The Book of Leviticus is the third book of the Torah and of the Old Testament. Most of its chapters consist of God's speeches to Moses, which God commands Moses to repeat to the Israelites; this takes place within the story of the Israelites' Exodus after they escaped Egypt and reached Mt. Sinai; the Book of Exodus narrates how Moses led the Israelites in building the Tabernacle with God's instructions. In Leviticus, God tells the Israelites and their priests how to make offerings in the Tabernacle and how to conduct themselves while camped around the holy tent sanctuary. Leviticus takes place during the month or month-and-a-half between the completion of the Tabernacle and the Israelites' departure from Sinai; the instructions of Leviticus emphasize ritual and moral practices rather than beliefs. They reflect the world view of the creation story in Genesis 1 that God wishes to live with humans; the book teaches that faithful performance of the sanctuary rituals can make that possible, so long as the people avoid sin and impurity whenever possible.
The rituals the sin and guilt offerings, provide the means to gain forgiveness for sins and purification from impurities so that God can continue to live in the Tabernacle in the midst of the people. The English name Leviticus comes from the Latin Leviticus, in turn from the Greek Greek Λευιτικόν, referring to the priestly tribe of the Israelites, “Levi.” The Greek expression is in turn a variant of the rabbinic Hebrew torat kohanim, "law of priests", as many of its laws relate to priests. In Hebrew the book is called Vayikra, from the opening of the book, va-yikra "And He called." I. Laws on sacrifice A. Instructions for the laity on bringing offerings 1–5; the types of offering: burnt, peace, reparation offerings B. Instructions for the priests 1–6; the various offerings, with the addition of the priests' cereal offering 7. Summary II. Institution of the priesthood A. Ordination of Aaron and his sons B. Aaron makes the first sacrifices C. Judgement on Nadab and Abihu III. Uncleanliness and its treatment A.
Unclean animals B. Childbirth as a source of uncleanliness C. Unclean diseases D. Cleansing of diseases E. Unclean discharges IV. Day of Atonement: purification of the tabernacle from the effects of uncleanliness and sin V. Prescriptions for practical holiness A. Sacrifice and food B. Sexual behaviour C. Neighbourliness D. Grave crimes E. Rules for priests F. Rules for eating sacrifices G. Festivals H. Rules for the tabernacle I. Blasphemy J. Sabbatical and Jubilee years K. Exhortation to obey the law: blessing and curse VI. Redemption of votive gifts Chapters 1–5 describe the various sacrifices from the sacrificers' point of view, although the priests are essential for handling the blood. Chapters 6–7 go over much the same ground, but from the point of view of the priest, who, as the one carrying out the sacrifice and dividing the "portions", needs to know how to do this. Sacrifices are between God, the priest, the offerers, although in some cases the entire sacrifice is a single portion to God—i.e. Burnt to ashes.
Chapters 8–10 describe how Moses consecrates Aaron and his sons as the first priests, the first sacrifices, God's destruction of two of Aaron's sons for ritual offenses. The purpose is to underline the character of altar priesthood as an Aaronite privilege, the responsibilities and dangers of their position. With sacrifice and priesthood established, chapters 11–15 instruct the lay people on purity. Eating certain animals produces uncleanliness; the reasoning behind the food rules are obscure. Leviticus 16 concerns the Day of Atonement; this is the only day on which the High Priest is to enter the holiest part of the sanctuary, the holy of holies. He is to sacrifice a bull for the sins of the priests, a goat for the sins of the laypeople; the priest is to send a second goat into the desert to "Azazel", bearing the sins of the whole people. Azazel may be a wilderness-demon. Chapters 17–26 are the Holiness code, it begins with a prohibition on all slaughter of animals outside the Temple for food, prohibits a long list of sexual contacts and child sacrifice.
The "holiness" injunctions which give the code its name begin with the next section: there are penalties for the worship of Molech, consulting mediums and wizards, cursing one's parents and engaging in unlawful sex. Priests receive instruction on acceptable bodily defects; the punishment for blasphemy is death, there is the setting of rules for eating sacrifices.
A mondo film is a sub-genre of exploitation films and documentary films. Many mondo films are made in a way to resemble a pseudo-documentary and depicting sensational topics, scenes, or situations. Common traits of mondo films include portrayals of foreign cultures, an emphasis on taboo subjects such as death and sex, staged sequences presented as genuine documentary footage. Over time, the films placed increasing emphasis on footage of the dead and dying; the term shockumentary is used to describe the genre. The term "mondo" is derived from the Italian word for "world"; the genre is noted for the graphic footage of death and deceased people shown in many such films, leading to the popular nickname of "death film". Mondo films began to soar in popularity in the 1960s with the release of Mondo Cane, Women of the World and Africa Addio; the genre arguably reached its peak with Faces of Death in 1978, a film that inspired a myriad of imitators, such as the Traces of Death series, Banned from Television, Death Scenes and The Faces of Gore series.
Although earlier films such as Alessandro Blasetti's Europa di notte and Luigi Vanzi's Il mondo di notte may be considered examples of the genre, the origins of the mondo documentary are traced to the 1962 Italian film Mondo Cane by Paolo Cavara, Gualtiero Jacopetti and Franco Prosperi, a commercial success. Documentary films imitating Mondo Cane in the 1960s included the term "mondo" in their titles if they were in English. Films outside the genre followed suit: Mondo Trasho, Mondo Weirdo: A Trip to Paranoia Paradise, Mondo Keyhole and Mondo Brutale title themselves mondo, although none are mondo documentaries. In the decade, this naming convention began to fall out of favour and fewer mondo films identified themselves as such in their titles. Filmmakers wanted to top each other in shock value to attract audiences. Cruelty to animals, tribal-initiation rites and surgeries are features of a typical mondo. Much of the action is staged, although the filmmakers may claim their goal is to document "reality".
Subjects of mondo films include sex. Russ Meyer's film Mondo Topless was one of the few "documentaries" restricted to the old midnight movie circuit in the pre-VCR era. Other examples of this genre include Mondo New York by Harvey Keith, Mondo di Notte by Gianni Proia and Mondo Balordo by Roberto Bianchi Montero; the 1980s saw a resurgence of mondo movies focusing exclusively on death, instead of world cultures. The Faces of Death series is a notable example of this type of mondo movie; the producers used fake footage. The rare 1985 film Mondo Senza Veli was purported by viewers to feature at its end the brutal execution of a young Arab rapist by public rectal impalement; this episode was, believed to have been a staged execution by some viewers. Mondo films in the 21st century feature gore, exemplified by the Faces of Gore and Traces of Death series. There is less fake footage, many use news footage of accidents from East Asia. A number of films have parodied the genre. Examples include Ricardo Fratelli's Mondo Ford.
Mondo Beyondo was a parody of satellite television. The Italian cannibal film is arguably an offshoot of the mondo film; the original mondo film series was the Mondo Cane series by Gualtiero Jacopetti, Paolo Cavara, Franco Prosperi. When this type of film proved successful, many imitators followed; the pair's Mondo candido is not a "Mondo" film. The film is a retelling of Candide. In the late 1980s Stelvio Massi made two spinoffs of the original Mondo Cane series, known as Mondo Cane 3 and Mondo Cane 4 on video. In 1969, brothers Angelo and Alfredo Castiglioni began to make a series of their own mondo films until the early 1980s, they made five films in all, tying Prosperi as the most prolific mondo film producers. Each film examines bizarre behavior on the African continent, their films are considered some of the most graphic Mondo films made. Antonio Climati, cinematographer to Prosperi and Jacopetti in many mondo films, joined Mario Morra in 1974 to produce their own string of mondo films, known as the Savage Trilogy.
Prosperi produced the films. Climati and Morra were known for staging scenes; the 1978 Faces of Death popularized a Mondo style known as "death films", which depicted humans or animals dying in graphic ways. Uwe Schier bought the rights to the Mondo Cane and Faces of Death films and released his own entries in both series, consisting of footage lifted from other mondo films. Faces of Death 5 draws on Death Scenes.
Nina in the Mix: The Dense Modesto Remixes is the first remix album by Filipina singer Nina, the second by DJ Dense Modesto. It was released in the Philippines on October 31, 2007 by Club Myx, in collaboration with Warner Music. After the success of Sitti in the Mix: The Dense Modesto Remixes and the Club Myx record label decided to team up for the second time to release another Dense Modesto remix album, this time approaching the pop-R&B influenced Nina; the album's concept is a "ride in the air," forming the sound of an airplane flight. The album includes dance remixes of her notable hits such as "Jealous", "Foolish Heart", "I Don't Want To Be Your Friend", "Through the Fire"; the album was made available on digital download through iTunes on December 11, 2007. Without any promotion and participation from Nina, the album was able to enter the top 10 of retailer charts in the Philippines, it received positive reviews from critics and listeners, with Lorelie Dino of Titik Pilipino, stating "It may have been a slow start, but Dense Modesto worked it up in gaining momentum, the album ends off greatly."
She was impressed with "Through the Fire", "Jealous", "Someday", saying "I find the latter ones more superior." However, she thought the Nina's name caught the attention more than the "Dense Modesto remixes" title, explaining "You can mistake the album as being Nina's rather than the remixes that they are." She ended up giving the album four out of five stars. An unofficial music video for "Someday" was created and aired on MYX to advertise the album and help it increase in sales. Other adverts of the album were posted on DJ Dense Modesto's official Multiply page. "Intro: Modesto Air" – 0:29 "Someday" – 4:52 "Through the Fire" – 4:46 "Love Is Contagious" – 7:11 "Heaven" – 4:47 "I Can't Make You Love Me" – 4:54 "Jealous" – 4:44 "Loving You" – 5:21 "Sunlight" – 4:37 "Foolish Heart" – 4:23 "I Don't Want to Be Your Friend" – 5:53 "Interlude: Through the Fire" – 2:47 "I Do" – 4:10 "Interlude: Jealous" – 2:33 "Outro: Someday" – 1:54 Jim Baluyut - executive producer Anne Poblador - album producer Nina Girado - lead vocals, back-up vocals DJ Dense Modesto - remixing