A bookcase, or bookshelf, is a piece of furniture with horizontal shelves in a cabinet, used to store books or other printed materials. Bookcases are used in private homes and university libraries and bookstores. Bookcases range from small, low models the height of a table to high models reaching up to ceiling height. Shelves may be adjustable to different positions in the case. In rooms devoted to the storage of books, such as libraries, they may be permanently fixed to the walls and/or floor. A bookcase may be fitted with glass doors that can be closed to protect the books from dust or moisture. Bookcase doors are always glazed with glass, so as to allow the spines of the books to be read. Valuable rare books may be kept in locked cases with wooden or glazed doors. A small bookshelf may stand on some other piece of furniture such as a desk or chest. Larger books are more to be kept in horizontal piles and large books flat on wide shelves or on coffee tables. In Latin and Greek the idea of bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē, derivatives of which mean library in many modern languages.
A bookcase is known as a bookshelf, a bookstand, a cupboard and a bookrack. In a library, large bookshelves are called "stacks." Private libraries appeared during the late Roman republic: Seneca inveighed against libraries fitted out for show by illiterate owners who scarcely read their titles in the course of a lifetime, but displayed the scrolls in bookcases of citrus wood inlaid with ivory that ran right to the ceiling: "by now, like bathrooms and hot water, a library is got up as standard equipment for a fine house. Revolving bookcases, known as zhuanluntang, have been documented in imperial China, its invention is credited to Fu Xi in 544. Descriptions of revolving bookcases have been found in 8th- and 9th-century Chinese texts. Revolving bookcases were popularized in Buddhist monasteries during the Song Dynasty under the reign of Emperor Taizu, who ordered the mass printing of the Buddhist Tripiṭaka scriptures. An illustration of a revolving bookcase is depicted in Li Jie's architectural treatise the Yingzao Fashi.
When books were written by hand and were not produced in great quantities, they were kept in small boxes or chests which owners carried with them. As manuscript volumes accumulated in religious houses or in homes of the wealthy, they were stored on shelves or in cupboards; these cupboards are the predecessors of today's bookcases. The doors were removed, the evolution of the bookcase proceeded. However, the volumes were not arranged in the modern fashion, they were either placed in piles upon their sides, or if upright, were ranged with their backs to the wall and their edges outwards. The band of leather, vellum or parchment which closed the book was used for the inscription of the title, thus on the fore-edge instead of on the spine. Titles were commonly written onto the fore-edge, it was not until the invention of printing had reduced the cost of books, thus allowing many more people access to owning books, that it became the practice to write the title on the spine and shelve books with the spine outwards.
Early bookcases were of oak, still deemed by some to be the most appropriate wood for an elegant library. The oldest bookcases in England are those in the Bodleian Library at Oxford University, which were placed in position in the last year or two of the sixteenth century. Long ranges of book-shelves are somewhat severe in appearance, many attempts have been made by means of carved cornices and pilasters to give them a less austere appearance; these attempts were most successful as in the hands of the English cabinetmakers of the second half of the eighteenth century. Both Chippendale and Sheraton made or designed many bookcases glazed with little lozenges encased in fretwork frames of great charm and elegance. In the eyes of some, the grace of some of Sheraton's satinwood bookcases has been equalled; the French cabinetmakers of the same period were highly successful with small ornamental cases. Mahogany, rosewood satinwood and choicer exotic timbers were used. Dwarf bookcases were finished with a slab of choice marble at the top.
In 1876, John Danner of Canton, invented a revolving bookcase with a patented "pivot and post" design. The ingenuity of his work resided in the economy of space it provided. Thirty-two volumes of the American Cyclopedia could be stored in a compact space, available for perusal at the touch of a finger. Danner's bookcase appeared in the 1894 Montgomery Ward catalog. In 1878 he won a gold medal; the John Danner Manufacturing Company was known for honorable affordability. The woods were oak, black walnut, western ash, Philippine mahogany. Viewed as a progressive businessman, Danner was credited with drawing a large trade and business to the city of Canton. In the great public libraries of the twentieth century, multilevel stacks served as both structure and shelving, of iron, as in the British Museum where the shelves are covered with cowhide. C.. There are three common ways of arranging stationary bookcases: flat against the wall.
The Battle of Brustem was fought on 28 October 1467 in Brustem, near Sint-Truiden between the Duchy of Burgundy and the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, as part of the Second Liège War. In 1465, Philip the Good had won the First Liège War against Prince-Bishop Louis de Bourbon, newly-appointed by himself; this had led to the humiliating Peace of Sint-Truiden. When Philip died in 1467, the people from Liège raised again against the hated Prince-Bishop, who fled the city. Liège counted on the promised military support from King Louis XI of France at war with the new Burgundian Duke Charles the Bold. Charles moved on Liège. Louis XI did nothing; the army of Liège was composed of 500 cavalry. They were commanded by Raes van Heers, his wife Pentecote d'Arkel and Jean de Wilde, lord of Kessenich. Raes positioned his troops in the marshy area between Brustem, Sint-Truiden and Ordingen to do battle. In this way he tried to diminish the effect of the Burgundian artillery. Charles came from the direction of Sint-Truiden, where he left a few thousand men behind, including 500 English archers, to prevent an intervention of the city's garrison.
On 28 October, Charles ordered his vanguard under Adolph of Lord of Ravenstein to attack. Raes commanded his troops to hold position and wait for the arrival of reinforcements, but the militia from Tongeren counter-attacked and drove back the troops of Ravenstein, killing a considerable number of archers, but this was. His second line was armed with ideal for close combat; the Liège militia was stopped in their advance and pushed back, in what soon became a rout. Raes van Heers and the French envoy François Royer, Baillif of Lyon, were amongst the first to flee the battlefield; the Burgundians killed everybody. Liège suffered some 4,000 casualties and the rest of the army was only saved by the evening darkness. After the battle, Charles forced the city to surrender on 12 November; the Prince-Bishopric became a Burgundian protectorate under Guy of Humbercourt and all cities in the County of Loon were forced to remove their defences. History of Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, Volume 1 jean De Wilde
Rapala lankana, the Malabar flash, is a species of lycaenid or blue butterfly found in South India and Sri Lanka. It was first described by Frederic Moore in 1879. Male: Upperside: Both wings deep purple dull black, but in certain lights the whole of the hindwing and the lower discal area of the forewing glossed with magnificent rich purple. Hindwing with the anal lobe centred with ferruginous. Underside: Both wings pale ferruginous towards the base, becoming darker towards the margin. Forewing with a somewhat broad straight discal deep ferruginous band from the costa reaching the sub-median nervure, its outer edge even, its inner edge a little irregular. Hindwing with a similar discal band, but posteriorly curved up to the abdominal margin. Female: Upperside: Both wings pale violet-brown, marginal line black. Cilia pale ferruginous, beyond the tail white. Hindwing with the anal lobe ferruginous, tail black. Underside: both wings pale ferruginous, the margin darker. Hindwing with a black spot at the anal lobe and a speckled spot beyond, both of which and the end of the band are bordered with white speckles.
Legs blackish, banded with white. List of butterflies of the Western Ghats