Books in France

As of 2018, five firms in France rank among the world's biggest publishers of books in terms of revenue: Éditions Lefebvre Sarrut, Groupe Albin Michel, Groupe Madrigall, Hachette Livre, Martinière Groupe. See also: Global spread of the printing press: France. In 1476 in Lyon appeared one of the first printed French-language books, La Légende Dorée by Jacobus da Varagine; the French royal library began at the Louvre Palace in 1368 during the reign of Charles V, opened to the public in 1692, became the Bibliothèque nationale de France in 1792. The Centre National du Livre formed in 1946; the Salon Livre Paris began in 1981. The history of the book in France has been studied from a variety of cultural, economic and social angles. Influential scholars include Roger Chartier, Robert Darnton, Elizabeth Eisenstein, Henri-Jean Martin. See also: French booksellers and Category:Bookstores of FranceThe Cercle de la Librairie organized in 1847 in Paris, the Syndicat National de la Librairie Ancienne et Moderne booksellers association in 1914.

L'Express started a bestseller list in 1961, Livres Hebdo started one in 1984. The Reader Hugo, 2011, includes brief scene in fictional Paris bookshop Copyright law of France Legal deposit: France Media of France French literature French bibliophiles Libraries in FranceLibraries in Paris List of book fairs in France List of book-burning incidents, some in France French children's books Musée de l'Imprimerie, est. 1964 This article incorporates information from the French Wikipedia. G. W. Porter. K. Fortescue, eds.. "Bibliographies of Countries: France". List of Bibliographical Works in the Reading Room of the British Museum. London. OCLC 3816244 – via Internet Archive. Anatole Claudin; the First Paris Press: an account of the books printed for G. Fichet and J. Heynlin in the Sorbonne, 1470-1472. London: Chiswick Press for The Bibliographical Society. Robert Proctor. "Books Printed From Types: France". Index to the Early Printed Books in the British Museum. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Company.

Pp. 561+. OCLC 6438080 – via HathiTrust. Alice Bertha Kroeger. "Bibliography: National and Trade: French". Guide to the Study and Use of Reference Books. American Library Association. David T. Pottinger. French Book Trade in the Ancien Regime, 1500-1791. ISBN 9780674432581. Allen Kent. "Printers and Printing". Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. 23. Marcel Dekker. ISBN 978-0-8247-2023-0. Printing in France before 1501, p.342+ 16th Century: France 17th Century: France 18th Century: France Roger Chartier, "Frenchness in the History of the Book", Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, 97 David J. Shaw, "Two unrecorded incunables: Rouen, circa 1497, Lyons, circa 1500", British Library Journal, UK, ISSN 1478-0259 Philip G. Altbach. "France". International Book Publishing: An Encyclopedia. Garland. ISBN 9781134261260. Robert Darnton. Forbidden Best-sellers of Pre-revolutionary France. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-31442-7. "France: Directory: Publishers". Europa World Year Book 2004. Europa Publications.

2004. P. 1700+. ISBN 1857432533. Andrew Pettegree. French Vernacular Books: Books Published in the French Language before 1601. 1–2. Brill. ISBN 9789004156876. + Volumes 3-4: Books published in France before 1601 in Latin and Languages other than French Vincent Giroud. "France". In Michael F. Suarez; the Book: A Global History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-967941-6. "French book publishers risk being lost in translation without global reach", Guardian, UK, 13 May 2014 Pamela Druckerman, "The French Do Buy Books. Real Books", New York Times Bibliographie de l'Empire français 1811- fr:Revue française d'histoire du livre, Société des bibliophiles de Guyenne, OCLC 647906247 1971- Henri-Jean Martin. Histoire de l'édition française. Paris. ISBN 2213024006. Pascal Fouché, ed.. L’édition française depuis 1945. Éditions du Cercle de la Librairie. ISBN 2-7654-0708-8. Lylette Lacôte-Gabrysiak. "C'est un best-seller! Meilleures ventes de livres en France de 1984 à 2004". Communication. Canada: Université Laval. 27.

Doi:10.4000/communication.3130. ISSN 1920-7344 – via "", Incunabula Short Title Catalogue: the International Database of 15th-century European Printing, British Library Institut d'histoire du livre, est. 2001 Ian Maxted, Exeter Working Papers in Book History, UK. "National Bibliographic Register: France". The Hague: International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. "French Printed Collections, 1501-1850". Help for Researchers. UK: British Library. "(su:Book industries and trade -- Franc

Billy Ripken

William Oliver Ripken, nicknamed Billy The Kid, is an American former infielder in Major League Baseball from 1987–1998 for the Baltimore Orioles, Texas Rangers, Cleveland Indians, Detroit Tigers. During his career, he threw right-handed, he is the younger brother of Hall of Famer Cal Ripken Jr.. He serves as a radio host for XM Satellite Radio and a studio analyst for MLB Network. Born in Maryland, Ripken grew up traveling around the United States as his father, Cal Ripken Sr. was a player and coach in the Orioles' organization. After attending Aberdeen High School, Ripken was drafted by the Orioles in the 11th round of the 1982 MLB draft, he reached the major leagues in 1987, creating the first situation in baseball history that a father had managed two sons on the same team, as his brother played for the Orioles and his father, Cal Ripken Sr. managed the team. Ripken was a light hitter better known for his fielding skills, although he led the Orioles in batting average with a.291 mark in 1990.

He served as their starting second baseman most of his first stint with the team. After the Orioles released him following the 1992 campaign, he played with four other teams, serving as a utility infielder and never holding a starting role for long, he played his final game in 1998 for the Detroit Tigers. Ripken was born to Sr. and Violet "Vi" Ripken in Havre de Grace, Maryland. Though the Ripkens called Aberdeen, their home, they were on the move because of Cal, Sr.'s coaching duties with the Baltimore Orioles organization. This gave Bill the chance to be around his father's teams, he attended Aberdeen High School. Over his final two seasons, he did not lose a single game as a pitcher, but the infield was where he planned to spend his career. Before the 1982 Major League Baseball draft, Cal, Jr. Bill's brother, on his way to winning the Major League Baseball Rookie of the Year Award with the Orioles, remarked, "Billy might go pretty high in the draft. I'd love for the Orioles to take him; that would be okay, wouldn't it?

Having your father and brother with the same team?" The Orioles would wind up selecting Bill in the 11th round of the draft. Ripken began his professional career that same year with the Rookie League Bluefield Orioles, where he played shortstop and third base. In 27 games, in which he only totaled 45 at bats, Ripken posted a batting average of.244 with 11 hits and four runs batted in. Next season, Ripken remained at Bluefield and was used exclusively as a shortstop, although he pitched the final ​2⁄3 of a game, allowing no runs, he batted.217 with 13 RBI in 48 games. In 1984, he was promoted to the Hagerstown Suns of the Class A Carolina League, where he appeared in 115 games, he batted.230 with 94 hits, the first two home runs of his career, 40 RBI while posting a.948 fielding percentage at shortstop. Ripken's 1985 season would be split between three teams, he spent the bulk of the year with the Daytona Beach Admirals of the Class A Florida State League, batting.230 with 51 hits and 18 RBI. He appeared in 14 games with Hagerstown and 18 games with the Double-A Charlotte O's of the Southern League, batting.255 and.137 with those teams.

He did not hit a home run in 1985. He played the whole 1986 season for Charlotte, batting.268 with 142 hits, 20 doubles, three triples, five home runs, 62 RBI in 141 games. In addition, he led the Southern League in four fielding categories. In 1987, he was called up to the Triple-A Rochester Red Wings of the International League, where he played 74 games, batting.286. In July 1987, the Orioles called Ripken up to replace him, he debuted on July 11, creating the first instance in baseball history in which a father managed two sons on the same major league team, as his father was the Orioles' manager and his brother was their shortstop. While with the Orioles, Ripken played alongside his brother, Cal Ripken, Jr.. Billy did not have a hit in his debut but picked up his first hit as one of two against Charlie Leibrandt of the Kansas City Royals on July 16. Three days Ripken hit his first home run against Bud Black, helping the Orioles defeat Kansas City 5–1. Expected to be more of a fielder than a hitter, Ripken finished his inaugural season with a.308 batting average, two home runs, 72 hits in 58 games.

Billy was given the Orioles' second base role in 1988. Six games into the season, Cal, Sr. was fired as the Orioles' manager, the quickest managerial firing in major league history. After, Billy switched his uniform number from 3 to his father's 7, saying, "I just didn't want to see anybody else wear it." The Orioles lost their first 21 games of the season en route to a 54-107 finish. A picture of Billy appeared on the cover of Sports Illustrated on May 2, 1988, used in an emblematic fashion to symbolize frustration at the team's struggles. In his rookie season, Billy played a career-high 150 games, batting.207 with 106 hits, two home runs, 34 RBI, a.984 fielding percentage. A broken hand caused Ripken to miss the first two weeks of 1989, but he took over the job again on April 19, holding it until a strained right shoulder sidelined him in late August. Though Ripken returned from the injury on September 7, he did not see much playing time for the rest of the season. On August 7, in a 9–8 win over the Boston Red Sox and Cal Combined for seven hits, the American League record for brothers in the same game.

In 115 games, Ripken batted.239 with 76 hits, two home runs, 26 RBI, an

David Millar Craig

David Millar Craig was the BBC's first Controller for Scotland, in charge of all the Corporation's Scottish radio stations between 1924 and 1926. Craig was born in Edinburgh, his father, John Millar Craig, was the first conductor of the Edinburgh Bach Choir and for 20 years conductor of the Glasgow Select Choir. His brother, Sir Marshall Millar Craig, K. C. was legal secretary and chief parliamentary draftsman to the Lord Advocate. David Millar Craig had considerable knowledge of educational affairs, he was educated at Edinburgh University and studied for three and a half years at the Leipzig Conservatoire of Music in Germany, where he was awarded a diploma. He served as a Captain in the 5th Royal Scots during the First World War, but after being gassed and wounded he took on other duties at the front, he was commanding officer in charge of the service which spread propaganda in the enemy lines by paper balloons which had such a remarkable effect on the enemy's morale in the latter stages of the war.

He had a child, Hamish Millar Craig, born on 25 September 1918. Craig joined the BBC on 4 February 1924 as Assistant Controller, to co-ordinate the work of the Glasgow and Aberdeen stations, of the new Edinburgh relay station when it opened three months later, his responsibilities included the supervision of the Belfast Station in Northern Ireland. The Glasgow Herald described his duties: When the new station in Edinburgh has been established it will be Mr Craig's duty to ensure that the best use is made of the programme resources of the three Scottish stations, his primary business will be to arrange for co-operation between them so that when any one station has a attractive item to offer it will be made available by means of simultaneous broadcasting for the two others. In addition he is to exercise a general control over broadcasting in Scotland and to ensure that, while all possible advantage is taken of services offered by the London station, the importance of meeting national tastes is duly considered.

In April 1926 he was moved to the music department at head office. In October 1928 he was appointed music editor of the Radio Times, he moved in 1932 to become programme editor at World-Radio, the BBC's weekly foreign and technical journal, sifting through programme listings from radio stations across the world and picking out highlights for listeners. David Millar Craig was well-known among Edinburgh music audiences for his violoncello playing. Prior to joining the BBC he was writing the analytical notes for Scottish orchestral concerts in Glasgow and Edinburgh, he published translations of songs and choruses from German, some of these were for BBC performances, including Schoenberg's Gurrelieder and Hauer's Wandlungen. He wrote libretti for ballet, as well as biographical sketches of concert celebrities. In 1938, his translation of Das stillvernügte Streichquartett by Bruno Aulich and Ernst Heimeran appeared in New York with H. W. Gray Co. Inc. under the title The Well-Tempered String Quartet.

It is a guide to the world of string quartets intended to give counsel to players in a humorous style, sorted alphabetically by composer. It had numerous reprints until well into the 1960s. However, Craig not only translated the German text but omitted a few German composers and added a number of composers from the English-speaking world. Article from'Scotland on Air':