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Book of Jeremiah

The Book of Jeremiah is the second of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, the second of the Prophets in the Christian Old Testament. The superscription at chapter Jeremiah 1:1–3 identifies the book as "the words of Jeremiah son of Hilkiah". Of all the prophets, Jeremiah comes through most as a person, ruminating to his scribe Baruch about his role as a servant of God with little good news for his audience, his book is intended as a message to the Jews in exile in Babylon, explaining the disaster of exile as God's response to Israel's pagan worship: the people, says Jeremiah, are like an unfaithful wife and rebellious children, their infidelity and rebelliousness made judgement inevitable, although restoration and a new covenant are foreshadowed. Authentic oracles of Jeremiah are to be found in the poetic sections of chapters 1–25, but the book as a whole has been edited and added to by the prophet's followers and generations of Deuteronomists, it has come down in two distinct though related versions, one in Hebrew, the other known from a Greek translation.

The date of the two can be suggested by the fact that the Greek shows concerns typical of the early Persian period, while the Masoretic shows perspectives which, although known in the Persian period, did not reach their realisation until the 2nd century BCE. It is difficult to discern any structure in Jeremiah because the book had such a long and complex composition history, it can be divided into six sections: Chapters 1–25 Chapters 26–29 Chapters 30–33 Chapters 34–45 Chapters 46–51 Chapter 52 The background to Jeremiah is described in the superscription to the book: Jeremiah began his prophetic mission in the thirteenth year of king Josiah and finished in the eleventh year of king Zedekiah, "when Jerusalem went into exile in the sixth month." During this period, Josiah changed the Judahite religion, Babylon destroyed Assyria, Egypt imposed vassal status on Judah, Babylon defeated Egypt and made Judah a Babylonian vassal, Judah revolted but was subjugated again by Babylon, Judah revolted once more.

This revolt was the final one: Babylon destroyed Jerusalem and its Temple and exiled its king and many of the leading citizens in 586 BC, ending Judah's existence as an independent or quasi-independent kingdom and inaugurating the Babylonian exile. The book can be conveniently divided into biographical and poetic strands, each of which can be summarised separately; the biographical material is to be found in chapters 26–29, 32, 34–44, focuses on the events leading up to and surrounding the fall of Jerusalem to the Babylonians in 587 BCE. The non-biographical prose passages, such as the Temple sermon in chapter 7 and the covenant passage in 11:1–17, are scattered throughout the book; the poetic material is found in chapters 1–25 and consists of oracles in which the prophet speaks as God's messenger. These passages, dealing with Israel's unfaithfulness to God, the call to repentance, attacks on the religious and political establishment, are undated and have no clear context, but it is accepted that they represent the teachings of Jeremiah and are the earliest stage of the book.

Allied to them, probably a reflection of the authentic Jeremiah, are further poetic passages of a more personal nature, which have been called Jeremiah's confessions or spiritual diary. In these poems the prophet agonises over the apparent failure of his mission, is consumed by bitterness at those who oppose or ignore him, accuses God of betraying him. Jeremiah exists in two versions, a Greek translation, called the Septuagint, dating from the last few centuries before Christ and found in the earliest Christian manuscripts, the Masoretic Hebrew text of traditional Jewish bibles – the Greek version is shorter than the Hebrew by about one eighth, arranges the material differently. Equivalents of both versions were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, so, clear that the differences mark important stages in the transmission of the text. Most scholars hold that the Hebrew text underlying the Septuagint version is older than the Masoretic text, that the Masoretic evolved either from this or from a related version.

The shorter version became canonical in Greek Orthodox churches, while the longer was adopted in Judaism and in Western Christian churches. It is agreed that the three types of material interspersed through the book – poetic and biographical – come from different sources or circles. Authentic oracles of Jeremiah are to be found in the poetic sections of chapters 1–25, but the book as a whole has been edited and added to by followers an

Xu Wen

Xu Wen, courtesy name Dunmei, formally Prince Zhongwu of Qi further posthumously honored Emperor Wu with the temple name Yizu by his adoptive son Xu Zhigao after Xu Zhigao founded the state of Southern Tang, was a major general and regent of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Wu. He took over the reins of the Wu state after assassinating, with his colleague Zhang Hao, Yang Wo, the first Prince of Hongnong, killing Zhang. Xu was in essence the decision-maker throughout the reign of Yang Wo's brother and successor Yang Longyan and the first part of the reign of Yang Longyan's brother and successor Yang Pu. After his death, Xu Zhigao inherited his position as regent seizing the Wu throne and establishing Southern Tang. Xu Wen was born during the reign of Emperor Yizong of Tang, his family was from Qushan. When he was young, he was a salt privateer, his parents' names were lost to history. At some point, he became a soldier under Yang Xingmi, the prefect of Lu Prefecture. Xu Wen did not distinguish himself in Yang Xingmi's campaigns — as while there were 36 officers under Yang who were considered to have distinguished themselves, led by Liu Wei and Tao Ya, Xu was not among them.

His first known act while serving under Yang was in 889, during Yang's lengthy struggle against Sun Ru for the control of Huainan Circuit, when Yang captured Xuan Prefecture after a lengthy siege. It was said that the other officers all hunted for spoils in gold and silk, but only Xu found a food supply, had porridge cooked and distributed to the hungry people of Xuan Prefecture. In 895, when Yang, who had by that point taken Huainan and was serving as its military governor, captured Hao Prefecture, the soldiers captured a seven-year-old child, whom Yang took into his household. However, Yang's oldest son Yang Wo disliked the child, Yang decided to give the child to Xu; as Xu Zhigao was said to be diligent and filially pious, Xu Wen loved him. Xu first distinguished himself in Yang's eyes in 902 when Yang was planning a major campaign against Zhu Quanzhong the military governor of Xuanwu Circuit. During the planning, most officers advocated using large ships to ship food supplies for the army, but Xu opposed, pointing out that the canals that would be utilized had long been silted and would be difficult to pass.

He was not listened to, but when subsequently, Yang's army was hampered by the failure for large ships to arrive with food supplies and forced to withdraw, Yang became impressed with Xu and decided to give him greater responsibilities. The first instance where Xu was recorded to have distinguished himself in battle was in 903, when Yang was facing rebellions by his subordinates Tian Jun the military governor of Ningguo Circuit and An Renyi the military prefect of Run Prefecture. Yang sent Wang Maozhang to attack An at Run Prefecture, but Wang could not defeat An, he sent Xu to reinforce Wang's army, Xu had his soldiers change into identical uniforms as Wang's. An, not knowing that reinforcements had arrived, had no reservations about reengaging Wang's army, was defeated by Xu. However, Xu's role became more prominent when in the year, Yang received word that his brother-in-law Zhu Yanshou had agreed to join Tian's and An's rebellion and was set to rebel at Shou Prefecture. Xu, advised by his guest Yan Keqiu, submitted a proposal to Yang to trick Zhu Yanshou by having Yang pretend to be blind before Lady Zhu, issuing an order to summon Zhu Yanshou back from Shou Prefecture under the pretense of entrusting the affairs of the circuit to him.

Zhu Yanshou believed this to be true and returned to Huainan's capital Yang Prefecture, where he was killed in an ambush that Yang had Xu lay for him. After Zhu's death, Yang made Xu one of his two guard commanders. In 904, when Tai Meng the governor of Xuan Prefecture died, Yang Xingmi commissioned Yang Wo to be the governor of Xuan. Xu spoke with Yang Wo, stating: The Prince is chronically-ill, but his oldest heir is being sent out to another circuit; this must be according to plan of some treacherous subjects. If you receive an order summoning you back, unless it is through a messenger that I send with the Prince's own writing, be careful and do not return. Yang Wo, believing Xu was advising him out of good faith and thanked him. In 905, when Yang Xingmi became more ill, he was set on summoning Yang Wo back from Xuan Prefecture and entrusting the affairs of the circuit to him. Yang Xingmi's secretary Zhou Yin, citing Yang Wo's frivolousness, instead suggesting that Yang Xingmi entrust the circuit to Liu Wei with a promise from Liu to transfer it to another son of Yang Xingmi's.

Xu and the other guard commander, Zhang Hao, opposed Zhou's proposal, pointing out that Yang had fought these years to leave the state to his family. When Yang


Warndon is a suburb and civil parish of the City of Worcester in Worcestershire, England. The parish, which includes the villages of Trotshill and Warndon was part of Droitwich Rural District until 1974 when it was annexed to Worcester under the Local Government Act 1972, it has a population of 10,237. Warndon Villages is a housing development based on "village" themes on the eastern side of Worcester, situated between Warndon and the M5 motorway. There are four distinct "villages" in the development, the Harleys, the Lyppards, the Berkeleys and the Meadows, each with their own subdivisions; the first village opened in 1996. Warndon Villages is home to Lyppard Grange Primary School, four nurseries, a Tesco supermarket, community centre and a range of other facilities. Warndon Villages borders the Berkeley Business Park, home to a range of small businesses as well as being a logistics and distribution hub close to Junction 6 of the M5; the Berkeley Business Park is home to Worcester Bosch, Plumb Center and SouthCo.

Warndon Parish Council 1885 Ordnance Survey map of Warndon

Historians without Borders

Historians without Borders is a Finnish organisation. It was founded at the initiative of the former foreign minister of Finland; the purpose of the organization is to further public discussion about history and to promote the use of historical knowledge for peace-building and conflict-resolution. The organisation has an international network of Historians without Borders and coordinating committee, with which the organisation aims to promote their goals. In June 2015, Erkki tuomioja convened a number of historians and policy makers to a meeting, which led to the founding of HWB. First board was appointed, which included names like Finnish politician and historian Pilvi Torsti, former editor-in-chief of Helsingin Sanomat Janne Virkkunen and executive director of CMI Tuija Talvitie. Erkki Tuomioja has acted as Chairman of the Board since the founding meeting. Behind the initiative was Tuomioja's concern, that history is used and abused for personal or political purposes. Inadequate knowledge of history makes people more vulnerable to manipulation of politicians, who can use historical myths and propaganda to their advantage easier.

HWB aims to prevent the abuse of history by bringing historians and their knowledge to society and conflict-resolution. HWB has aimed from the beginning to the wider international co-operation between historians across the borders. With this in mind, HWB organised in May 2016 and international conference "Historians without Borders: The Use and Abuse of History in Conflicts" at the University of Helsinki. Around 300 participants gathered in Helsinki and the conference ended with the creation of an international network of Historians without Borders and the appointment of a Coordinating Committee. Members of this committee are Jan C. Behrends, Carl Bildt, Vasu Gounden, Margaret MacMillan, Erkki Tuomioja, Christina Twomey and Sergei Zhuravlev. Promote and deepen general and comprehensive knowledge and understanding of history promote open and free access to historical material and archives promote interactive dialogue between different views and interpretations of history to bring closer diverging views of the course of historical events support efforts to impede the abuse of history to foster conflicts or to sustain enemy images and distorted myths, to contribute to the use of history in defusing and resolving conflicts.


List of senators of Ceylon

This is a list of senators who were members of the Senate of Ceylon. Gerard Wijeyekoon Nicholas Attygalle Cyril de Zoysa Sarath Wijesinghe Thomas Amarasuriya Abeyratne Ratnayaka Peri Sundaram Frank Gunasekera Cyril de Zoysa Adeline Molamure B. H. Dunuwille Kurbanhussein Adamaly, appointed. Thomas Amarasuriya, UNP/SLFP Nicholas Attygalle, appointed A. M. A. Azeez, appointed, UNP/independent Sirimavo Bandaranaike, SLFP I. A. Cader, appointed M. Shums Cassim, elected C. Coomaraswamy, appointed Cissy Cooray, appointed - first woman appointed to the Senate Ananda Dassanayake, elected R. S. F. de Mel, elected Evadne de Silva Evelyn de Soysa, M. W. H. de Silva Cyril de Zoysa, elected M. P. de Zoysa Doric de Souza, LSSP B. H. Dunuwille Razik Fareed, elected Sam Peter Christopher Fernando Chittampalam Abraham Gardiner, appointed Oliver Goonetilleke, appointed Frank Gunasekera, appointed A. R. M. Hameem, appointed L. L. Hunter, appointed Sir Herbert Eric Jansz, appointed J. P. Jayasena Ukwatte Jayasundera A. P. Jayasuriya Clodagh Jayasuriya, UNP, elected N. U.

Jayawardena, appointed Valentine S. Jayawickrema Stanley Kalpage S. R. Kanaganayagam, appointed, UNP/ACTC E. W. Kannangara M. D. Kitchilan, appointed John Kotelawala, UNP Justin Kotalawela, elected Dr R. B. Lenora M. Manickam, ITAK Mohamed Macan Markar, appointed S. M. H. Mashoor, elected Adeline Molamure, elected S. Z. Mashoor Moulana, elected S. Nadarajah, ACTC S. Nadesan S. Natesan Ponnambalam Nagalingam, LSSP E. M. V. Naganathan, elected, ACTC/ITAK James Peter Obeyesekere III Bertram Ivor Palipane Sangarapillai Pararajasingham, UNP M. V. P Peiris D. W. J. Perera, elected E. W. Perera Reginald Perera, MEP D. M. Rajapaksa Lalitha Rajapakse, appointed A. B. Rajendra, appointed Arthur Ranasinghe Abeyratne Ratnayaka Barnes Ratwatte Dissawe, elected Harris Leuke Ratwatte Dissawe, elected Abdul Raheman Abdul Razik, elected Philip Rodrigo Dr. V. R. Schockman, appointed Seetha Seneviratne Robert Singleton-Salmon, appointed Bennet Soysa, elected Peri Sundaram, elected, CIC John Tarbat, appointed M. Tiruchelvam, ITAK Heen Banda Udurawana Kanthiah Vaithianathan Donatius Victoria, appointed A. F. Wijemanne Sarath Wijesinghe, elected President of the Senate Gerard Wijeyekoon, appointed Edwin Wijeyeratne, appointed E. B.

Wikramanayake T. Y. Wright, appointed

Jonathan Young (politician)

Jonathan Edgar Joseph Young is a National Party Member of the New Zealand House of Representatives for New Plymouth. He was first elected in the 2008 general election, with the country's smallest election night majority, beating incumbent Harry Duynhoven. Jonathan Young is the son of Venn Young, a National MP from 1966 to 1990, he attended New Plymouth Boys High School but finished his education at Hawera High School. Before entering politics, Young was the Senior Minister at CityChurch Waitakere in West Auckland for 18 years, he has been a primary school teacher, a financial administrator. In addition, he has been involved in development work in Cambodia. In the 2008 election, Young was narrowly victorious in the New Plymouth seat against long-standing Labour incumbent Harry Duynhoven. Young's final majority was 105 votes - a margin of 0.3% of the total vote count in that electorate. New Plymouth had been one of the seats that the party had focused on as they had won the party vote in the 2005 election and campaign head Steven Joyce felt that'it had swung further our way'.

Young voted against the Marriage Amendment Bill in 2013 which would legalise same-sex marriage, saying "marriage had always been a heterosexual institution". Young voted against the Abortion Legislation Bill 2019 which would liberalise abortion law in New Zealand. In a debate on the controversially rushed-through Copyright Amendment Act 2008, aimed at controlling internet piracy, he described the internet as being akin to Skynet from The Terminator movies. Shortly after the 2008 New Zealand general election, Young was criticised by the website for his statement that'one of my associates was an ex-lesbian' and for his involvement with Teen Challenge, a Christian youth organisation with links to the ex-gay movement. When commenting further, Young noted, "One of the things I do object to in terms of the people who have made this choice is the presentation of it as a normal alternative."