click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Book of Documents

The Book of Documents or Classic of History known as the Shangshu, is one of the Five Classics of ancient Chinese literature. It is a collection of rhetorical prose attributed to figures of ancient China, served as the foundation of Chinese political philosophy for over 2,000 years; the Book of Documents was the subject of one of China's oldest literary controversies, between proponents of different versions of the text. The "New Text" version was preserved from Qin Shi Huang's burning of books and burying of scholars by scholar Fu Sheng; the longer "Old Text" version was discovered in the wall of Confucius' family estate in Qufu by his descendant Kong Anguo in the late 2nd century BC, lost at the end of the Han dynasty and rediscovered in the 4th century AD. Over time, the "Old Text" version of the Documents became more accepted, until it was established as the imperially sanctioned edition during the early Tang dynasty; this continued until the late 17th century, when the Qing dynasty scholar Yan Ruoqu demonstrated that the additional "Old Text" chapters not contained in the "New Text" version were fabrications "reconstructed" in the 3rd or 4th centuries AD.

The chapters are grouped into four sections representing different eras: the semi-mythical reign of Yu the Great, the Xia and Zhou dynasties. The Zhou section accounts for over half the text; some of its New Text chapters are among the earliest examples of Chinese prose, recording speeches from the early years of the Zhou dynasty in the late 11th century BC. Although the other three sections purport to record earlier material, most scholars believe that the New Text chapters in these sections were composed than those in the Zhou section, with chapters relating to the earliest periods being as recent as the 4th or 3rd centuries BC; the history of the various versions of the Documents is complex, has been the subject of a long-running literary and philosophical controversy. According to a tradition, the Book of Documents was compiled by Confucius as a selection from a much larger group of documents, with some of the remainder being included in the Yizhoushu. However, the early history of both texts is obscure.

Beginning with Confucius, writers drew on the Documents to illustrate general principles, though it seems that several different versions were in use. Six citations of unnamed Shū appear in the Analects. Although Confucius invoked the pre-dynastic emperors Yao and Shun, figures from the Xia and Shang dynasties, he complained of the lack of documentation prior to the Zhou. Increasing numbers of citations, some with titles, appear in 4th century BC works such as the Mencius and Commentary of Zuo; these authors favoured documents relating to Yao and the Xia dynasty, chapters now believed to have been written in the Warring States period. The chapters believed to be the oldest were little used by Warring States authors due to the difficulty of the archaic language or a less familiar world-view. Fewer than half the passages quoted by these authors are present in the received text. Authors such as Mencius and Xunzi, while quoting the Documents, refused to accept all of it as genuine, their attitude contrasts with the reverence that would be shown to the text in the Han dynasty, when its compilation was attributed to Confucius.

Many copies of the work were destroyed in the Burning of Books during the Qin dynasty. Fu Sheng reconstructed part of the work from hidden copies in the late 3rd to early 2nd century BC, at the start of the succeeding Han dynasty, his version was known as the "New Text". It consisted of 29 chapters, but the "Great Speech" chapter was lost shortly afterwards and replaced by a new version; the remaining 28 chapters were expanded to 33 when Du Lin divided some chapters during the 1st century. Another version was said to have been recovered from a wall of the home of Confucius in 186 BC by his descendant Kong Anguo; this version was known as the "Old Text", because it was written in the pre-Qin seal script. Han dynasty sources give. According to the repeated account of the Book of Han, the Old Text included the chapters preserved by Fu Sheng, another version of the "Great Speech" chapter and some 16 additional chapters, it was part of the Old Text Classics championed by his son Liu Xin. A list of 100 chapter titles was in circulation.

The Shū was designated one of the Five Classics when Confucian works made official by Emperor Wu of Han, Jīng was added to its name. The term Shàngshū was used in the Eastern Han; the Xiping Stone Classics, set up outside the imperial academy in 175–183 but since destroyed, included a New Text version of the Documents. Most Han dynasty scholars ignored the Old Text, it disappeared by the end of the dynasty. A version of the Old Text was rediscovered by the scholar Mei Ze during the 4th century, presented to the imperial court of the Eastern Jin, his version consisted of the 33 chapters of the New Text and an additional 25 chapters, with a preface and commentary purportedly written by Kong Anguo. Mei's Old Text became accepted, it was the basis of the Shàngshū zhèngyì, published in 653 and made the official interpretation of the Documents by imperial decree. The oldest extant copy of the

GDUT UAV

GDUT UAVs are Chinese UAVs developed by Guangdong University of Technology, has entered service in China for aerial cinematography and survey missions with local business and governmental establishments. One of the earliest UAV developed by GDUT is a hexacopter, a multirotor first made its public debut in 2013 when it won the first place in 2013 Challenger Cup competition, it is designed by a team of five led by Mr. Ke Zong-Ze; the other team members include Liu Bai-Fang, Zou Zhi-Ming, Li Xin-Yin and Li Wang-Long, who wrote all the computer program codes for the UAV. Three professors have provided guidance, they are Professors Su Cheng-Yue, Chen Yuan-Dian, Lan Rui-Bin; this unmanned hexacopter has a pair of skids as landing gear, the complete name is Fully Automatically Piloted Multirotor UAV Intelligent Flight Control System. This hexacopter has a pair of skids as landing gear; the hexacopter has some basic obstacle detection system as standard equipment, thus it can automatically avoid obstacle, so that if erroneous command is given in remote control operations that would direct the UAV into obstacles, the UAV itself would override the erroneous command and avoid the obstacles and crash.

The hexacopter utilizes GPS navigation, the flight can be preprogrammed. Another design feature of this UAV system is that it incorporates battery recharger stations in an attempt to solve the problem of short endurance caused by the battery. To increase endurance by increasing batteries would reduce payload, so battery recharge stations are set up and when battery is low during flight, the UAV would automatically select and go to the closest recharge station based GPS coordinates pre-stored in the onboard computer on the principle similar to GPS navigation system for cars, recharged, the UAV would continue to perform its mission. List of unmanned aerial vehicles of the People's Republic of China

Proletarian Unity Party (Italy)

The Proletarian Unity Party was a political party in Italy. The PdUP was founded in the November 1972 by minority factions of two parties: the New PSIUP, led by Vittorio Foa and Silvano Miniati, that gathered the militants of the right wing of the Italian Socialist Party of Proletarian Unity who had not agreed on the decision to join the Italian Communist Party, Socialist Alternative, led by Giovanni Russo Spena and philosopher Domenico Jervolino, that gathered the militants of the left wing of the Workers' Political Movement who had opposed the merge into the Italian Socialist Party, its symbol was the hammer and sickle over the world, inheredited by the PSIUP. In 1974 these members were joined by the group of Il Manifesto and by the Autonomist Student Movemenet led by Mario Capanna, forming the Proletarian Unity Party for Communism; the founding congress was held on January 29, 1976. Main leaders of the various currents were Miniati, Capanna, Rossana Rossanda and Lucio Magri – leaning for collaboration with the Italian Communist Party and Italian General Confederation of Labour) – and Luigi Pintor.

Magri was elected as the group's first national secretary. During the 1976 general elections, PdUP ran together with Proletarian Democracy, gaining three seats in the Italian Chamber of Deputies elected out of the coalition's 9. In January 1977, the Manifesto and former-PSIUP affiliates left the party due to the failure in creating an all-left government. On February 20, 1977 the left-wing minority tendency broke away to join Proletarian Democracy in its founding process as organized party; the Magri's majority absorbed for a while the Avanguardia Operaia movement, however, separated in the Congress held at Viareggio the following year. During its third congress, the party was joined by the Movimento Lavoratori per il Socialismo, led by Luca Cafiero. After the elections of 1983 PdUP associated its lists to PCI, to which it had become closer after the PCI secretary Enrico Berlinguer had abandoned the Historic Compromise. On November 25, 1984 the Proletarian Unity Party merged into PCI. When, in 1991, Achille Occhetto started the process of transformation of PCI into the Social-Democratic oriented Democratic Party of the Left, some former PdUP members declared their opposition to the move, subsequently joined the Communist Refoundation Party.

After the latter withdrew from the Centre-left Lamberto Dini government in 1995, many former PdUP members left the party to create the Movement of Unitarian Communists, absorbed into PDS' heir, the Democrats of the Left

The Rap Year Book

The Rap Year Book: The Most Important Rap Song From Every Year Since 1979, Discussed and Deconstructed is a 2015 New York Times best-selling book written by Shea Serrano and illustrated by Arturo Torres. The Rap Year Book followed Serrano's 2013 project with Houston rapper Bun B, Bun B's Rap Coloring and Activity Book; the Rap Year Book took 15 months to develop, was still without an illustrator three months before the book's due date. Serrano encountered eventual collaborator Torres via a flyer Torres had designed announcing a performance by Dallas rap group The Outfit, Texas. Serrano contacted the group's management asking for information about who had made their flyer and tracked Torres down on social media; the Rap Year Book was published on October 2015, by Abrams Image. It is 240 pages with 150 full-color illustrations; the book is structured around essays by Serrano selecting the most important rap song for every year from 1979 to 2014. His text is accompanied by illustrations by Torres, "bright and offbeat cartoons...featuring depictions of Kanye and Jay-Z on a movie poster, Dr. Dre in scrubs, Drake using a pottery wheel, more."

Ice-T wrote the book's preface, critics, including Wesley Morris and Jessica Hopper, contributed short rebuttals arguing for alternative choices as the most important song of a given year. Propelled by Serrano's engagement with his enthusiastic Twitter following, The Rap Year Book ranked on 2015 The New York Times best-seller lists; the book's first pressing of 20,000 copies sold out in pre-orders before The Rap Year Book hit shelves. PopMatters reviewed the book as "both educationally useful and shamelessly fun...tailor-made to counter every criticism levied against routine, overly generalized music retrospectives." In the Los Angeles Review of Books, Oliver Wang said that while Serrano's essays take a position on what constitutes the most important song of each year, "he doesn’t browbeat his reader into agreement. More the main pleasure in reading The Rap Year Book isn’t in agreeing with Serrano’s choices but rather in following the elliptical paths he takes to explain them." In July 2017, Serrano announced that AMC would produce The Rap Year Book as a 6-part television documentary series with The Roots as executive producers

Regen (river)

The Regen is a river in Bavaria, a left tributary of the Danube, at Regensburg, Germany. The source of its main headstream, the Great Regen, is in the Bohemian Forest on the territory of the Czech Republic, near Železná Ruda; the river crosses the border at Bayerisch Eisenstein. The name in German evolved from the name in Latin; the Romans called the river variously Regana and Reganum. At Zwiesel, the Great Regen is joined by the Little Regen to form the Black Regen; the Black Regen flows through Regen and Viechtach, is joined by the White Regen in Bad Kötzting. Beyond this confluence, the river is called Regen; the river's total length, including its headstreams, the Great Regen and Black Regen, is 191 kilometres. The Little Regen crosses the Frauenau Reservoir; the Regen Valley forms the main valley crossing the Bavarian Forest. Cities along the Regen river include Regensburg. Regen List of rivers of Bavaria Franz Bogner: Der Regen. Ein Luftbildporträt vom Arber bis Regensburg. Pustet, Regensburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-7917-2054-8.

Bärbel Kleindorfer-Marx: Der Regen. Kultur und Natur am Fluss. Buch & Kunstverlag Oberpfalz, Amberg 1996, ISBN 3-924350-56-6. Media related to Regen at Wikimedia Commons

List of tramroads in South Wales

Numerous horse-drawn tramroads were constructed in South Wales during the Industrial Revolution, chiefly between the years 1790 and 1830 and connected with the iron and coal-mining industries. The earliest tramroads were "edge-railways", where the wagons were guided by having flanged wheels running on plain rails, but from around 1800 most tramroads in the area were being made according to the principles of Benjamin Outram, with unflanged wheels running on L-section tracks fixed to stone-block sleepers. Track gauges were not standardised. Overall, the early railways in South Wales covered about 400 miles, but between the 1840s and the 1860s most of the main lines were replaced by standard-gauge steam railways; the list of tramroads in South Wales can be split into a number of regions: The canals converging on Newport Docks comprised two independent canals: the Monmouthshire Canal between Newport and Pontymoile Basin (as well as the Crumlin Arm, the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal between Pontymoile and Brecon.

Numerous tramroads, some built by the canal companies themselves, converged on these canals, as well as forming cross-country routes not directly linked to the canals: This area encompasses the tramroads associated with the Glamorganshire and Aberdare Canals, which led to Cardiff Docks: Served by the Neath and Tennant Canal, which led to Neath and Port Tennant for the Swansea docks: This canal led up the Tawe valley north-east from Swansea: A number of unconnected tramroads, some linked to the Kidwelly and Llanelly Canal: A number of unconnected tramroads in other parts of South Wales: Priestley's Navigable Rivers and Canals, Joseph Priestley 1831 Coflein: National Monuments Record of Wales database old-maps.co.uk Bertram Baxter: Stone Blocks and Iron Rails, David & Charles, 1966 James Gilbert: Railways of England and Wales, E Grattan, 1838 Charles Hadfield: The Canals of South Wales and the Border, University of Wales Press & Phoenix House, 1960