The Book of Isaiah is the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in the Christian Old Testament. It is identified by a superscription as the words of the 8th-century BCE prophet Isaiah ben Amoz, but there is extensive evidence that much of it was composed during the Babylonian captivity and later. After Johann Christoph Döderlein suggested in 1775 that the book contained the works of two prophets separated by more than a century, Bernhard Duhm originated the view, held as a consensus through most of the 20th century, that the book comprises three separate collections of oracles: Proto-Isaiah, containing the words of the 8th century prophet Isaiah. While no scholars today attribute the entire book, or most of it, to one person, the book's essential unity has become a focus in more recent research. Isaiah 1–33 promises judgment and restoration for Judah and the nations, chapters 34–66 presume that judgment has been pronounced and restoration follows soon.
It can thus be read as an extended meditation on the destiny of Jerusalem after the Exile. The Deutero-Isaian part of the book describes how God will make Jerusalem the centre of his worldwide rule through a royal saviour who will destroy her oppressor. Isaiah speaks out against corrupt leaders and for the disadvantaged, roots righteousness in God's holiness rather than in Israel's covenant. Isaiah 44:6 contains the first clear statement of monotheism: "I am the last; this model of monotheism became the defining characteristic of post-Exilic Judaism, the basis for Christianity and Islam. Isaiah was one of the most popular works among Jews in the Second Temple period. In Christian circles, it was held in such high regard as to be called "the Fifth Gospel", its influence extends beyond Christianity to English literature and to Western culture in general, from the libretto of Handel's Messiah to a host of such everyday phrases as "swords into ploughshares" and "voice in the wilderness". Scholarly consensus through most of the 20th century saw three separate collections of oracles in the book of Isaiah.
A typical outline based on this understanding of the book sees its underlying structure in terms of the identification of historical figures who might have been their authors: 1–39: Proto-Isaiah, containing the words of the original Isaiah. While one part of the consensus still holds – no contemporary scholar maintains that the entire book, or most of it, was written by one person – this perception of Isaiah as made up of three rather distinct sections underwent a radical challenge in the last quarter of the 20th century; the newer approach looks at the book in terms of its literary and formal characteristics, rather than authors, sees in it a two-part structure divided between chapters 33 and 34: 1–33: Warnings of judgment and promises of subsequent restoration for Jerusalem and the nations. Seeing Isaiah as a two-part book with an overarching theme leads to a summary of its contents like the following: The book opens by setting out the themes of judgment and subsequent restoration for the righteous.
God has a plan which will be realised on the "Day of Yahweh", when Jerusalem will become the centre of his worldwide rule. On that day all the nations of the world will come to Zion for instruction, but first the city must be punished and cleansed of evil. Israel is invited to join in this plan. Chapters 5–12 explain the significance of the Assyrian judgment against Israel: righteous rule by the Davidic king will follow after the arrogant Assyrian monarch is brought down. Chapters 13–27 announce the preparation of the nations for Yahweh's world rule; the oppressor is about to fall. Chapters 34 -- 35 tell. Chapters 36–39 tell of the faithfulness of king Hezekiah to Yahweh during the Assyrian siege as a model for the restored community. Chapters 40–54 state that the restoration of Zion is taking place because Yahweh, the creator of the universe, has designated the Persian king Cyrus the Great as the promised messiah and temple-builder. Chapters 55–66 are an exhortation to Israel to keep the covenant.
God's eternal promise to David is now made to the people of Israel/Judah at large. The book ends by enjoining righteousness as the final stages of God's plan come to pass, including the pilgrimage of the nations to Zion and the realisation of Yahweh's kingship; the older understanding of this book as three discrete sections attributable to identifiable authors leads to a more atomised picture of its contents, as in this example: Proto-Isaiah/First Isaiah:1–12: Oracles against Judah from Isaiah's early years.
The historic 21-story Rhodes–Haverty Building was, at the time of its construction in 1929, the tallest building in Atlanta, Georgia. Designed by Atlanta architects Pringle and Smith, the building was built by furniture magnates A. G. Rhodes of Rhodes Furniture and J. J. Haverty of Havertys, it remained the tallest building in Atlanta until 1954. The building was converted from office use in 1995-1996 to become a Marriott Residence Inn, the Residence Inn Atlanta Downtown; the building and the district are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The building was constructed for the Rhodes Haverty Investment Company, a partnership of furniture magnates Amos G. Rhodes of Rhodes Furniture and J. J. Haverty of Haverty's, it was not named for the Rhodes–Haverty Furniture Company, dissolved. Rhodes Memorial Hall "Rhodes–Haverty Building", City of Atlanta Online Residence Inn Atlanta Downtown official website
The 182d Fighter Squadron is a unit of the Texas Air National Guard 149th Fighter Wing located at Kelly Field Annex, Joint Base San Antonio, Texas. The 149th is equipped with the F-16C/D Fighting Falcon. Established in mid-1943 as a P-47 Thunderbolt fighter squadron, trained under I Fighter Command on Long Island and Massachusetts. Moved to England, arriving in January 1944. Began operations with IX Fighter Command on 14 March and flew a fighter sweep over the English Channel coast of France. Made strafing and bombing attacks on airfields and highway bridges, vehicles, anti-aircraft gun positions, V-weapon sites to help prepare for the invasion of France. Supported the landings in Normandy early in June 1944 and began operations from the Continent the same month. Aided in the taking of Cherbourg, participated in the air operations that prepared the way for the Allied breakthrough at St Lo on 25 July, supported ground forces during their drive across France. Continued to support ground forces, participated in the assault against the Siegfried Line, took part in the Battle of the Bulge by attacking rail lines and trains, marshalling yards and vehicles, armored columns, gun positions.
Operated with the Allied forces that pushed across the Rhine and into Germany. After V-E Day, served with the army of occupation, being assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Inactivated in Germany on 20 August 1946; the wartime 396th Fighter Squadron was re-designated as the 182d Fighter Squadron, was allotted to the Texas Air National Guard, on 24 May 1946. It was organized at the Brooks Army Airfield and was extended federal recognition on 27 January 1947 by the National Guard Bureau; the 182d Fighter Squadron was bestowed the lineage, history and colors of the 396th Fighter Squadron. The squadron was assigned to the Texas Air National Guard 136th Fighter Group and was equipped with F-51D Mustangs; the mission of the squadron was the air defense of Texas. During the postwar years, the 182d trained the Hill Country and west Texas; as a result of the Korean War, the Texas Air National Guard was federalized and placed on active-duty status on 10 October 1950, being assigned to Ninth Air Force, Tactical Air Command.
TAC ordered the 136th Fighter Group to Langley Air Force Base, where the unit was re-designated to a Fighter-Bomber unit, its status was changed to a Wing. At Langley, the 136th Fighter-Bomber Wing consisted of the following units: 111th Fighter-Bomber Squadron 182d Fighter-Bomber Squadron 154th Fighter-Bomber Squadron. At Langley AFB, the 136th trained with their F-51D Mustangs. Losing two 111th FBS pilots in a training accident on 15 December. A third pilot was killed on 27 January 1951 in another accident. In February 1951, the aged F-51Ds that the unit had been flying since its activation in 1947 were replaced by F-84E Thunderjets, the squadron began transition training on the jet fighter-bomber. Most of the training took place at Langley, although some pilots were sent to Shaw AFB, South Carolina. Maintenance crews, all new to jet aircraft, were trained at Langley and engine specialists were sent to the Allison plant in Indianapolis. Assigned to the Arkansas ANG 154th FBS at the time was a Navy exchange pilot, future NASA astronaut Lieutenant Walter Schirra.
In May 1951, less than seven months the wing was deployed to Japan, being attached to Far East Air Force and stationed at Itazuke Air Force Base, the first echelon of the 136th arriving on 18 May. The 136th replaced the Strategic Air Command 27th Fighter-Escort Wing, which had deployed to Far East Air Force in the early days of the Korean War. At Itazuke, the squadrons took over the F-84Es of the 27th FEW, which remained in place, its aircraft being reassigned from SAC to Far East Air Force inventory records. On 2 June, the final elements of the 136th arrived in Japan, the national guardsmen relieved the 27th Fighter Bomber Wing and the SAC airmen departed for the United States; the 136th was the first Air National Guard wing in history to enter combat. From Japan the wing engaged in combat operations over South Korea, however flying in the North Pacific area was a challenge to the wing, losing seven F-84Es in non-combat operations and three in combat. On 26 June, in one of the largest air-to-air battles in Korea, two 182d FBS pilots, Captain Harry Underwood and 1st Lt Arthur Olighter shot down an enemy MiG-15 that broke through an F-86 Sabre escort of four B-29s.
Two other 111th FBS pilots, 1sts Lt John Morse and John Marlins scored probables in the same encounter. These were the first combat victories by Air National Guard pilots. On 3 July the 136th sent their aircraft to North Korea, attacking FLAK batteries in downtown Pyongyang while other aircraft attacked North Korean airfields. However, the short-legged F-84 had limited combat time over Korea, therefore on 16 November 1951 the wing moved to Taegu Air Force Base in South Korea for its combat operations. In 1952, the 136th was re-equipped with the F-84G Thunderjet, designed for tactical close air support of ground forces. During its time in combat, the 136th flew 15,515 combat sorties, it was the first ANG unit to down a MiG-15. The 136th Fight