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Book of the Dead

The Book of the Dead is an ancient Egyptian funerary text written on papyrus and used from the beginning of the New Kingdom to around 50 BCE. The original Egyptian name for the text, transliterated rw nw prt m hrw, is translated as Book of Coming Forth by Day or Book of Emerging Forth into the Light. "Book" is the closest term to describe the loose collection of texts consisting of a number of magic spells intended to assist a dead person's journey through the Duat, or underworld, into the afterlife and written by many priests over a period of about 1,000 years. The Book of the Dead, placed in the coffin or burial chamber of the deceased, was part of a tradition of funerary texts which includes the earlier Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts, which were painted onto objects, not written on papyrus; some of the spells included in the book were drawn from these older works and date to the 3rd millennium BCE. Other spells were composed in Egyptian history, dating to the Third Intermediate Period. A number of the spells which make up the Book continued to be separately inscribed on tomb walls and sarcophagi, as the spells from which they originated always had been.

There was no canonical Book of the Dead. The surviving papyri contain a varying selection of religious and magical texts and vary in their illustration; some people seem to have commissioned their own copies of the Book of the Dead choosing the spells they thought most vital in their own progression to the afterlife. The Book of the Dead was most written in hieroglyphic or hieratic script on a papyrus scroll, illustrated with vignettes depicting the deceased and their journey into the afterlife; the finest example we have of the Egyptian Book of the Dead in antiquity is the Papyrus of Ani. Ani was an Egyptian scribe, it was discovered by Sir E. A. Wallis Budge in 1888 and was taken to the British Museum, where it resides; the Book of the Dead developed from a tradition of funerary manuscripts dating back to the Egyptian Old Kingdom. The first funerary texts were the Pyramid Texts, first used in the Pyramid of King Unas of the 5th Dynasty, around 2400 BCE; these texts were written on the walls of the burial chambers within pyramids, were for the use of the pharaoh.

The Pyramid Texts were written in an unusual hieroglyphic style. The purpose of the Pyramid Texts was to help the dead king take his place amongst the gods, in particular to reunite him with his divine father Ra. Towards the end of the Old Kingdom, the Pyramid Texts ceased to be an royal privilege, were adopted by regional governors and other high-ranking officials. In the Middle Kingdom, a new funerary text emerged, the Coffin Texts; the Coffin Texts used a newer version of the language, new spells, included illustrations for the first time. The Coffin Texts were most written on the inner surfaces of coffins, though they are found on tomb walls or on papyri; the Coffin Texts were available to wealthy private individuals, vastly increasing the number of people who could expect to participate in the afterlife. The Book of the Dead first developed in Thebes toward the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period, around 1700 BCE; the earliest known occurrence of the spells included in the Book of the Dead is from the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep, of the 13th Dynasty, where the new spells were included amongst older texts known from the Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts.

Some of the spells introduced at this time claim an older provenance. By the 17th Dynasty, the Book of the Dead had become widespread not only for members of the royal family, but courtiers and other officials as well. At this stage, the spells were inscribed on linen shrouds wrapped around the dead, though they are found written on coffins or on papyrus; the New Kingdom saw the Book of the Dead spread further. The famous Spell 125, the'Weighing of the Heart', is first known from the reign of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III, c.1475 BCE. From this period onward the Book of the Dead was written on a papyrus scroll, the text illustrated with vignettes. During the 19th Dynasty in particular, the vignettes tended to be lavish, sometimes at the expense of the surrounding text. In the Third Intermediate Period, the Book of the Dead started to appear in hieratic script, as well as in the traditional hieroglyphics; the hieratic scrolls were a cheaper version, lacking illustration apart from a single vignette at the beginning, were produced on smaller papyri.

At the same time, many burials used additional funerary texts, for instance the Amduat. During the 25th and 26th Dynasties, the Book of the Dead was updated and standardised. Spells were ordered and numbered for the first time; this standardised version is known today as the'Saite recension', after the Saite Dynasty. In the Late period and Ptolemaic period, the Book of the Dead continued to be based on the Saite recension, though abbreviated towards the end of the Ptolemaic period. New funerary texts appeared, including the Book of Book of Traversing Eternity; the last use of the Book of the Dead

List of Intel Sandy Bridge-based Xeon microprocessors

All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology, Intel 64, XD bit, TXT, Intel VT-x, Intel EPT, Intel VT-d, Hyper-threading, AES-NI. All models support uni-processor configurations only. Die size:216 mm² Steppings: D2 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology, Intel 64, XD bit, TXT, Intel VT-x, Intel EPT, Intel VT-d, Hyper-threading, Turbo Boost, AES-NI, Smart Cache. All models support uni-processor configurations only. Intel HD Graphics P3000 uses drivers that are optimized and certified for professional applications, similar to Nvidia Quadro and AMD FirePro products. Die size: D2: 216 mm², Q0: 131 mm² Steppings: D2, Q0 Based on Sandy Bridge-E CPU. All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology, Intel 64, XD bit, TXT, Intel VT-x, Intel EPT, Intel VT-d, Intel VT-c, Intel x8 SDDC, Hyper-threading, Turbo Boost, AES-NI, Smart Cache.

Based on Sandy Bridge microarchitecture. All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology, Intel 64, XD bit, TXT, Intel VT-x, Intel EPT, Intel VT-d, Intel VT-c, Intel x8 SDDC, Hyper-threading, Turbo Boost, AES-NI, Smart Cache

Smokers Outside the Hospital Doors

"Smokers Outside the Hospital Doors" is the first single from Editors' second album An End Has a Start. It was released as a digital download on June 11, 2007 and as a physical single through CD and vinyl on June 18, 2007 in the United Kingdom, it peaked at number seven on the UK Singles Chart in its first week of physical release and became a moderate to minor hit in Belgium, the Netherlands and Poland. A single was released in the US on June 26, 2007; the song was set to debut on Zane Lowe's show on April 30. The song was recorded under the supervision of producer Jacknife Lee. Lead vocals, rhythm guitar and piano were provided by Tom Smith, lead guitar and synth by Chris Urbanowicz, bass guitar by Russell Leetch and percussion by Ed Lay. Smith and Lay were part of the choir, along with producer Jacknife Lee, audio engineer Tom McFall and singer Anne Struther, all of whom were chosen purely because they were in the studio at the time; when performed live, the choir vocals are provided by Smith and Leetch, rather than using a pre-recorded backing track.

The intro of the song is an unaccompanied drum beat played for 8 seconds, at which point the lead vocals and piano, both by Tom Smith, enter. The piano part plays a continual progression of three chords: G, C and E minor. At the end of the first verse, the piano is replaced by a short guitar solo, by Chris Urbanowicz, which continues the progression; the second verse returns to piano. The chorus itself has two parts: the first part is four lines long and uses the chord progression of D, E minor, A minor, while the second part is two lines long, but repeated twice, uses G, D, E minor, C. After the second chorus, the song enters a bridge, consisting of just piano and vocals, with a faint synthesised accompaniment. Following the end of the vocal part, the song moves into a break as a bass guitar enters, leading up to a reprise of the guitar solo, accompanied by a choir who repeat the lyrics of the bridge; the song ends with Smith singing the second part of the chorus, accompanied by the lead guitar, with an abrupt fade out on the final syllable.

The music video for "Smokers Outside the Hospital Doors" was filmed in and around Prague on the Vltava, depicts, in a nonlinear manner, a young girl with the ability to walk on water escaping from a hospital, escaping via railway lines, a red light district and a Romani encampment to the river Vltava where she attempts to row away, only to run back across the water surface to avoid a police boat, all intercut with clips of the Editors playing the song in an abandoned ship. The video ends with Tom Smith at a dockyard meeting the girl; the woman that helps hide the runaway a prostitute, changes in appearance. The runaway's hood is alternately flipped up and down and the dog that runs with her might be different in different scenes; this is all to signify. The video was directed by Siggi Kinski and Stefán Árni Þorgeirsson of production company Arni & Kinski, who based the video on a bad childhood experience of a hospital; the video was to be filmed in London. After this proved prohibitively expensive, production moved to Prague with an new cast.

Most initial reviews were positive: NME described the song as "audacious and good to boot", adding that "Editors have found their life force in death itself", while MusicOMH stated that "at 5 minutes long it's worth every second." However, some reviews were less favourable. Digital download: "Smokers Outside the Hospital Doors" – 4:56UK CD single: SKXCD93 Card sleeve"Smokers Outside the Hospital Doors" – 4:56 "An Eye for an Eye" – 4:257" vinyl #1: SKX932 "Smokers Outside the Hospital Doors" – 4:56 "Some Kind of Spark" – 4:267" vinyl #2: SKX93 Clear vinyl, shiny metallic cover with silver sleeve, limited to 10,000 copies"Smokers Outside the Hospital Doors" – 4:56 "The Picture" – 3:50US CD single: 88697 12171 2 Regular jewel case"Smokers Outside the Hospital Doors" – 4:56 "An Eye for an Eye" – 4:25 "The Picture" – 3:50European CD single: P. I. L.086CD 449.3086.122 Slimline jewel case"Smokers Outside the Hospital Doors" – 4:56 "An Eye for an Eye" – 4:25 "The Picture" – 3:50 "Some Kind of Spark" – 4:26Kitchenware Promo: SKCD93P Card sleeve"Smokers Outside the Hospital Doors" – 4:09 "Smokers Outside the Hospital Doors" – 4:56FADER Promo: Slimline jewel case"Smokers Outside the Hospital Doors" – 4:09 "Smokers Outside the Hospital Doors" – 4:56 Personnel Lead vocals by Tom Smith Rhythm Guitar by Tom Smith.

Piano by Tom Smith Lead Guitar and Synthesiser by Chris Urbanowicz Bass Guitar by Russell Leetch Drums by Ed Lay Backing vocals by Russell Leetch, Ed LayProduction Produced by Jacknife Lee Recorded by Tom McFall, Jon Gray, Jacknife Lee, Sam Bell Mixed by Cenzo Townsend Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics