Wigtown is a town and former royal burgh in Wigtownshire, of which it is the county town, within the Dumfries and Galloway region in Scotland. It lies south of Newton Stewart, it is well known today as "Scotland's National Book Town" with a high concentration of second-hand book shops and an annual book festival. It has a population of about 1,000. Wigtown is the gateway to and main centre of the Machars peninsula. Due to the North Atlantic Drift the climate is mild and plants associated with the warmer climates of lower latitudes can be grown there. Today Wigtown is thus compared to Hay-on-Wye in Wales. However, in contrast to Hay-on-Wye, Wigtown's status as a book town was planned, in order to regenerate a depressed town, although the distillery has now re-opened and is distilling its own malt whisky. There was a national search in Scotland for a candidate town; the Wigtown Book Festival was first held in 1999 and has grown to be the second largest book festival in Scotland. One 18th-century historian of the county, Samuel Robinson, noted that "the greatest number of houses were of a homely character and one storey high".
Each house, had a midden in front of it. Bishop Pococke in 1760 noted the existence of thatched houses. By the end of the 19th century it was said. Wigtown was described as the quaintest county town in Scotland. Town Council improvements in the early 19th century altered the face of Main Street. In 1809 town magistrates resolved to improve the main street at a moderate expense by lifting the pavement and making a gravel road around each side of the street, the outer edge of, to be 44 feet from the edge of the houses. A "plantation" was to be left in the centre of the thoroughfare, laid out with shrubs and enclosed by a rail. In 1830, the Wigtown Bowling Club obtained a footing in the "plantation", by the turn of the 20th century the square was used by bowlers and tennis players. Much of the square was planted up in the mid-20th century, but in 2002 it was restored to the elegant Georgian open plan fringed by trees; the Newton Stewart to Whithorn branch railway line had a station at Wigtown. The service ceased in 1950.
The closure of the railway service led directly to the decline of the town's main industry - the Bladnoch Creamery. Wigtown's grammar school is the oldest in Wigtownshire; until 1712 the school does not appear to have been conducted in a building set aside for that purpose, but in that century the council ordered all inhabitants owning horses to bring a draught of timber from a nearby wood to help in the construction of a schoolhouse. Near the end of the century the council noted that the schoolhouse was overcrowded and needed improvement, but because of the poor state of the town's finances, the magistrates could do little to help at that time; the schoolmaster was urged to find more room in the town at the expense of the "stranger scholaris". A Roman Catholic primary school was built opposite the school but closed in 2004; the parish church of Wigtown was dedicated to Machutus. On display within the modern parish church is a Celtic interlaced cross shaft of the Whithorn School dating back to 1000 AD.
How old the church is remains a mystery, although at one time it belonged to the priory of Whithorn, Wigtown parish church was afterwards set up as a free rectory with the king as patron. A church was erected on the site of the medieval parish church in 1730, within a century that church was ruinous, for a third parish church was built close by in 1850. Portions of the 1730 church survive, although fragments of this may, in fact, be older than that date, for there is a window, on the south side aisle ornamented with trefoiled heads and stone mullions with shields carved on them; some residents of Wigtown maintain. Catholic Church Sacred Heart Catholic Church. Gothic church of nave and apse by architect J Garden Brown built in 1879; the four lancet windows on the facade support a niche containing a statue of Jesus Christ. Quaker Meeting House Wigtown Quaker Meeting House is as at The Lorry Park, Chapel Court, South Main Street. Wigtown lies less than 1 mile from Bladnoch, a village with a distillery producing malt whisky of the same name.
The River Bladnoch can be fished for Atlantic salmon and has been well known as one of Scotland's finest rivers producing spring fish. It meets the River Cree in Wigtown Bay, meandering through a large area of salt marsh, designated as a Local Nature Reserve. Wigtown Bay is the largest LNR in Britain, is home to a wealth of wildlife birds; some people come to admire them from the comfort of the viewing hides situated near the harbour, others come to shoot them. The first pair of ospreys to return to Galloway in over 100 years arrived in 2004. A live camera link to their nest can be viewed in the County Buildings; the Wigtown and Bladnoch Golf Club has a nine-hole golf course on the outskirts of Wigtown. To the east of Wigtown is The Martyr's Stake, a monument marking the traditional site where the two Margarets were drowned in the 17th century, their graves are in the Parish Church cemetery. There is a small cell in the County Buildings in which they were imprisoned
Clunes is a town in Victoria, Australia, 36 kilometres north of Ballarat, in the Shire of Hepburn. At the 2016 census it had a population of 1,728; the Djadja Wurrung people were the first inhabitants of the region including the settlement which became Clunes. The town was home to Victoria's first registered gold discovery made by William Campbell in 1850; this discovery was not made public until 1851. In 1851 German Herman Brunn visited the site of Campbell's discovery on Donald Cameron's run the'Clunes', he traveled the area informing all he met of the find on Cameron's run'Clunes'. He told James Esmond who traveled to Clunes and inspected the site and collected a gold sample which he took to gold assayer in Geelong on 7 July 1851, he informed Arthur Clark editor of the Geelong Advertiser, requesting that nothing would be said until he returned from Melbourne with equipment. In August 1851 a Mr. Davies from Avoca revealed in the Geelong Advertiser that the site was at Clunes. William Campbell's announcement in Melbourne and Davies news item triggered the gold rush in Victoria.
The township was established a few years and subsequent gold mining predominantly driven by the Port Phillip and Colonial Mining Company, mining the site of the discovery saw the town's population rising to well over 6,000 residents in the late 1880s. Clunes post office opened as early as 1 October 1857 and in 1874 Clunes was connected to the Victorian railway network. Clunes station was opened in the same year. In 1873 mine employers attempted to introduce Saturday afternoon and Sunday shifts; the miners refused to sign the new terms outlined in their contract renewals and went on a strike that lasted 3 months. Some days into the action the miners organised the Clunes Miners' Association and what were to become known as the Clunes Riots resisting the use of Chinese labour from Creswick as strikebreakers. From the 1850s through to 1893, when gold mining came to an end, Clunes was an important gold production location in Victoria. Surrounded by grassland and pastures, the town has preserved many of its elegant historic buildings until today and is recognised as one of the architecturally most intact gold towns in Victoria.
Jean Beadle Labour leader and social worker Alexander Jobson public accountant and financial worker Nancy Jobson headmistress Robert Lewis Jockey Sir John Longstaff artist Harley Tarrant businessman The idea of transforming Clunes into a European-style booktown was first conceived and developed by Councillor Tim Hayes, Linda Newitt, Graeme Johnston and Tess Brady. Clunes held its first'Booktown for a Day' event on 20 May 2007. Over 50 booksellers from around Australia set up shop for the day in the town's heritage buildings. Renamed to'Back to Booktown' a year and to'Clunes Booktown Festival' in 2012, the township now holds the event each year on the first weekend in May, it has become the largest collection of books in any regional centre of Australia and the major Victorian regional book event. In 2008'Back to Booktown' won Hepburn Shire's Community Event of the Year. On 21 January 2010 the Hon. John Brumby, Premier of Victoria, said during the Australia Day Luncheon: ‘In Victoria we have our own booktown.
The regional community of Clunes in north-west Victoria sees its future as a cultural destination centred around literature. As well as their successful ‘Back to Booktown’ festival, just last month our Government helped launch the new Creative Clunes Community Bookshop.’ On 23 November 2010'Clunes - Back to Booktown' was awarded the Australian Civic Trust'Award of Merit' in the Human Category for its use of heritage buildings in a'respectful, as against destructive use.' On 19 April 2012 Clunes was given'International Booktown' status - a title awarded to the town by the'International Organisation of Booktowns'. Clunes is the first town in the Southern Hemisphere and the 15th town world-wide to have received the official recognition; the Australia Day awards for 2013 for Hepburn Shire's Community Event of the Year were awarded to'Children's Booktown 2012'. In recent years Clunes has undergone a noticeable transformation and rejuvenation following the decision by Wesley College, Australia's largest co-educational private school, to establish a campus for Year 9 students in the town.
Opened in 2000, about 80 students take up residency in the Wesley Clunes Residential Learning Village in the centre of town and become part of the local community for an eight-week period each term. Where they learn how to take care of themselves for when they grow up. Many of the external scenes and some internal scenes in the 2003 film Ned Kelly, starring Heath Ledger, were shot in Clunes; the Old State Bank in Fraser Street was used for the internal scenes featuring the "Euroa" bank robbery. Clunes appears in the films Mad Max starring Mel Gibson and the remake of the 1950s classic On the Beach, it appears in the ABC television series' Queen Kat, Carmel & St Jude, Something in the Air and Halifax f.p.. Clunes was once closed off to the public for the TV show The Mole in 2001; the mission in that episode was to direct one of the contestants to pick up another contestant in a blacked-out car. According to the Tomorrow, When the War Began series Facebook page, the upcoming Tomorrow series will be set in Clunes and will be aired on ABC3 in early 2016.
Much of the series finale of the HBO show. A recent film shot in Clunes is Julius Avery's 13-minute movie Jerrycan. Jerrycan won the 2008 Jury Prize at the 61st Cannes Film Festival in France for short films, with its portrayal of restless teenagers in rural Victoria; the town's Australian Rules football/Netball team is the Clune
An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, is thus a writer. More broadly defined, an author is "the person who originated or gave existence to anything" and whose authorship determines responsibility for what was created; the first owner of a copyright is the person who created the work i.e. the author. If more than one person created the work a case of joint authorship can be made provided some criteria are met. In the copyright laws of various jurisdictions, there is a necessity for little flexibility regarding what constitutes authorship; the United States Copyright Office, for example, defines copyright as "a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to authors of "original works of authorship". Holding the title of "author" over any "literary, musical, certain other intellectual works" gives rights to this person, the owner of the copyright the exclusive right to engage in or authorize any production or distribution of their work.
Any person or entity wishing to use intellectual property held under copyright must receive permission from the copyright holder to use this work, will be asked to pay for the use of copyrighted material. After a fixed amount of time, the copyright expires on intellectual work and it enters the public domain, where it can be used without limit. Copyright laws in many jurisdictions – following the lead of the United States, in which the entertainment and publishing industries have strong lobbying power – have been amended since their inception, to extend the length of this fixed period where the work is controlled by the copyright holder. However, copyright is the legal reassurance that one owns his/her work. Technically, someone owns their work from the time. An interesting aspect of authorship emerges with copyright in that, in many jurisdictions, it can be passed down to another upon one's death; the person who inherits the copyright enjoys the same legal benefits. Questions arise as to the application of copyright law.
How does it, for example, apply to the complex issue of fan fiction? If the media agency responsible for the authorized production allows material from fans, what is the limit before legal constraints from actors and other considerations, come into play? Additionally, how does copyright apply to fan-generated stories for books? What powers do the original authors, as well as the publishers, have in regulating or stopping the fan fiction? This particular sort of case illustrates how complex intellectual property law can be, since such fiction may involved trademark law, likeness rights, fair use rights held by the public, many other interacting complications. Authors may portion out different rights they hold to different parties, at different times, for different purposes or uses, such as the right to adapt a plot into a film, but only with different character names, because the characters have been optioned by another company for a television series or a video game. An author may not have rights when working under contract that they would otherwise have, such as when creating a work for hire, or when writing material using intellectual property owned by others.
In literary theory, critics find complications in the term author beyond what constitutes authorship in a legal setting. In the wake of postmodern literature, critics such as Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault have examined the role and relevance of authorship to the meaning or interpretation of a text. Barthes challenges the idea, he writes, in his essay "Death of the Author", that "it is language which speaks, not the author". The words and language of a text itself determine and expose meaning for Barthes, not someone possessing legal responsibility for the process of its production; every line of written text is a mere reflection of references from any of a multitude of traditions, or, as Barthes puts it, "the text is a tissue of quotations drawn from the innumerable centres of culture". With this, the perspective of the author is removed from the text, the limits imposed by the idea of one authorial voice, one ultimate and universal meaning, are destroyed; the explanation and meaning of a work does not have to be sought in the one who produced it, "as if it were always in the end, through the more or less transparent allegory of the fiction, the voice of a single person, the author'confiding' in us".
The psyche, fanaticism of an author can be disregarded when interpreting a text, because the words are rich enough themselves with all of the traditions of language. To expose meanings in a written work without appealing to the celebrity of an author, their tastes, vices, is, to Barthes, to allow language to speak, rather than author. Michel Foucault argues in his essay "What is an author?" that all authors are writers, but not all writers are authors. He states that "a private letter may have a signatory—it does not have an author". For a reader to assign the title of author upon any written work is to attribute certain standards upon the text which, for Foucault, are working in conjunction with the idea of "the author function". Foucault's author function is the idea that an author exists only as a fun
Warwickshire is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. The county town is Warwick; the county is famous for being the birthplace of William Shakespeare. The county is divided into five districts of North Warwickshire and Bedworth, Rugby and Stratford-on-Avon; the current county boundaries were set in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972. The historic county boundaries include Solihull, as well as much of Birmingham; the county is bordered by Leicestershire to the northeast, Staffordshire to the northwest and the West Midlands to the west, Northamptonshire to the east and southeast, Gloucestershire to the southwest and Oxfordshire to the south. The northern tip of the county is only 3 miles from the Derbyshire border. An average-sized English county covering an area of 2,000 km2, it runs some 60 miles north to south. Equivalently it extends as far north as Shrewsbury in Shropshire and as far south as Banbury in north Oxfordshire; the majority of Warwickshire's population live in the centre of the county.
The market towns of northern and eastern Warwickshire were industrialised in the 19th century, include Atherstone, Bedworth and Rugby. Of these, Atherstone has retained most of its original character. Major industries included coal mining, textiles and cement production, but heavy industry is in decline, being replaced by distribution centres, light to medium industry and services. Of the northern and eastern towns, only Nuneaton and Rugby are well known outside of Warwickshire; the prosperous towns of central and western Warwickshire including Royal Leamington Spa, Stratford-upon-Avon, Alcester and Wellesbourne harbour light to medium industries and tourism as major employment sectors. The north of the county, bordering Staffordshire and Leicestershire, is mildly undulating countryside and the northernmost village, No Man's Heath, is only 34 miles south of the Peak District National Park's southernmost point; the south of the county is rural and sparsely populated, includes a small area of the Cotswolds, at the border with northeast Gloucestershire.
The plain between the outlying Cotswolds and the Edgehill escarpment is known as the Vale of Red Horse. The only town in the south of Warwickshire is Shipston-on-Stour; the highest point in the county, at 261 m, is Ebrington Hill, again on the border with Gloucestershire, grid reference SP187426 at the county's southwest extremity. There are no cities in Warwickshire since both Coventry and Birmingham were incorporated into the West Midlands county in 1974 and are now metropolitan authorities in themselves; the largest towns in Warwickshire in 2011 were: Nuneaton, Leamington Spa, Warwick and Kenilworth. Much of western Warwickshire, including that area now forming part of Coventry and Birmingham, was covered by the ancient Forest of Arden, thus the names of a number of places in the central-western part of Warwickshire end with the phrase "-in-Arden", such as Henley-in-Arden, Hampton-in-Arden and Tanworth-in-Arden. The remaining area, not part of the forest, was called the Felden – from fielden.
Areas part of Warwickshire include Coventry, Sutton Coldfield and some of Birmingham including Aston and Edgbaston. These became part of the metropolitan county of West Midlands following local government re-organisation in 1974. In 1986 the West Midlands County Council was abolished and Birmingham and Solihull became effective unitary authorities, however the West Midlands county name has not been altogether abolished, still exists for ceremonial purposes, so the town and two cities remain outside Warwickshire; some organisations, such as Warwickshire County Cricket Club, based in Edgbaston, in Birmingham, still observe the historic county boundaries. The flag of the historic county was registered in October 2016, it is a design of a bear and ragged staff on a red field, long associated with the county. Coventry is in the centre of the Warwickshire area, still has strong ties with the county. Coventry and Warwickshire are sometimes treated as a single area and share a single Chamber of Commerce and BBC Local Radio Station.
Coventry has been a part of Warwickshire for only some of its history. In 1451 Coventry was separated from Warwickshire and made a county corporate in its own right, called the County of the City of Coventry. In 1842 the county of Coventry was abolished and Coventry was remerged with Warwickshire. In recent times, there have been calls to formally re-introduce Coventry into Warwickshire, although nothing has yet come of this; the county's population would increase by a third-of-a-million overnight should this occur, Coventry being the UK's 11th largest city. The town of Tamworth was divided between Warwickshire and Staffordshire, but since 1888 has been in Staffordshire. In 1931, Warwickshire gained the town of Shipston-on-Stour from Worcestershire and several villages, including Long Marston and Welford-on-Avon, from Gloucestershire. Warwickshire contains a large expanse of green belt area, surrounding the West Midlands and Coventry conurbations, was first drawn up from the 1950s. All the county's districts contain some portion of the belt.
The following towns and villages in Warwickshire have populations of over 5,000. Warwickshire came into being as a divisio
Óbidos is a town and a municipality in Oeste region. The town proper has 3100 inhabitants; the municipality population in 2011 was 11,772, in an area of 141.55 square kilometres. The name "Óbidos" is a Latinised derivation of the older Celtic "Eburobricio"; the municipality had its growth from a Roman settlement near the foothills of an elevated escarpment. The region of Óbidos, extending from the Atlantic to the interior of Estremadura Province along the rivers and lakes has been inhabited since the late Paleolithic. A settlement was constructed by early Celt tribes, a centre of trade for the Phoenicians. Archeological evidence from the base of the medieval tower at Óbidos Castle indicates Roman construction linked to an outpost of the Roman civitas of Eburobrittium, a large urban area, under excavation. Archeological surveys determined the remains of a forum and other Roman structures near the settlement. After the fall of Rome, the region came under the influence of the Visigoths, although specific records are missing.
The Roman town of Eburobrittium was abandoned in the 5th century for the more secure hilltop where today the principal settlement is located. Sometime after 713 the Moors established a fortification on this mountain, while a Christian community of Mozarabs lived in the Moncharro neighbourhood; the area was taken from the Moors by the first King of Portugal, Afonso Henriques, in 1148. Tradition states that one knight, Gonçalo Mendes da Maia, was responsible for the successful storming of the Moorish castle; the retaking of Óbidos was a final stage in the conquest of the Estremadura Province region, after the settlements of Santarém, Lisbon and Torres Vedras. Following the control of the region, the settlement received its first foral in 1195, during the reign of King Sancho I. In 1210, King Afonso II gave the title of this village to Queen Urraca. Since Óbidos has been patronized by the Queens of Portugal, giving rise to its informal title as Vila das Rainhas; the castle and walls of Óbidos were remodelled during the reign of King Dinis I.
The limestone and marble structure was strengthened and elaborated, while the keep was created in the 14th century, by King Fernando. By the time of the first remodelling project, the settlement had grown beyond the gates of the castle; the Church of Santa Maria in Óbidos was the setting for the wedding of King Afonso V to his cousin, Princess Isabella of Coimbra, on 15 August 1441, when they were both still children aged 9 and 10, respectively. Administrative reforms conducted by King Manuel I at Óbidos in 1513, included the institution of a formal charter and major requalification of the urban area; the 1755 earthquake caused damage to the village walls, a few churches, many buildings, resulted in the loss of architecture of Arab or Medieval inspiration. The Peninsular Wars were fought in the vicinity of Óbidos, including the Battle of Roliça. More the village was a centre of government and meeting place for those involved in the 1974 Carnation Revolution, linking it to the armed forces movement revolt.
Located on the Atlantic Ocean coast, the municipality is bounded in the northeast and east by Caldas da Rainha, in the south by Bombarral, in the southeast by Lourinhã and in the west by Peniche. Administratively, it is divided into 7 civil parishes: A dos Negros Amoreira Gaeiras Olho Marinho Santa Maria, São Pedro e Sobral da Lagoa Usseira Vau The area of the town of Óbidos is located on a hilltop, encircled by a fortified wall. Óbidos remains a well-preserved example of medieval architecture. The castle now houses a pousada; the municipality is home to the famous Praia D'el Rey golf complex, one of the top golf resorts in Europe, Royal Óbidos - Spa & Golf Resort. Each July Óbidos castle hosts a traditional'Medieval Market'. For two weeks the castle and the surrounding town recreate the spirit of medieval Europe. Flowing banners and heraldic flags set the mood together with hundreds of entertainers and stall holders dressed as merchants, jesters, wandering minstrels and more. Visitors can shop at the traditional handcrafts fair or watch medieval shows, horse displays and a costumed parade that winds its way through the streets.
There are displays of jousting knights and armed combat. Spit roasted hog, hearty soups, lamb, quail and other grilled meats are just some of the many medieval style meals on offer from dozens of "taverns" and stalls spread throughout the market. Drinking from pewter tankards and eating from wooden trencher all adds to the experience. Óbidos IPR Óbidos Turismo, Município de Óbidos - Official Óbidos Tourism website Obidos Guide The International Festival of Chocolate, Óbidos, Portugal - Official website with basic information shown. GoObidos - Oficial Obidos turistic Guide - Official Obidos Tourist Guide. Obidos turistic Guide - Website published in collaboration with Turismo de Portugal and Estoril Tourism School
Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book of codex format from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets. The stack is bound together along one edge by either sewing with thread through the folds or by a layer of flexible adhesive. Alternative methods of binding that are cheaper but less permanent include loose-leaf rings, individual screw posts or binding posts, twin loop spine coils, plastic spiral coils, plastic spine combs. For protection, the bound stack is either attached to stiff boards. An attractive cover is adhered to the boards, including identifying information and decoration. Book artists or specialists in book decoration can greatly enhance a book's content by creating book-like objects with artistic merit of exceptional quality. Before the computer age, the bookbinding trade involved two divisions. First, there was Stationery binding that deals with books intended for handwritten entries such as accounting ledgers, business journals, blank books, guest log books, along with other general office stationery such as note books, manifold books, day books, portfolios, etc.
Computers have now replaced the pen and paper based accounting that constituted most of the stationery binding industry. Second was Letterpress binding which deals with making books intended for reading, including library binding, fine binding, edition binding, publisher's bindings. A third division deals with the repair and conservation of old used bindings. Today, modern bookbinding is divided between hand binding by individual craftsmen working in a shop and commercial bindings mass-produced by high-speed machines in a factory. There is a broad grey area between the two divisions; the size and complexity of a bindery shop varies with job types, for example, from one-of-a-kind custom jobs, to repair/restoration work, to library rebinding, to preservation binding, to small edition binding, to extra binding, to large-run publisher's binding. There are cases where binding jobs are combined in one shop. For the largest numbers of copies, commercial binding is effected by production runs of ten thousand copies or more in a factory.
Bookbinding is a specialized trade that relies on basic operations of measuring and gluing. A finished book might need dozens of operations to complete, according to the specific style and materials. Bookbinding combines skills from other trades such as paper and fabric crafts, leather work, model making, graphic arts, it requires knowledge about numerous varieties of book structures along with all the internal and external details of assembly. A working knowledge of the materials involved is required. A book craftsman needs a minimum set of hand tools but with experience will find an extensive collection of secondary hand tools and items of heavy equipment that are valuable for greater speed and efficiency. Bookbinding is an artistic craft of great antiquity, at the same time, a mechanized industry; the division between craft and industry is not so wide. It is interesting to observe that the main problems faced by the mass-production bookbinder are the same as those that confronted the medieval craftsman or the modern hand binder.
The first problem is still. The craft of bookbinding originated in India, where religious sutras were copied on to palm leaves with a metal stylus; the leaf was dried and rubbed with ink, which would form a stain in the wound. The finished leaves were given numbers, two long twines were threaded through each end through wooden boards, making a palm-leaf book; when the book was closed, the excess twine would be wrapped around the boards to protect the manuscript leaves. Buddhist monks took the idea through Afghanistan to China in the first century BC. Similar techniques can be found in ancient Egypt where priestly texts were compiled on scrolls and books of papyrus. Another version of bookmaking can be seen through the ancient Mayan codex. Writers in the Hellenistic-Roman culture wrote longer texts as scrolls. Court records and notes were written on wax tablets, while important documents were written on papyrus or parchment; the modern English word book comes from the Proto-Germanic *bokiz, referring to the beechwood on which early written works were recorded.
The book was not needed in ancient times, as many early Greek texts—scrolls—were 30 pages long, which were customarily folded accordion-fashion to fit into the hand. Roman works were longer, running to hundreds of pages; the Greeks used to call their books tome, meaning "to cut". The Egyptian Book of the Dead was a massive 200 pages long and was used in funerary services for the deceased. Torah scrolls, editions of the Jewish holy book, were—and still are—also held in special holders when read. Scrolls can be rolled in one of two ways; the first method is to wrap the scroll around a single core, similar to a modern roll of paper towels. While simple to construct, a single core scroll has a major disadvantage: in order to read text at the end of the scroll, the entire scroll must be unwound; this is overcome in the second method, to wrap the scroll around two cores, as in a Torah. With a double scroll, the text can be accessed from both beginning and end, th
A used book or secondhand book is a book, owned before by an owner other than the publisher or retailer by an individual or library. Used books become available on the market when they are sold or given to a second-hand shop or used bookstore; some new book shops carry used books, some used book shops sell new books. Though the original authors or publishers will not benefit financially from the sale of a used book, it helps to keep old books in circulation. Sometimes old, first edition, antique, or out of print books can be found as used books in used book shops. A reading copy of a book may be well-used, may include highlighting or marginalia, is suitable for reading, but is not collectible; this is a term used in the used book business, to indicate the lack of collectible value, while claiming that the book is in sufficiently good condition for a purchaser whose interest is in reading the book. A reading copy is less expensive than a collectible copy. A number of small towns have become centres for used book sellers, most notably Hay-on-Wye in South Wales.
They act as a magnet for buyers, are located in country areas of great scenic beauty. List of used book conditions Book town Bibliophilia Bibliomania Book swapping