Book of Judges
The Book of Judges is the seventh book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament. In the narrative of the Hebrew Bible, it covers the time between the conquest described in the Book of Joshua and the establishment of a kingdom in the Books of Samuel, during which Biblical judges served as temporary leaders; the stories follow a consistent pattern: the people are unfaithful to Yahweh and he therefore delivers them into the hands of their enemies. Scholars consider many of the stories in Judges to be the oldest in the Deuteronomistic history, with their major redaction dated to the 8th century BCE and with materials such as the Song of Deborah dating from much earlier. Judges can be divided into three major sections: a double prologue, a main body, a double epilogue; the book opens with the Israelites in the land that God has promised to them, but worshiping "foreign gods" instead of Yahweh, the God of Israel, with the Canaanites still present everywhere. Chapters 1:1–2:5 are thus a confession of failure, while chapters 2:6–3:6 are a major summary and reflection from the Deuteronomists.
The opening thus sets out the pattern which the stories in the main text will follow: Israel "does evil in the eyes of Yahweh", the people are given into the hands of their enemies and cry out to Yahweh, Yahweh raises up a leader, the "spirit of Yahweh" comes upon the leader, the leader manages to defeat the enemy, peace is regained. Once peace is regained, Israel does right and receives Yahweh's blessings for a time, but relapses into doing evil and repeats the pattern set forth above. Judges opens with a reference to Joshua's death; the Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges suggests that "the death of Joshua may be regarded as marking the division between the period of conquest and the period of occupation", the latter being the focus of the Book of Judges. The Israelites meet, most at the sanctuary at Gilgal or at Shechem and ask the Lord who should be first to secure the land they are to occupy; the main text gives accounts of six major judges and their struggles against the oppressive kings of surrounding nations, as well as the story of Abimelech, an Israelite leader who oppresses his own people.
The cyclical pattern set out in the prologue is apparent at the beginning, but as the stories progress it begins to disintegrate, mirroring the disintegration of the world of the Israelites. Although some scholars consider the stories not to be presented in chronological order, the judges in the order in which they appear in the text are: Othniel vs. Chushan-Rishathaim, King of Aram. Ehud vs. Eglon of Moab Deborah the prophetess, accompanied by Barak the army leader, vs. Jabin of Hazor and Sisera, his captain Gideon vs. Midian and the "children of the East" Abimelech vs. all the Israelites who oppose him Jephthah vs. the Ammonites Samson vs. the PhilistinesThere are brief glosses on six minor judges: Shamgar and Jair, Ibzan and Abdon. Some scholars have inferred that the minor judges were actual adjudicators, whereas the major judges were leaders and did not make legal judgements; the only major judge described as making legal judgments is Deborah. By the end of Judges, the Israelites are in a worse condition than they were at the beginning, with Yahweh's treasures used to make idolatrous images, the Levites corrupted, the tribe of Dan conquering a remote village instead of the Canaanite cities, the tribes of Israel making war on the tribe of Benjamin, their own kinsmen.
The book concludes with two appendices, stories which do not feature a specific judge: Micah's Idol, how the tribe of Dan conquers its territory in the north Battle of Gibeah, a war between Benjamin and the other tribes. Despite their appearance at the end of the book, certain characters and idioms present in the epilogue show that the events therein depict a point in time early in the period of the judges. Judges contains a chronology of its events, it is overtly schematic and, according to biblical scholar Jeremy Hughes, shows signs of having been introduced at a period. It is unclear; the basic source for Judges was a collection of loosely connected stories about tribal heroes who saved the people in battle. This original "book of saviours" made up of the stories of Ehud and parts of Gideon, had been enlarged and transformed into "wars of Yahweh" before being given a comprehensive Deuteronomistic revision. In the 20th century, the first part of the prologue and the two parts of the epilogue were seen as miscellaneous collections of fragments tacked onto the main text, the second part of the prologue as an introduction composed expressly for the book.
More this view has been challenged, there is an increasing willingness to see Judges as the work of a single individual, working by sel
Book of Daniel
The Book of Daniel is a 2nd-century BC biblical apocalypse combining a prophecy of history with an eschatology, both cosmic in scope and political in its focus. In more mundane language, it is "an account of the activities and visions of Daniel, a noble Jew exiled at Babylon," its message being that just as the God of Israel saved Daniel and his friends from their enemies, so he would save all of Israel in their present oppression. In the Hebrew Bible it is found in the Ketuvim, while in Christian Bibles it is grouped with the Major Prophets; the book divides into two parts, a set of six court tales in chapters 1–6 followed by four apocalyptic visions in chapters 7–12. The deuterocanon contains three additional stories: the Song of the Three Holy Children and Bel and the Dragon; the book's influence has resonated through ages, from the Dead Sea Scrolls community and the authors of the gospels and Revelation, to various movements from the 2nd century to the Protestant Reformation and modern millennialist movements—on which it continues to have a profound influence.
The Book of Daniel is divided between the court tales of chapters 1–6 and the apocalyptic visions of 7–12, between the Hebrew of chapters 1 and 8–12 and the Aramaic of chapters 2–7. The division is reinforced by the chiastic arrangement of the Aramaic chapters, by a chronological progression in chapters 1–6 from Babylonian to Median times, from Babylonian to Persian in chapters 7–12. Various suggestions have been made by scholars to explain the fact that the genre division does not coincide with the other two, but it appears that the language division and concentric structure of chapters 2–6 are artificial literary devices designed to bind the two halves of the book together; the following outline is provided by Collins in his commentary on Daniel:PART I: Tales 1: Introduction 2: Nebuchadnezzar's dream of four kingdoms 3: The fiery furnace 4: Nebuchadnezzar's madness 5: Belshazzar's feast 6: Daniel in the lions' den PART II: Visions 7: The beasts from the sea 8: The ram and the he-goat 9: Interpretation of Jeremiah's prophecy of the seventy weeks 10: The angel's revelation: kings of the north and south There is a clear chiasm in the chapter arrangement of the Aramaic section.
The following is taken from Paul Redditt's "Introduction to the Prophets": A1 – A dream of four kingdoms replaced by a fifth B1 – Daniel's three friends in the fiery furnace C1 – Daniel interprets a dream for Nebuchadnezzar C2 – Daniel interprets the handwriting on the wall for Belshazzar B2 – Daniel in the lions' den A2 – A vision of four world kingdoms replaced by a fifth In the third year of King Jehoiakim, God allows Jerusalem to fall into the power of Nebuchadnezzar II, king of Babylon. Young Israelites of noble and royal family, "without physical defect, handsome," versed in wisdom and competent to serve in the palace of the king, are taken to Babylon to be taught the literature and language of that nation. Among them are Daniel and his three companions, who refuse to touch the royal food and wine, their overseer fears for his life in case the health of his charges deteriorates, but Daniel suggests a trial and the four emerge healthier than their counterparts from ten days of nothing but vegetables and water.
They are allowed to continue to refrain from eating the king's food, to Daniel God gives insight into visions and dreams. When their training is done Nebuchadnezzar finds them'ten times better' than all the wise men in his service and therefore keeps them at his court, where Daniel continues until the first year of King Cyrus. In the second year of his reign Nebuchadnezzar has a dream; when he wakes up, he realizes that the dream has some important message, so he consults his wise men. Wary of their potential to fabricate an explanation, the king refuses to tell the wise men what he saw in his dream. Rather, he demands that his wise men tell him what the content of the dream was, interpret it; when the wise men protest that this is beyond the power of any man, he sentences all, including Daniel and his friends, to death. Daniel receives an explanatory vision from God: Nebuchadnezzar had seen an enormous statue with a head of gold and arms of silver and thighs of bronze, legs of iron, feet of mixed iron and clay saw the statue destroyed by a rock that turned into a mountain filling the whole earth.
Daniel explains the dream to the king: the statue symbolized four successive kingdoms, starting with Nebuchadnezzar, all of which would be crushed by God's kingdom, which would endure forever. Nebuchadnezzar acknowledges the supremacy of Daniel's god, raises Daniel over all his wise men, places Daniel and his companions over the province of Babylon. Daniel's companions Shadrach and Abednego refuse to bow to King Nebuchadnezzar's golden statue and are thrown into a fiery furnace. Nebuchadnezzar is astonished to see a fourth figure in the furnace with the three, one "with the appearance like a son of the gods." So the king called the three to come out of the fire, blessed the God of Israel, decreed that any who blasphemed against h
Book of Job
The Book of Job is a book in the Ketuvim section of the Hebrew Bible, the first poetic book in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. Addressing the problem of theodicy – the vindication of the justice of God in the light of humanity's suffering – it is a rich theological work setting out a variety of perspectives, it has been praised for its literary qualities, with Alfred Lord Tennyson calling it "the greatest poem of ancient and modern times". The Book of Job consists of a prose prologue and epilogue narrative framing poetic dialogues and monologues, it is common to view the narrative frame as the original core of the book, enlarged by the poetic dialogues and discourses, sections of the book such as the Elihu speeches and the wisdom poem of chapter 28 as late insertions, but recent trends have tended to concentrate on the book's underlying editorial unity.1. Prologue in two scenes, the first on Earth, the second in Heaven 2. Job's opening monologue, three cycles of dialogues between Job and his three friends First cycleEliphaz and Job's response Bildad and Job Zophar and Job Second cycleEliphaz and Job Bildad and Job Zophar and Job Third cycleEliphaz and Job Bildad and Job 3.
Three monologues: A Poem to Wisdom Job's closing monologue and Elihu's speeches 4. Two speeches by God, with Job's responses 5. Epilogue – Job's restoration; the prologue on Earth introduces Job as a righteous man, blessed with wealth and daughters. The scene shifts to Heaven. Satan answers. God gives Satan permission to take Job's wealth and kill all of his children and servants, but Job nonetheless praises God: "Naked I came out of my mother's womb, naked shall I return: the Lord has given, the Lord has taken away. God allows Satan to afflict his body with boils. Job sits in ashes, his wife prompts him to "curse God, die," but Job answers: "Shall we receive good from God and shall we not receive evil?" Job laments the day of his birth. His three friends, Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad console him; the friends do not waver in their belief that Job's suffering is a punishment for sin, for God causes no one to suffer innocently, they advise him to repent and seek God's mercy. Job responds with scorn: his interlocutors are "miserable comforters", since a just God would not treat him so harshly, patience in suffering is impossible, the Creator should not take his creatures so to come against them with such force.
Job's responses represent one of the most radical restatements of Israelite theology in the Hebrew Bible. He moves away from the pious attitude as shown in the prologue and began to berate God for the disproportionate wrath against him, he sees God as, among others and suffocating. He shifts his focus from the injustice that he himself suffers to God's governance of the world, he suggests that the wicked have taken advantage of the needy and the helpless, who remain in significant hardship, but God does nothing to punish them. The dialogues of Job and his friends are followed by a poem on the inaccessibility of wisdom: "Where is wisdom to be found?" it asks, concludes that it has been hidden from man. Job contrasts his previous fortune with an outcast, mocked and in pain, he protests his innocence, lists the principles he has lived by, demands that God answer him. Elihu intervenes to state that wisdom comes from God, who reveals it through dreams and visions to those who will declare their knowledge.
God speaks from a whirlwind. His speeches neither explain Job's suffering, nor defend divine justice, nor enter into the courtroom confrontation that Job has demanded, nor respond to his oath of innocence. Instead they contrast Job's weakness with divine wisdom and omnipotence: "Where were you when I laid the foundations of the earth?" Job makes a brief response. In 42:1–6 Job makes his final response, confessing God's power and his own lack of knowledge "of things beyond me which I did not know", he has only heard, but now his eyes have seen God, "therefore I retract/ And repent in dust and ashes." God tells Eliphaz that he and the two other friends "have not spoken of me what is right as my servant Job has done". The three are told to make a burnt offering with Job as their intercessor, "for only to him will I show favour". Job is restored to health and family, lives to see his children to the fourth generation. Job appears in the
Book of Ezekiel
The Book of Ezekiel is the third of the Latter Prophets in the Tanakh and one of the major prophetic books in the Old Testament, following Isaiah and Jeremiah. According to the book itself, it records six visions of the prophet Ezekiel, exiled in Babylon, during the 22 years 593–571 BC, although it is the product of a long and complex history and does not preserve the words of the prophet; the visions, the book, are structured around three themes: Judgment on Israel. Its themes include the concepts of the presence of God, Israel as a divine community, individual responsibility to God, its influence has included the development of mystical and apocalyptic traditions in Second Temple and rabbinic Judaism and Christianity. Ezekiel has the broad three-fold structure found in a number of the prophetic books: oracles of woe against the prophet's own people, followed by oracles against Israel's neighbours, ending in prophecies of hope and salvation: Prophecies against Judah and Jerusalem, chapters 1–24 Prophecies against the foreign nations, chapters 25–32 Prophecies of hope and salvation, chapters 33–48 The book opens with a vision of YHWH.
The book moves on to anticipate the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple, explains this as God's punishment, closes with the promise of a new beginning and a new Temple. Inaugural vision Ezekiel 1:1–3:27: God approaches Ezekiel as the divine warrior, riding in his battle chariot; the chariot is drawn by four living creatures, each having four wings. Beside each "living creature" is a "wheel within a wheel", with "tall and awesome" rims full of eyes all around. God commissions Ezekiel as a prophet and as a "watchman" in Israel: "Son of man, I am sending you to the Israelites." Judgment on Jerusalem and Judah and on the nations: God warns of the certain destruction of Jerusalem and of the devastation of the nations that have troubled his people: the Ammonites, Moabites and Philistines, the Phoenician cities of Tyre and Sidon, Egypt. Building a new city: The Jewish exile will come to an end, a new city and new Temple will be built, the Israelites will be gathered and blessed as never before.
Some of the highlights include: The "throne vision", in which Ezekiel sees God enthroned in the Temple among the heavenly host. Most scholars today accept the basic authenticity of the book, but see in it significant additions by a "school" of followers of the original prophet. While the book exhibits considerable unity and reflects much of the historic Ezekiel, it is the product of a long and complex history and does not preserve the words of the prophet. According to the book that bears his name, Ezekiel ben-Buzi was born into a priestly family of Jerusalem c.623 BC, during the reign of the reforming king Josiah. Prior to this time, Judah had been a vassal of the Assyrian empire, but the rapid decline of Assyria after c. 630 led Josiah to assert his independence and institute a religious reform stressing loyalty to Yahweh, the national God of Israel. Josiah was killed in 609 and Judah became a vassal of the new regional power, the Neo-Babylonian empire. In 597, following a rebellion against Babylon, Ezekiel was among the large group of Judeans taken into captivity by the Babylonians.
He appears to have spent the rest of his life in Mesopotamia. A further deportation of Jews from Jerusalem to Babylon occurred in 586 when a second unsuccessful rebellion resulted in the destruction of the city and its Temple and the exile of the remaining elements of the royal court, including the last scribes and priests; the various dates given in the book suggest that Ezekiel was 25 when he went into exile, 30 when he received his prophetic call, 52 at the time of the last vision c.571. The Jewish scriptures were translated into Greek in the two centuries before the birth of Christ; the Greek version of these books is called the Septuagint. The Jewish Bible in Hebrew is called the Masoretic text; the Greek version of Ezekiel differs from the Hebrew version – it is shorter and represents an early interpretation of the book we have today – while other ancient manuscript fragments differ from both. The first half of the 20th century saw several attempts to deny the authorship and authenticity of the book, with scholars such as C.
C. Torrey and Morton Smith placing it variously in the 3rd century BC and in the 8th/7th; the pendulum swung back in the post-war period, with an increasing acceptance of the book's essential unity and historical placement in the Exile. The most influential modern scholarly work on Ezekiel, Walther Zimmerli's two-volume commentary, ap
The Five Scrolls or The Five Megillot are parts of the Ketuvim, the third major section of the Tanakh. The Five Scrolls are the Song of Songs, the Book of Ruth, the Book of Lamentations and the Book of Esther; these five short biblical books are grouped together in Jewish tradition. An early testimony that these five scrolls were grouped together is in the Midrash Rabba; this midrash was compiled on the Five Scrolls. All five of these megillot are traditionally read publicly in the synagogue over the course of the year in many Jewish communities. In common printed editions of the Tanakh they appear in the order that they are read in the synagogue on holidays; the Song of Songs is read publicly in some communities by Ashkenazim, on the Sabbath of Passover. In most Mizrahi Jewish communities it is read publicly each week at the onset of the Shabbat. There is a widespread custom to read it at the end of the Passover Seder. Italian Jews read it at the Maariv of the second day of Passover; the Book of Ruth is read in some communities by Ashkenazim, before the reading of the Torah on the morning of Shavuot.
Others read it in the Tikkun at night, or not at all. The Book of Lamentations is read on the Ninth of Av in all Jewish communities. Ecclesiastes is read publicly in some communities by Ashkenazim, on the Sabbath of Sukkot. In other communities it is not read at all; the Book of Esther is read in all Jewish communities on Purim. The public reading is once again the next morning; when read in the synagogue, these five books are sung with cantillation. In most communities, Esther is the only book accompanied by blessings after, but certain communities adopted the custom of the Vilna Gaon to recite blessings before the other four megillot as well. As indicated above, only two of the megillot are traditionally read in all Jewish communities, Esther on Purim and Lamentations on the Ninth of Av; the practice of reading the other three books on the Three Pilgrimage Festivals is widespread but by no means universal. To read them is a venerable custom among Ashkenazim, but many Sephardic Jews do not associate the three books with the three festivals.
The association is thus weaker among Hasidic Jews who were influenced by Sephardic customs. The term megillah is most used for the book of Esther though it is applied to the rest as well; the term megillah is used in a joking way, in reference to any lengthy story. Eugene H. Peterson's Five Smooth Stones for Pastoral Work examines the application of the Megillot to Christian pastoral theology; the cantillation marks which guide the singing of the text written in the printed texts of the Five Scrolls are drawn from the same set of markings as the notes in the Humash. However, the tune in which they are read varies depending on the scroll. Esther is read in a happier tune than the sad tune of Lamentations. Traditionally, Ecclesiastes and Song of Songs are read with the same festive tune. Cantillation Torah
Book of Joshua
The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in the Hebrew Bible and the first book of the Deuteronomistic history, the story of Israel from the conquest of Canaan to the Babylonian exile. It tells of the campaigns of the Israelites in central and northern Canaan, the destruction of their enemies, the division of the land among the Twelve Tribes, framed by two set-piece speeches, the first by God commanding the conquest of the land, and, at the end, the last by Joshua warning of the need for faithful observance of the Law revealed to Moses. All scholars agree that the Book of Joshua holds little historical value for early Israel and most reflects a much period; the earliest parts of the book are chapters 2–11, the story of the conquest. Transfer of leadership to Joshua A. God's commission to Joshua B. Joshua's instructions to the people II. Entrance into and conquest of Canaan A. Entry into Canaan 1. Reconnaissance of Jericho 2. Crossing the River Jordan 3. Establishing a foothold at Gilgal 4. Circumcision and Passover B.
Victory over Canaan 1. Destruction of Jericho 2. Failure and success at Ai 3. Renewal of the covenant at Mount Ebal 4. Other campaigns in central Canaan; the Gibeonite Deception 5. Campaigns in southern Canaan 6. Campaigns in northern Canaan 7. Summary of lands conquered 8. Summary list of defeated kings III. Division of the land among the tribes A. God's instructions to Joshua B. Tribal allotments 1. Eastern tribes 2. Western tribes C. Cities of refuge and levitical cities D. Summary of conquest E. De-commissioning of the eastern tribes IV. Conclusion A. Joshua's farewell address B. Covenant at Shechem C. Deaths of Joshua and Eleazar. God warns him to keep faith with the Covenant. God's speech foreshadows the major themes of the book: the crossing of the Jordan River and conquest of the land, its distribution, the imperative need for obedience to the Law; the Israelites cross the Jordan River through the miraculous intervention of God and the Ark of the Covenant. They are circumcised at Gibeath-Haaraloth, renamed Gilgal in memory.
Gilgal sounds like Gallothi, "I have removed", but is more to translate as "circle of standing stones". The conquest begins in Canaan with Jericho, followed by Ai. After which Joshua renews the Covenant; the covenant ceremony has elements of a divine land-grant ceremony, similar to ceremonies known from Mesopotamia. The narrative switches to the south; the Gibeonites trick the Israelites into entering an alliance with them by saying that they are not Canaanites. This prevents the Israelites from exterminating them. An alliance of Amorite kingdoms headed by the Canaanite king of Jerusalem is defeated with Yahweh's miraculous help of stopping the Sun and the Moon, hurling down large hailstones; the enemy kings were hanged on trees. The Deuteronomist author may have used the then-recent 701 BCE campaign of the Assyrian king Sennacherib in the Kingdom of Judah as his model. With the south conquered the narrative moves to the northern campaign. A powerful multi-national coalition headed by the king of Hazor, the most important northern city, is defeated with Yahweh's help.
Hazor itself is captured and destroyed. Chapter 11:16–23 summarises the extent of the conquest: Joshua has taken the entire land entirely through military victories, with only the Gibeonites agreeing to peaceful terms with Israel; the land "had rest from war". Chapter 12 lists the vanquished kings on both sides of the Jordan River: the two kings who ruled east of the Jordan who were defeated under Moses' leadership, the 31 kings on the west of the Jordan who were defeated under Joshua's leadership; the list of the 31 kings is quasi-tabular: the king of one. Having described how the Israelites and Joshua have carried out the first of their God's commands, the narrative now turns to the second: to "put the people in possession of the land." Joshua is "old, advanced in years" by this time (Joshua
Book of Deuteronomy
The Book of Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Christian Old Testament and of the Jewish Torah, where it is called "Devarim". Chapters 1–30 of the book consist of three sermons or speeches delivered to the Israelites by Moses on the plains of Moab, shortly before they enter the Promised Land; the first sermon recounts the forty years of wilderness wanderings which had led to that moment, ends with an exhortation to observe the law referred to as the Law of Moses. The final four chapters contain the Song of Moses, the Blessing of Moses, narratives recounting the passing of the mantle of leadership from Moses to Joshua and the death of Moses on Mount Nebo. Presented as the words of Moses delivered before the conquest of Canaan, a broad consensus of modern scholars see its origin in traditions from Israel brought south to the Kingdom of Judah in the wake of the Assyrian conquest of Aram and adapted to a program of nationalist reform in the time of Josiah, with the final form of the modern book emerging in the milieu of the return from the Babylonian captivity during the late 6th century BC.
Many scholars see the book as reflecting the economic needs and social status of the Levite caste, who are believed to have provided its authors. One of its most significant verses is Deuteronomy 6:4, the Shema Yisrael, which has become the definitive statement of Jewish identity: "Hear, O Israel: the LORD our God, the LORD is one." Verses 6:4–5 were quoted by Jesus in Mark 12:28–34 as part of the Great Commandment. Patrick D. Miller in his commentary on Deuteronomy suggests that different views of the structure of the book will lead to different views on what it is about; the structure is described as a series of three speeches or sermons followed by a number of short appendices – Miller refers to this as the "literary" structure. Chapters 1–4: The journey through the wilderness from Horeb to Kadesh and to Moab is recalled. Chapters 4–11: After a second introduction at 4:44–49 the events at Mount Horeb are recalled, with the giving of the Ten Commandments. Heads of families are urged to instruct those under their care in the law, warnings are made against serving gods other than Yahweh, the land promised to Israel is praised, the people are urged to obedience.
Chapters 12–26, the Deuteronomic code: Laws governing Israel's worship, the appointment and regulation of community and religious leaders, social regulation, confession of identity and loyalty. Chapters 27–28: Blessings and curses for those who keep and break the law. Chapters 29–30: Concluding discourse on the covenant in the land of Moab, including all the laws in the Deuteronomic code after those given at Horeb. Chapters 31–34: Joshua is installed as Moses's successor, Moses delivers the law to the Levites, ascends Mount Nebo or Pisgah, where he dies and is buried by God; the narrative of these events is interrupted by two poems, the Song of Moses and the Blessing of Moses. The final verses, Deuteronomy 34:10–12, "never again did there arise in Israel a prophet like Moses," make a claim for the authoritative Deuteronomistic view of theology and its insistence that the worship of the Hebrew God as the sole deity of Israel was the only permissible religion, having been sealed by the greatest of prophets.
Deuteronomy 12–26, the Deuteronomic Code, is the oldest part of the book and the core around which the rest developed. It is a series of mitzvot to the Israelites regarding how they ought to conduct themselves in Canaan, the land promised by Yahweh, God of Israel; the following list organizes most of the laws into thematic groups: All sacrifices are to be brought and vows are to be made at a central sanctuary. The worship of Canaanite gods is forbidden; the order is given to destroy their places of worship and to commit genocide against Canaanites and others with "detestable" religious beliefs. Native mourning practices such as deliberate disfigurement are forbidden; the procedure for tithing produce or donating its equivalent is given. A catalogue of which animals are permitted and which forbidden for consumption is given; the consumption of animals which are found dead and have not been slaughtered is prohibited. Sacrificed animals must be without blemish. First-born male livestock must be sacrificed.
The Pilgrimage Festivals of Passover and Sukkot are instituted. The worship at Asherah groves and setting up of ritual pillars are forbidden. Prohibition of mixing kinds (22