspection from Mark Nyman, the dictionary was found to not have any compound words in it, was thus abandoned and the show reverted to the 9th edition; the show switched to New Oxford Dictionary of English in series 43. 11th Edition, the Concise Oxford English Dictionary was edited by Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson. It was based on the Oxford Dictionary of English.
The 11th Edition is available on CD-ROM as an e-book for a variety of platforms. 12h Edition, the Concise Oxford English Dictionary was edited by Maurice Waite. This edition included 400 new entries, including sexting, gastric band, jeggings and woot. Includes 240,000 words and definitions. CD-ROM includes 50,000 spoken audio pronunciations, supports Windows 2000 and above, Mac OS X 10.1 and above. ISBN 978-0-19-960108-0 or ISBN 978-0-19-960111-0 1st impression ISBN 978-0-19-960110-3?th impression Android version: published by MobiSystems, Inc. Supports Android 4.1. Supports 18 language since version 6.0. 5.1.020 6.0.009 iOS version: published by MobiSystems, Inc. Supports iOS 8.0. Includes English and Catalan languages. 8.2.5: Adds iOS 10 optimizations. Contents are derived from New Oxford American Dictionary. 1st edition: Dictionary includes over 180,000 entries and definitions, over 300 illustrations. ISBN 0-19-530484-5/ISBN 978-0-19-530484-8?th impression Android version. Published by MobiSystems.
4.3.136 5.1.020 6.0.009 iOS. Published by MobiSystems. 8.2.5 Windows version. Published by MobiSystems. 2.2?th edition: Includes over 12,000
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information. It is the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content provide media to deliver and display the content for the same; the word "publisher" can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as micropublishing, blogs, video game publishers, the like. Publishing includes the following stages of development: acquisition, copy editing, printing and distribution. Publication is important as a legal concept: As the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy As the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation.
Self-publishing: The author has to meet the total expense to get the book published. The author should retain full rights known as vanity publishing. Publishing became possible with the invention of writing, became more practical upon the introduction of printing. Prior to printing, distributed works were copied manually, by scribes. Due to printing, publishing progressed hand-in-hand with the development of books; the Chinese inventor Bi Sheng made movable type of earthenware circa 1045, but there are no known surviving examples of his printing. Around 1450, in what is regarded as an independent invention, Johannes Gutenberg invented movable type in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould; this invention made books less expensive to produce, more available. Early printed books, single sheets and images which were created before 1501 in Europe are known as incunables or incunabula. "A man born in 1453, the year of the fall of Constantinople, could look back from his fiftieth year on a lifetime in which about eight million books had been printed, more than all the scribes of Europe had produced since Constantine founded his city in A.
D. 330."Eventually, printing enabled other forms of publishing besides books. The history of modern newspaper publishing started in Germany in 1609, with publishing of magazines following in 1663. Publishing has been handled by publishers, with the history of self-publishing progressing until the advent of computers brought us electronic publishing, made evermore ubiquitous from the moment the world went online with the Internet; the establishment of the World Wide Web in 1989 soon propelled the website into a dominant medium of publishing, as websites are created by anyone with Internet access. The history of wikis started shortly thereafter, followed by the history of blogging. Commercial publishing progressed, as printed forms developed into online forms of publishing, distributing online books, online newspapers, online magazines. Since its start, the World Wide Web has been facilitating the technological convergence of commercial and self-published content, as well as the convergence of publishing and producing into online production through the development of multimedia content.
Book and magazine publishers spend a lot of commissioning copy. At a small press, it is possible to survive by relying on commissioned material, but as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publisher's established circle of writers. For works written independently of the publisher, writers first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher. Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the majority come from unpublished authors. If the publisher accepts unsolicited manuscripts the manuscript is placed in the slush pile, which publisher's readers sift through to identify manuscripts of sufficient quality or revenue potential to be referred to acquisitions editors for review; the acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. The time and number of people involved in the process are dependent on the size of the publishing company, with larger companies having more degrees of assessment between unsolicited submission and publication.
Unsolicited submissions have a low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict "no unsolicited submissions" policy and will only accept submissions via a literary agent; this policy shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publisher and onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, if the author has provided pre-paid postage. Established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and n
A public space is a place, open and accessible to people. Roads, public squares and beaches are considered public space. To a limited extent, government buildings which are open to the public, such as public libraries are public spaces, although they tend to have restricted areas and greater limits upon use. Although not considered public space owned buildings or property visible from sidewalks and public thoroughfares may affect the public visual landscape, for example, by outdoor advertising; the concept of Shared space has been advanced to enhance the experience of pedestrians in public space jointly used by automobiles and other vehicles. Public space has become something of a touchstone for critical theory in relation to philosophy, visual art, cultural studies, social studies and urban design; the term'public space' is often misconstrued to mean other things such as'gathering place', an element of the larger concept of social space. One of the earliest examples of public spaces are commons.
For example, no fees or paid tickets are required for entry. Non-government-owned malls are examples of'private space' with the appearance of being'public space'. In Nordic countries like Norway, Sweden and Estonia, all nature areas are considered public space, due to a law, the allemansrätten. In the United States the right of the people to engage in speech and assembly in public places may not be unreasonably restricted by the federal or state government; the government cannot limit one's speech beyond what is reasonable in a public space, considered to be a public forum. In a private—that is, non-public—forum, the government can control one's speech to a much greater degree; this is not to say that the government can control what one says to others. The concept of a public forum is not limited to physical space or public property, for example, a newspaper might be considered a public forum, but see forum in the legal sense as the term has a specific meaning in United States law. Parks, beaches, waiting rooms, etc. may be closed at night.
As this does not exclude any specific group, it is not considered a restriction on public use. Entry to public parks cannot be restricted based upon a user's residence. In some cultures, there is no expectation of privacy in a public space, however civil inattention is a process whereby individuals are able to maintain their privacy within a crowd. Public space is shared and created for open usage throughout the community, whereas private space is individually or corporately owned; the area is built for a range of various types of entertainment. The physical setting is constructed, which creates a behavior influence. Limitations are imposed in the space to prevent certain actions from occurring--public behavior, considered obnoxious or out of character --and are supported by law or ordinance. Through the landscape and spatial organization of public space, the social construction is considered to be ruled by the implicit and explicit rules and expectations of the space that are enforced. Whilst it is considered that everyone has a right to access and use public space, as opposed to private space which may have restrictions, there has been some academic interest in how public spaces are managed to exclude certain groups - homeless people and young people.
Measures are taken to make the public space less attractive to them, including the removal or design of benches to restrict their use for sleeping and resting, restricting access to certain times, locking indoor/enclosed areas. Police forces are sometimes involved in moving'unwanted' members of the public from public spaces. In fact, by not being provided suitable access, disabled people are implicitly excluded from some spaces. Human geographers have argued that in spite of the exclusions that are part of public space, it can nonetheless be conceived of as a site where democracy becomes possible. Geographer Don Mitchell has written extensively on the topic of public space and its relation to democracy, employing Henri Lefebvre's notion of the right to the city in articulating his argument. While democracy and public space don't coincide, it is the potential of their intersection that becomes politically important. Other geographers like Gill Valentine have focused on performativity and visibility in public spaces, which brings a theatrical component or'space of appearance', central to the functioning of a democratic space.
A owned public space known as a owned public open space, is a public space, open to the public, but owned by a private entity a commercial property developer. Conversion of publicly owned public spaces to owned public spaces is referred to as the privatization of public space, is a common result of urban redevelopment. Beginning in the 1960s, the privatization of public space has faced criticism from citizen groups such as the Open Spaces Society. Private-public partnerships have taken significant control of public parks and playgrounds through conservancy groups set up to manage what is considered unmanageable by public agencies. Corporate sponsorship of public leisure areas is ubiquitous, giving open space to the public in excha
A public bookcase is a cabinet which may be and anonymously used for the exchange and storage of books without the formalities associated with libraries. When in public places these cabinets are of a robust and weatherproof design which are available at all times. However, cabinets installed in public or commercial buildings may be simple, unmodified book-shelves and may only be available during certain periods. Allied with the BookCrossing concept, the original public bookcases were conceived as artistic acts. Early examples are the creations of performance artist duo Clegg & Guttmann in 1991. Collections of bookcases were conceived as "free open-air libraries" in Darmstadt and Hannover in the late 1990s. In 2002, the Bonn Community Foundation awarded Trixy Royeck funding for her idea "outdoor books – books in the open" which she submitted while studying interior design in Mainz and since this time the concept has been replicated. A public bookcase opened in 2010 in Austria. In Basel, where many coffee shops and other venues host open bookshelves, a public bookcase was unveiled in June 2011.
Open bookcases are financed by a wide range of organisations. Visitors to the bookcases decide which books to deposit and borrow, whether to return or exchange borrowed books for others. If a public bookcase is centrally and accessibly located and is stocked with sufficient material, public bookcases are and appreciated. Vandalism has occurred in some places and, in successful cases, is countered by "bookcase sponsors" or "godfathers" who devote their time and attention to care of the collection; the acceptance and user-profile of public bookshelves was examined in 2008 by a study at the University of Bonn. It was found. One cannot equate public bookcases with classic peer-to-peer exchange, but they represent the voluntary transfer of goods. Surveyed users indicated that they believed that regular use of public bookcases could function as an example for similar schemes for other desirable goods; this acceptance has led to a rapid dissemination of public bookshelves throughout Germany. It has been found that storm-resistance promote sustained use.
In Oerlinghausen there is a modified version of the public bookcase. A small bookcase has been installed in Simon Square by the Friends of The Public Library, in collaboration with the Cohabitation/Society/Culture group of the local Agenda 21; these groups stock the bookcase as needed from a so-called "book exchange", a larger public event which has taken place in the Dietrich-Bonhoeffer-Haus in Oerlingsausen-South every Saturday since 2007. One may deposit book requests to be matched from stock by the operators of the exchange; the Salbke Bookmark is a open-air construction which includes a number of public bookcases. Built on the site of a demolished library in a depopulated district of Magdeburg, the local civic association has moved much of the stock to a nearby vacant shop where more than 10000 donations are securely housed. A cafe in Marburg includes a public bookcase; the city library now includes a cabinet of books which may be taken or exchanged by patrons rather than organising complex book disposal events.
The operation of this variant combines the library's daily operations with community control. As the bookcase is located in a protected space it does not require sponsorship or weather protection. In the United States, small enclosed bookcases in front of residences, have become a common sight in many cities; some of these are purchased from or otherwise registered with Little Free Library. In Australia, Street Library Australia operates along similar lines, while in Europe many public bookcases are registered via the Open Book Case project; the Open source /crowdsourcing mapping project OpenStreetMap has a designated tag for registering the location types and more of public bookcases. Book sales club Give-away shop List of public bookcases on German Wikipedia A subset of Public bookcases presented on a map as part of the OpenBookCase.org project