Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day
South Melbourne, Victoria
South Melbourne is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Australia,2 km south of Melbournes Central Business District. It is in the government area of the City of Port Phillip. At the 2011 Census, South Melbourne had a population of 9,317, before European settlement, the area now called South Melbourne featured a single hill surrounded by swamps. The Hill was a social and ceremonial meeting place for Aboriginal tribes. The area was first settled by Europeans in the 1840s and became known as Emerald Hill, during the Victorian Gold Rush of 1851 a tent city, known as Canvas Town was established. The area soon became a slum, home to tens of thousands of migrants from around the world. Land sales at Emerald Hill began in 1852 and independence from Melbourne was granted, many of the residents of Canvas Town moved to prefabricated cottages in suburbs like Collingwood and South Melbourne and some of these early homes remain in South Melbournes Coventry Street. The new municipality developed rapidly and by 1872 Emerald Hill was proclaimed a town, in 1883 Emerald Hill became a city, changing its official name to South Melbourne.
South Melbourne experienced a decline in the 1950s as Melbourne sprawled outwards, Emerald Hill Court is the other housing commission building located in South Melbourne. The result was an injection of migrants adding to the flavour of the area. In the 1980s, South Melbourne experienced one of Melbournes biggest waves of gentrification, many of the terrace homes were restored and renovated and a new middle class moved in. Recently, there has some new developments within South Melbourne and at the Southbank end of Clarendon Street. South Melbourne is served by tram routes 1,12,55, route 96 runs along the former St Kilda railway line, which was converted to light rail in 1987. This would require less than 100 metres of track to be laid along the Park Street gap to create the new route. The main commercial district is centred on Clarendon Street and side streets, including an area around the South Melbourne Market, with retailers, eateries. Like the Melbourne CBD, there are many small laneways in South Melbourne, South Melbournes predominant housing is terraced or semi-detached Victorian.
Park Towers is an example of Housing Commission of Victoria hi-rise public housing. There are a number of towers in parts of South Melbourne
Liverpool is a major city and metropolitan borough in North West England.24 million people in 2011. Liverpool historically lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby in the south west of the county of Lancashire and it became a borough from 1207 and a city from 1880. In 1889 it became a county borough independent of Lancashire, Liverpool sits on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary and its growth as a major port is paralleled by the expansion of the city throughout the Industrial Revolution. Along with general cargo, raw materials such as coal and cotton, the city was directly involved in the Atlantic slave trade. Liverpool was home to both the Cunard and White Star Line, and was the port of registry of the ocean liner RMS Titanic and others such as the RMS Lusitania, Queen Mary, and Olympic. The city celebrated its 800th anniversary in 2007, and it held the European Capital of Culture title together with Stavanger, several areas of Liverpool city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO in 2004.
The Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City includes the Pier Head, Albert Dock, tourism forms a significant part of the citys economy. Liverpool is the home of two Premier League football clubs and Everton, matches between the two being known as the Merseyside derby, the world-famous Grand National horse race takes place annually at Aintree Racecourse on the outskirts of the city. The city is home to the oldest Black African community in the country. Natives of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians and colloquially as Scousers, a reference to scouse, the word Scouse has become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. Pool is a place name element in England from the Brythonic word for a pond, inlet, or pit, cognate with the modern Welsh. The derivation of the first element remains uncertain, with the Welsh word Llif as the most plausible relative and this etymology is supported by its similarity to that of the archaic Welsh name for Liverpool Llynlleifiad. Other origins of the name have suggested, including elverpool.
The name appeared in 1190 as Liuerpul, and it may be that the place appearing as Leyrpole, in a record of 1418. King Johns letters patent of 1207 announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool, the original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the same time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in an H shape, Bank Street, Castle Street, Chapel Street, Dale Street, Juggler Street, Moor Street, in the 17th century there was slow progress in trade and population growth. Battles for the town were waged during the English Civil War, in 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, that same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. Since Roman times, the city of Chester on the River Dee had been the regions principal port on the Irish Sea
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Clearcutting, clearfelling, or clearcut logging is a forestry/logging practice in which most or all trees in an area are uniformly cut down. Logging companies and forest-worker unions in some support the practice for scientific, safety. Detractors see clearcutting as synonymous with deforestation, destroying natural habitats, Clearcutting is the most common and economically profitable method of logging. Aside from the purpose of harvesting wood, clearcutting is used to land for farming. The insatiable human demand for wood and arable land through clearcutting, the same reasons for preserving the world’s tropical rainforests apply to the taiga, as do the reasons for destroying them. Long-term studies of clearcut forests, such as studies of the Pasoh Rainforest in Malaysia, are important in providing insights into the preservation of forest resources worldwide. Many variations of clearcutting exist, the most common practices are, Standard clearcut – removal of every stem. Patch clearcut – removal of all the stems in a limited, predetermined area, strip clearcut – removal of all the stems in a row, usually placed perpendicular to the prevailing winds in order to minimize the possibility of windthrow.
Clearcutting-with-reserves – removal of the majority of standing stems save a few reserved for other purposes, slash-and-burn – the permanent conversion of tropical and subtropicals forests for agricultural purposes. This is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical forests in overpopulated regions in developing, slash-and-burn entails the removal of all stems in a particular area. This can be a form of deforestation, when the land is converted to other uses, some indigenous forest peoples, for example the 19th century Forest Finns rotate over the land and it does return to forest and this would be sustainable. Slash and burn techniques are used by civilians in search of land for living. The forest is first clear cut, and the material is burned. One of the forces behind this process is a result of overpopulation. These methods occur as a result of commercial farming, the lumber is sold for profit, and the land, cleared of all remaining brush and suitable for agricultural development, is sold to farmers.
Selection cutting – which can be done for timber harvesting or for ecological reasons, when so done it is often called ecoforestry. Clearcutting contrasts with selective cutting, such as high grading, in which only commercially valuable trees are harvested and this practice can reduce the genetic viability of the forest over time, resulting in poorer or less vigorous offspring in the stand. Clearcutting differs from a system, by allowing revegetation by seedlings
Norwich is a city on the River Wensum in East Anglia and lies about 100 miles north-east of London. It is the administrative centre for East Anglia and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London and it remained the capital of the most populous English county until the Industrial Revolution. The urban area of Norwich had a population of 213,166 according to the 2011 Census, the parliamentary seats cross over into adjacent local-government districts. A total of 132,512 people live in the City of Norwich, Norwich is the fourth most densely populated local-government district in the East of England, with 3,480 people per square kilometre. In May 2012, Norwich was designated Englands first UNESCO City of Literature, the capital of the Iceni tribe was a settlement located near to the village of Caistor St. Edmund on the River Tas approximately 8 kilometres to the south of modern-day Norwich. Following an uprising led by Boudica around AD60 the Caistor area became the Roman capital of East Anglia named Venta Icenorum, literally the market place of the Iceni.
According to a rhyme, the demise of Venta Icenorum led to the development of Norwich, Caistor was a city when Norwich was none. There are two suggested models of development for Norwich, the ancient city was a thriving centre for trade and commerce in East Anglia in 1004 AD when it was raided and burnt by Swein Forkbeard the Viking king of Denmark. Mercian coins and shards of pottery from the Rhineland dating from the 8th century suggest that trade was happening long before this. Between 924 and 939, Norwich became fully established as a town, the word Norvic appears on coins across Europe minted during this period, in the reign of King Athelstan. The Vikings were a cultural influence in Norwich for 40–50 years at the end of the 9th century. At the time of the Norman Conquest the city was one of the largest in England, the Domesday Book states that it had approximately 25 churches and a population of between 5, 000–10,000. It records the site of an Anglo-Saxon church in Tombland, the site of the Saxon market place and the Norman cathedral.
Norwich continued to be a centre for trade, the River Wensum being a convenient export route to the River Yare and Great Yarmouth. Quern stones and other artefacts from Scandinavia and the Rhineland have been found during excavations in Norwich city centre and these date from the 11th century onwards. Norwich Castle was founded soon after the Norman Conquest, the Domesday Book records that 98 Saxon homes were demolished to make way for the castle. In 1096, Herbert de Losinga, Bishop of Thetford, began construction of Norwich Cathedral, the chief building material for the Cathedral was limestone, imported from Caen in Normandy
Bendigo /ˈbɛndᵻɡoʊ/ is a city in Victoria, located very close to the geographical centre of the state and approximately 150 kilometres north west of the state capital, Melbourne. As of June 2015, Bendigo had an population of 92,888, making it the fourth largest inland city in Australia. The discovery of gold in the soils of Bendigo during the 1850s made it one of the most significant Victorian era boomtowns in Australia, once the alluvial gold had been mined out, mining companies were formed to exploit the rich underground quartz reef gold. It is notable for its Victorian architectural heritage, the city took its name from the Bendigo Creek and its residents from the earliest days of the goldrush have been called Bendigonians. Although the town flourished in its beginnings as a result of the discovery of gold, its growth accelerated in the post-war years and has continued to increase steadily since. Bendigo is the largest finance centre in Victoria outside Melbourne as home to Australias only provincially headquartered retail bank, the original inhabitants of the Mount Alexander area that includes Greater Bendigo were the Dja Dja Wurrung people, who exploited the rich local hunting grounds.
These grounds were eventually noticed by white settlers, who established the first of many vast sheep-runs in 1837, the Mount Alexander North sheep-run was bordered by a creek that came to be known as Bendigo, after a local shepherd nicknamed for the English bare-knuckle prizefighter William Abednego Thompson. In 1853, there was a massive protest over the cost of the fee for prospectors, though it passed off peacefully, thanks to good diplomacy by police. From being a tent-city, the boomtown grew rapidly into an urban centre with many grand public buildings. The municipality became a borough in 1863, officially known as Sandhurst until 1891, when the alluvial gold ran out, the goldfields evolved into major mines with deep shafts to mine the quartz-based gold. Bendigo was declared a city in 1871, rapid population growth brought a water shortage, partially solved with a new viaduct that harnessed the Coliban River. The architect William Charles Vahland left an important mark on Bendigo during this period and he is credited with the popular cottage design with verandahs decorated in iron lace, a style that was soon adopted right across the state of Victoria.
Vahland designed more than 80 buildings, including the Alexandra Fountain, arguably the most prominent monument in Bendigo, with its granite dolphins, nymphs, a tram network was in use by 1890. After a temporary drop in population, there was renewed growth from the 1930s, as the city consolidated as a manufacturing and regional service centre, recent growth has been most heavily concentrated in areas such as Epsom, Kangaroo Flat and Strathfieldsaye. In 1994 the City of Bendigo was abolished and merged with the Borough of Eaglehawk, the Huntly and Strathfieldsaye shires, the population of the city increased from around 78,000 in 1991 to about 100,617 in 2012. Bendigo is currently one of the fastest growing regional centres in Victoria, the City of Greater Bendigo includes Victorias fourth largest city in Bendigo, as well as a significant rural hinterland. Smaller townships are located at Axedale, Goornong, Marong, the city encompasses a total land area of 3,000 square kilometres, of which a significant proportion is national park, regional park, reserve or bushland.
Much of the land is used for agricultural purposes, including poultry and pig farming and cattle grazing
York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. The municipality is the county town of Yorkshire to which it gives its name. The city has a heritage and has provided the backdrop to major political events in England throughout much of its two millennia of existence. The city offers a wealth of attractions, of which York Minster is the most prominent. The city was founded by the Romans as Eboracum in 71 AD and it became the capital of the Roman province of Britannia Inferior, and of the kingdoms of Northumbria and Jórvík. In the Middle Ages, York grew as a wool trading centre and became the capital of the northern ecclesiastical province of the Church of England. In the 19th century, York became a hub of the railway network, in recent decades, the economy of York has moved from being dominated by its confectionery and railway-related industries to one that provides services. The University of York and health services have become major employers, from 1996, the term City of York describes a unitary authority area which includes rural areas beyond the old city boundaries.
In 2011 the urban area had a population of 153,717, the word York derives from the Latinised name for the city, variously rendered as Eboracum, Eburacum or Eburaci. The first mention of York by this name is dated to circa 95–104 AD as an address on a wooden stylus tablet from the Roman fortress of Vindolanda in Northumberland, the toponymy of Eboracum is uncertain because the language of the pre-Roman indigenous population was never recorded. They are thought to have spoken a Celtic language related to modern Welsh, in his Historia Regum Britanniae the 12th century chronicler, Geoffrey of Monmouth, suggests the name derives from that of a pre-Roman city founded by the legendary king Ebraucus. Alternatively, the word already existed as an Old English word for wild swine. The Anglo-Saxon newcomers probably interpreted the part as eofor, and -rac as ric, while -um was a common abbreviation of the Saxon -heem. To them, it sounded as a home rich in boar, as is common in Saxon place names, the -um part gradually faded, eoforic.
When the Danish army conquered the city in 866, its name became Jórvík, the Old French and Norman name of the city following the Norman Conquest was recorded as Everwic in works such as Waces Roman de Rou. The form York was first recorded in the 13th century, many company and place names, such as the Ebor race meeting, refer to the Roman name. The Archbishop of York uses Ebor as his surname in his signature, archaeological evidence suggests that Mesolithic people settled in the region of York between 8000 and 7000 BC, although it is not known whether their settlements were permanent or temporary. By the time of the Roman conquest of Britain, the area was occupied by a known to the Romans as the Brigantes
Silver is a metallic element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. The symbol Ag stems from Latin argentum, derived from the Greek ὰργὀς, a soft, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earths crust in the pure, free form, as an alloy with gold and other metals. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, lead, Silver is more abundant than gold, but it is much less abundant as a native metal. Its purity is measured on a per mille basis, a 94%-pure alloy is described as 0.940 fine. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had a role in most human cultures. Silver has long valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many premodern monetary systems in bullion coins, Silver is used in numerous applications other than currency, such as solar panels, water filtration, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, and as an investment medium. Silver is used industrially in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, Silver compounds are used in photographic film and X-rays.
Dilute silver nitrate solutions and other compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings, catheters. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with an electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell. Silver is a soft and malleable transition metal. Silver crystallizes in a cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are relatively weak and this observation explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of silver. Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a polish. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm, at wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silvers reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm.
The electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater even than copper, during World War II in the US,13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium, mainly because of the wartime shortage of copper
Brisbane is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbanes metropolitan area has a population of 2.35 million, the Brisbane central business district stands on the original European settlement and is situated inside a bend of the Brisbane River, about 15 kilometres from its mouth at Moreton Bay. The demonym of Brisbane is Brisbanite, one of the oldest cities in Australia, Brisbane was founded upon the ancient homelands of the indigenous Turrbal and Jagera peoples. A penal settlement was founded in 1824 at Redcliffe,28 kilometres north of the business district. The city was marred by the Australian frontier wars between 1843 and 1855, and development was set back by the Great Fire of Brisbane. Brisbane was chosen as the capital when Queensland was proclaimed a colony from New South Wales in 1859. During World War II, Brisbane played a role in the Allied campaign. Today, Brisbane is well known for its distinct Queenslander architecture which forms much of the built heritage.
It receives attention for its damaging flood events, most notably in 1974 and 2011. Several large cultural and sporting events have held at Brisbane, including the 1982 Commonwealth Games, World Expo 88, the final Goodwill Games in 2001. Prior to white settlement, the Brisbane area was inhabited by the Turrbal and they knew the area that is now the central business district as Mian-jin, meaning place shaped as a spike. The Moreton Bay area was explored by Matthew Flinders. On 17 July 1799, Flinders landed at what is now known as Woody Point, in 1823 Governor of New South Wales Sir Thomas Brisbane instructed that a new northern penal settlement be developed, and an exploration party led by John Oxley further explored Moreton Bay. Oxley discovered and explored the Brisbane River as far as Goodna,20 kilometres upstream from the Brisbane central business district, Oxley recommended Red Cliff Point for the new colony, reporting that ships could land at any tide and easily get close to the shore.
The party settled in Redcliffe on 13 September 1824, under the command of Lieutenant Henry Miller with 14 soldiers and 29 convicts. However, this settlement was abandoned after a year and the colony was moved to a site on the Brisbane River now known as North Quay,28 km south, chief Justice Forbes gave the new settlement the name of Edenglassie before it was named Brisbane. Non-convict European settlement of the Brisbane region commenced in 1838, German missionaries settled at Zions Hill, Nundah as early as 1837, five years before Brisbane was officially declared a free settlement. The band consisted of ministers Christopher Eipper and Carl Wilhelm Schmidt and lay missionaries Haussmann, Johann Gottried Wagner, Hartenstein, Franz, Rode and they were allocated 260 hectares and set about establishing the mission, which became known as the German Station
University of Denver
The University of Denver is a coeducational, four-year university in Denver, Colorado. Founded in 1864, it is the oldest independent private university in the Rocky Mountain Region of the United States, DU enrolls approximately 5,600 undergraduate students and 6,100 graduate students. The 125-acre main campus is an arboretum and is located primarily in the University Neighborhood. The seminary was founded as a Methodist institution and struggled in the years of its existence. In 1880 it was renamed the University of Denver, although doing business as the University of Denver, DU is still legally named Colorado Seminary. The university grew and prospered alongside the growth, appealing primarily to a regional student body prior to World War II. The heart of the campus has a number of historic buildings, the longest-standing building is University Hall, built in the Romanesque Revival style which has served DU since 1890. The cornerstone to this building is one mile above sea level. Just a few blocks off campus sits the historic Chamberlin Observatory, still a fully operational observatory, it is open to the public twice a week as well as one Saturday a month.
The central campus area includes Evans Chapel, an 1870s-vintage small church which was located in downtown Denver. Buchtel Tower is all that remains of the former Buchtel Chapel, the administrative offices are located in the Mary Reed Building, a former library built in 1932 in the Collegiate Gothic style. Margery Reed Hall was built in the gothic style in 1929. Margery Reed Hall has recently been designated to house the Undergraduate Program for the Daniels College of Business, the update for the building was to include more classroom space, a larger hall to host guest speakers, as well as mechanical and technical improvements. In 2005 the Graduate School of Social Work completed the renovation and significant expansion of its building, in autumn 2003, DU opened a new $63.5 million facility for its College of Law, what was named the Sturm College of Law. The building includes a library with personal computers accessible to students. Donald and Susan Sturm, owners of Denver-based American National Bank, had given $20 million to the University of Denver College of Law, the gift is the largest single donation in the 112-year history of the law school and among the largest gifts ever to the university.
The Daniels College of Business was completed in September 1999 at the cost of $25 million, F. W. Olin Hall was built in 1997 to house Biological and Natural Sciences. Olin Hall promotes an exceptional collaborative learning and study space for DU science students, the university opened the $70 million Robert and Judi Newman Center for Performing Arts, which houses the acclaimed Lamont School of Music
Bathurst, New South Wales
Bathurst /ˈbæθəst/ is a regional city in the Central Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. It is approximately 200 kilometres north-west of Sydney and is the seat of the Bathurst Regional Council, Bathurst is the oldest inland settlement in Australia and had an estimated population of 36,013 as at June 2015. Bathurst is often referred to as the Gold Country as it was the site of the first gold discovery, today education and manufacturing drive the economy. The internationally known racetrack Mount Panorama is a landmark of the city, Bathurst has an historic city centre with many buildings remaining from the gold rush period of the mid to late 1800s. The median age of the population is 34.0 years, which is particularly young for a regional centre. Population growth has reached 1. 6% per annum over the five years until 2010 and this growth over recent years has resulted in increased urban development including retail precincts, sporting facilities, housing estates and expanding industrial areas.
Bathurst is located on the edge of the Great Dividing Range in the Macquarie River plain. The city is located adjacent to the Macquarie River which is part of the Murray-Darling basin, the city is protected by a levee bank to protect the city from occasional flood events. Mount Panorama is located 3 kilometres from the CBD and effectively within the city limits, it is 877 metres AMSL, Bathurst is located adjacent to the Great Western Highway which begins in the centre of the city of Sydney and finishes at Bathurst. Within the city, two state highways start, the Mitchell Highway to Bourke and the Mid-Western Highway to Hay. Bathurst is located approximately mid-way along a road route from Canberra and Goulburn to Mudgee. Bathurst is located on the Main Western Railway line that starts at Sydney Central Station, the Macquarie River divides Bathurst with the CBD located on the western side of the river. Four road bridges and two bridges span the river within the city area. Two physical components comprise the Bathurst region, the Bathurst Basin and they are drained by the Macquarie, Turon and Campbells Rivers to the north and Abercrombie and Isabella Rivers to the south.
The central basin area of the Bathurst area is mainly granite soils while in the north area sandstone, greywacke, siltstones and minor volcanos predominate. The south is more complex geology with siltstones, greywacke and chert, basalt and granite intrusions and embedded volcanic, underlying Bathurst is the dominant feature of Bathurst granite and at Mount Panorama and Mount Stewart basalt occurs. Due to its elevation, Bathurst has a highland climate. Bathurst is in Australias cool temperate zone which is defined as having mild to warm summers