click links in text for more info


In computing, booting is the process of starting a computer. It can be initiated by a software command. After it is switched on, a computer's central processing unit has no software in its main memory, so some process must load software into memory before it can be executed; this may be done by hardware or firmware in the CPU, or by a separate processor in the computer system. Restarting a computer is called rebooting, which can be "hard", e.g. after electrical power to the CPU is switched from off to on, or "soft", where the power is not cut. On some systems, a soft boot may optionally clear RAM to zero. Both hard and soft booting can be initiated by hardware such as a button press or by software command. Booting is complete when the operative runtime system operating system and some applications, is attained; the process of returning a computer from a state of hibernation or sleep does not involve booting. Minimally, some embedded systems do not require a noticeable boot sequence to begin functioning and when turned on may run operational programs that are stored in ROM.

All computing systems are state machines, a reboot may be the only method to return to a designated zero-state from an unintended, locked state. In addition to loading an operating system or stand-alone utility, the boot process can load a storage dump program for diagnosing problems in an operating system. Boot is short for bootstrap or bootstrap load and derives from the phrase to pull oneself up by one's bootstraps; the usage calls attention to the requirement that, if most software is loaded onto a computer by other software running on the computer, some mechanism must exist to load the initial software onto the computer. Early computers used a variety of ad-hoc methods to get a small program into memory to solve this problem; the invention of read-only memory of various types solved this paradox by allowing computers to be shipped with a start up program that could not be erased. Growth in the capacity of ROM has allowed more elaborate start up procedures to be implemented. There are many different methods available to load a short initial program into a computer.

These methods reach from simple, physical input to removable media that can hold more complex programs. Early computers in the 1940s and 1950s were one-of-a-kind engineering efforts that could take weeks to program and program loading was one of many problems that had to be solved. An early computer, ENIAC, had no program stored in memory, but was set up for each problem by a configuration of interconnecting cables. Bootstrapping did not apply to ENIAC, whose hardware configuration was ready for solving problems as soon as power was applied; the EDSAC system, the second stored-program computer to be built, used stepping switches to transfer a fixed program into memory when its start button was pressed. The program stored on this device, which David Wheeler completed in late 1948, loaded further instructions from punched tape and executed them; the first programmable computers for commercial sale, such as the UNIVAC I and the IBM 701 included features to make their operation simpler. They included instructions that performed a complete input or output operation.

The same hardware logic could be used to load the contents of a punch card or other input media, such as a magnetic drum or magnetic tape, that contained a bootstrap program by pressing a single button. This booting concept was called a variety of names for IBM computers of the 1950s and early 1960s, but IBM used the term "Initial Program Load" with the IBM 7030 Stretch and used it for their mainframe lines, starting with the System/360 in 1964; the IBM 701 computer had a "Load" button that initiated reading of the first 36-bit word into main memory from a punched card in a card reader, a magnetic tape in a tape drive, or a magnetic drum unit, depending on the position of the Load Selector switch. The left 18-bit half-word was executed as an instruction, which read additional words into memory; the loaded boot program was executed, which, in turn, loaded a larger program from that medium into memory without further help from the human operator. The term "boot" has been used in this sense since at least 1958.

Other IBM computers of that era had similar features. For example, the IBM 1401 system used a card reader to load a program from a punched card; the 80 characters stored in the punched card were read into memory locations 001 to 080 the computer would branch to memory location 001 to read its first stored instruction. This instruction was always the same: move the information in these first 80 memory locations to an assembly area where the information in punched cards 2, 3, 4, so on, could be combined to form the stored program. Once this information was moved to the assembly area, the machine would branch to an instruction in location 080 and the next card would be read and its information processed. Another example was the IBM 650, a decimal machine, which had a group of ten 10-position switches on its operator panel which were addressable as a memory word and could be executed as an instruction, thus setting the switches to 7004000400 and pressing the appropriate button would read the first card in the card reader into memory, starting at address 400 and jump to 400 to begin executing the program on that card.

IBM's competitors offered single button program load. The CDC 6600 had a dead start panel with 144 toggle switches. PP 0 loaded the necessary code into its own memory and initialized t


CGCOC Group Co. Ltd. known as CGC Overseas Construction Group Co. Ltd. is a Chinese construction company that ranks among the 100 largest contractors based on international projects according to the annual Engineering News Record ranking. The predecessor of CGCOC Group was founded by the Ministry of Geology & Mineral Resources in 1983 as CGC Nigeria Ltd.. In 2002 other investors were introduced in the incorporation of CGC Overseas Construction Group Co. Ltd. which CGC Nigeria became part of the business group. CGCOC Group was founded by Sinopec Star Petroleum, China Geo-Engineering Corporation, other shareholders in 2002; as at 31 December 2015, Sinopec Star Petroleum owned 40.7% stake, China Geo-Engineering Corporation owned 13.333% stake, Shanxi Bureau of Geology Exploration owned 4.375% stake, 13th Construction Co. Ltd. of China National Chemical Engineering Co. Ltd. owned 1.04% stake, as well as many natural person. The company carries out projects in other markets. In Cameroon, the company signed a deal in December 2007 to increase water production and distribution in Douala from 115,00 to 260,000 cubic meters in a year by constructing pipe networks, wells and a potable water treatment plant.

One of the company's substantial businesses in Africa is road building in Ethiopia. In the period from 2005-2006, the company was awarded about $276 million in Ethiopian road projects; these projects included the Dodola Dera-Gololcha Mechara roads located in Oromia. Official website

Nagore E. M. Hanifa

Nagore Esmail Mohammed Hanifa was a Tamil Muslim lyricist and playback singer. He was known as Isai Murasu for his deep stentorian voice, his signature song was "Iraivanidam Kaiyendungal". It was written by R. Abdul Salam; the lyrics are beyond any specific religion. It is liked by not only Muslims but Hindus and ChristiansEven today sung by many singers on stages.. Nagore Hanifa penned many devotional songs independently which are used in Tamil Nadu, during festivals and marriages. During the 1950s the songs which he sang for Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam boosted the fortunes of the party.. He was a film playback singer. Iraivanidam Kaiyenthungal is well known song from him among all the Tamils. During the 1970s, he was the member of Tamil Nadu Legislative Council, defunct now, he died on 8 April 2015, aged 89

Morningside College

Morningside College is a private liberal arts college affiliated with the United Methodist Church and located in Sioux City, Iowa. Founded in 1894 by the Methodist Episcopal Church, Morningside College has 21 buildings on a 68-acre campus in Sioux City; the Morningside College Historic District, which includes most of the campus, is on the National Register of Historic Places. A group of Sioux City business leaders and Methodist ministers established the University of the Northwest in 1889 to provide educational and economic growth in the community; the location of the campus was the northern section of the farm of Edwin C. Peters, the founder of the suburb of Morningside; the university was plagued with financial problems, it became a victim of the financial Panic of 1893. It closed in 1894, the same year that the Methodist Episcopal Church incorporated Morningside College and took over the campus. Charles City College in Charles City, was a German Methodist college, absorbed into Morningside College in 1914.

Part of the campus has been set aside as a nationally recognized historic district, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997. At the time of its nomination it contained 26 resources, which included nine contributing buildings, one contributing site, five contributing objects, nine non-contributing buildings, one non-contributing object; the focus of the district is a broad hilltop. Charles City College Hall, Lewis Hall, the Vice President's House, Hickman-Johnson-Furrow Library, Lillian Dimmitt House, Dimmitt Residence Hall, Jones Hall of Science, Alice Gymnasium, Roadman Hall, O'Donoghue Observatory are the contributing buildings; the contributing objects are a curved cement bench with footpad and backrest. Bass Field, used for athletics, is the contributing site; this is the largest concentration of educational buildings in Sioux City, it contains some of the best examples of Richardsonian Romanesque and Moderne architecture in the city. The district is inextricably linked to the Morningside neighborhood, developed as a streetcar suburb.

When the University of the Northwest was being developed there was a conscious effort to pattern it and the neighborhood after Northwestern University and Evanston, Illinois. Morningside College teams are known as the Mustangs; the college is a member of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, competing in the Great Plains Athletic Conference. The Mustangs competed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II level as a member of the now-defunct North Central Conference until the 2000-01 season; the Lady Mustangs Basketball team won back-to-back NAIA Division II National Championships in 2004 and 2005. They won the National Championship in 2009 with an undefeated 38-0 record. Most the Lady Mustangs won the National Champsionship in 2015 with a 37-1 record. Morningside's Jake Stevenson won the NAIA 184 lb Wrestling Championship in 2007, John Sievert won the 197 lb Championship in 2013; the football team was coached from 1948-1950 by Pro Football Hall of Fame coach George Allen.

The current football coach is Steve Ryan. In 2018, Ryan guided the Mustangs to an undefeated 15-0 season; the team was named national champions after they captured the 2018 NAIA Football National Championship. In 2019, the Mustangs again went undefeated, becoming back-to-back winners in the 2019 NAIA Football National Championship Morningside College is on a 68-acre campus in the residential neighborhood of Morningside in Sioux City, Iowa. Student organizations include: student government, honor societies, service groups, religious organizations, musical ensembles, student publications, three national fraternities; the campus is home to two nationally renowned music fraternities, Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia and Mu Phi Epsilon. Morningside's Department of Mass Communications has a weekly newspaper, the Collegian Reporter, it shares a public-access television cable TV channel 12 as MCTV, operates a radio station 24 hours a day at 92.9 on the FM dial, KMSC. Residence halls Dimmitt Hall is the third oldest building on campus.

It was named for the 26-year Dean of Women. Dimmitt Hall shares that namesake with the Lillian Dimmitt Alumni House, Dimmitt's former residence renovated for meeting and office space. A second renovation of Dimmitt Hall followed in the second half of the century producing the notable wings on either side of the primary structure. Roadman Hall was built in two phases in the mid twentieth century, it houses about 150 students in double occupied rooms, but with several apartments as well. The dormitory is named after the longtime president of Dr. Earl Roadman; the newer wing of the building, Roadman South, was renovated and reopened in 2005. Unlike the rest of Roadman, it has air conditioned facilities; the Residence Complex, or "Plex," was constructed in 1966 as a temporary housing for the construction crew employed to build Eppley Auditorium. The facility served a unique set of students and has since been home for many of Morningside's students. In 2005, two apartment-style dormitories opened for the Waitt and Poppen Halls.

Between the two buildings a maximum of 72 students may hence reside. These buildings surround a central courtyard

Harvest of Stars

Harvest of Stars is a concert music series and directed by Glen Heisch and starring James Melton. Sponsored by International Harvester, the program was broadcast on NBC and CBS from 1945 to 1950. Raymond Massey was the host when the show began October 7, 1945, on Sunday afternoons from 2:30pm to 3:00pm, offering opera selections along with standards and show tunes under the direction of Howard Barlow. Frank Black was the musical director in the 1947 series. On April 7, 1948, the show moved to Wednesday evenings at 9:30pm. Victor Young took over as musical director on January 5, 1949. Although emanating from New York, Harvest of Stars toured for sell-out shows in major cities from San Francisco to Memphis. Guests included Alfred Drake. Burl Ives. Dorothy Kirsten, Lauritz Melchior. Robert Merrill. Jan Peerce, Jane Powell, the Revelers, Lanny Ross, Rise Stevens and Alec Templeton. Local International Harvester dealers ran tie-in ads with the radio series. For example, on April 20, 1949, the Orscheln Bros. dealership in Moberly, advertised the company's Farmall tractor in the Moberly Monitor-Index and Democrat with a box at the bottom of the ad: Listen!

Sunday afternoon Listen! Harvest of Stars starring James Melton will be heard on the NBC network Sunday afternoons at 4:30pm. Listen to it over Stations WDAF, Kansas City or KSD, St. Louis; the final run of the program began April 3, 1949, on Sundays at 5:30pm, the series concluded September 5, 1950

Silla, Valencia

Silla is a municipality in the comarca of Horta Sud in the Valencian Community, Spain. According to the 2014 census, The municipality has a population of 18,644 inhabitants; the town has six casales falleros, for the different Fallas. Silla has different cultural associations; because of the great immigration of Andalusian people in the 1960s, Silla has got a Casa de Andalucia. In Silla there is a important local theater school. Founded in 1985, it is one of the first drama schools in the area; the etymology of Silla is not known for certain. Some say that it comes from the Arabic Sila, others say from Latin, still others from Catalan meaning "the island". Among these three theories, the most accepted one is that it comes from Latin, as it has been proved that there was a Roman cellar where the town is situated now. Juan María de la Cruz, was executed here during the Spanish Civil War Javi Moreno, former footballer Media related to Silla at Wikimedia Commons