Books of Kings

The two Books of Kings a single book, is the tenth of the Hebrew Bible or the eleventh and twelfth books of the Christian Old Testament. It concludes the Deuteronomistic history, a history of Israel comprising the books of Joshua and Judges and the Book of Samuel, which biblical commentators believe was written to provide a theological explanation for the destruction of the Kingdom of Judah by Babylon in c. 586 BCE and a foundation for a return from exile. The two books of Kings present a history of ancient Israel and Judah from the death of King David to the release of Jehoiachin from imprisonment in Babylon, a period of some 400 years. Scholars tend to treat the books as made up of a first edition from the late 7th century BCE and a second and final edition from the mid 6th century BCE; the Jerusalem Bible divides the two books of Kings into eight sections: 1 Kings 1:1–2:46 = The Davidic Succession 1 Kings 3:1–11:43 = Solomon in all his glory 1 Kings 12:1–13:34 = The political and religious schism 1 Kings 14:1–16:34 = The two kingdoms until Elijah 1 Kings 17:1 – 2 Kings 1:18 = The Elijah cycle 2 Kings 2:1–13:25 = The Elisha cycle 2 Kings 14:1–17:41 = The two kingdoms to the fall of Samaria 2 Kings 18:1–25:30 = The last years of the kingdom of JudahIn David's old age, Adonijah proclaims himself his successor but Solomon's supporters arrange for David to proclaim Solomon as his successor, so he comes to the throne after David's death.

At the beginning of his reign he assumes God's promises to David and brings splendour to Israel and peace and prosperity to his people. The centrepiece of Solomon's reign is the building of the First Temple: the claim that this took place 480 years after the Exodus from Egypt marks it as a key event in Israel's history. At the end, however, he oppresses Israel; as a consequence of Solomon's failure to stamp out the worship of gods other than Yahweh, the kingdom of David is split in two in the reign of his own son Rehoboam, who becomes the first to reign over the kingdom of Judah. The kings who follow Rehoboam in Jerusalem continue the royal line of David. At length God brings the Assyrians to destroy the northern kingdom, leaving Judah as the sole custodian of the promise. Hezekiah, the 14th king of Judah, does "what right in the Lord’s sight just as his ancestor David had done" and institutes a far reaching religious reform, centralising sacrifice at the temple at Jerusalem and destroying the images of other gods.

Yahweh saves the kingdom from an invasion by Assyria. But Manasseh, the next king, reverses the reforms, God announces that he will destroy Jerusalem because of this apostasy by the king. Manasseh's righteous grandson Josiah reinstitutes the reforms of Hezekiah, but it is too late: God, speaking through the prophetess Huldah, affirms that Jerusalem is to be destroyed after the death of Josiah. In the final chapters, God brings the Neo-Babylonian Empire of King Nebuchadnezzar against Jerusalem; the final verses record how Jehoiachin, the last king, is set free and given honour by the king of Babylon. In the Hebrew Bible and Second Kings are a single book, as are the First and Second Books of Samuel; when this was translated into Greek in the last few centuries BCE, Kings was joined with Samuel in a four-part work called the Book of Kingdoms. Orthodox Christians continue to use the Greek translation, but when a Latin translation was made for the Western church, Kingdoms was first retitled the Book of Kings, parts One to Four, both Kings and Samuel were separated into two books each.

What it is now known as 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel are called by the Vulgate, in imitation of the Septuagint, 1 Kings and 2 Kings respectively. What it is now known as 1 Kings and 2 Kings would be 3 Kings and 4 Kings in old Bibles before the year 1516 such as the Vulgate and the Septuagint respectively; the division we know today, used by Protestant Bibles and adopted by Catholics, came into use in 1517. Some Bibles still preserve the old denomination, for the Douay Rheims Bible. According to Jewish tradition the author of Kings was Jeremiah, who would have been alive during the fall of Jerusalem in 586 BCE; the most common view today accepts Martin Noth's thesis that Kings concludes a unified series of books which reflect the language and theology of the Book of Deuteronomy, which biblical scholars therefore call the Deuteronomistic history. Noth argued that the History was the work of a single individual living in the 6th century BCE, but scholars today tend to treat it as made up of at least two layers, a first edition from the time of Josiah, promoting Josiah's religious reforms and the need for repentance, a second and final edition from the mid 6th century BCE.

Further levels of editing have been proposed, including: a late 8th century BCE edition pointing to Hezekiah of Judah as the model for kingship. The editors/authors of the Deuteronomistic history cite a number of sources, including a "Book of the Acts of Solomon" and the "Annals of the Kings of Judah" and a separate book, "Chronicles of the Kings of Israel"; the "Deuteronomic" perspective (that of the book of

List of dragons in mythology and folklore

This is a list of dragons in mythology and folklore. This is a list of European dragons. Azazel from the Abrahamic religions, is described as a dragon in the Apocalypse of Abraham. Sea serpent, a water dragon found worldwide; the unnamed five-headed dragon subdued by the Buddhist goddess Benzaiten at Enoshima in Japan in A. D. 552 The unnamed dragon defeated by Saint George. Common Green Drakk from the Discovery of Dragons by Grahame Green, said to be the Dragons from the 18th century. Brnensky drak, the dragon killed nearby Moravian city Herensuge, the mythologic dragon of the Basque; the Ljubljana dragon, the protector dragon of Ljubljana, capital of Slovenia. Meister Stoor Worm of Orkney legend Chinese dragon European dragon Dragons in Greek mythology Dragons in Manipuri mythology List of dragons in literature List of dragons in popular culture

Scouting Along with Burl Ives

Scouting Along with Burl Ives is a 1964 album, subtitled The Official Boy Scout Album. Ives was commissioned by the Boy Scouts of America to make this album, now available on CD at Ives is accompanied by an orchestra directed by Sid Bass. Greg Adams of Allmusic writes, "Scouting Along With Burl Ives is a work-for-hire children's album made for the Boy Scouts and is therefore of limited appeal, but the professionalism and enthusiasm Ives and Bass exhibit are admirable." The album features folk and other songs. The album is unique in that it provided a short bio of Ives and his early affiliation with professional football. Ives had a long-standing relationship with the Boy Scouts of America, he was a Lone Scout before that group merged with the Boy Scouts of America in 1924. The collection of his papers at the New York Library for the Performing Arts includes a photograph of Ives being "inducted" into the Boy Scouts in 1966. Ives received its highest honor; the certificate for the award is hanging on the wall of the Scouting Museum in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania.

Ives performed at the quadrennial Boy Scouts of America jamboree, including the 1981 jamboree at Fort A. P. Hill in Virginia, where he shared the stage with the Oak Ridge Boys. There is a 1977 sound recording of Ives being interviewed by Boy Scouts at the National Jamboree at Moraine State Park, Pennsylvania. Ives is the narrator of a 28-minute film about the 1977 National Jamboree. In the film, produced by the Boy Scouts of America, Ives "shows the many ways in which Scouting provides opportunities for young people to develop character and expand their horizons." "Boy Scouts of America" "The Quartermaster's Store" "The Herdsman" "I Points to Mineself" "Campfire Medley" "I'm Happy When I'm Hiking" "Three Jolly Fisherman" "Now the Day Is Over" "We're All Together Again" "On My Honor" "Ham and Eggs" "Hi Ho! Nobody Home" "Camp Menu Song" "Clementine" "She'll Be Comin' Round the Mountain" "Taps" Scouting in popular culture