Borates are the name for a large number of boron-oxygen compounds containing oxyanions. The term "borates" may refer to tetrahedral boron anions, or more loosely to chemical compounds which contain borate anions of either description. Larger borates are composed of trigonal planar BO3 or tetrahedral BO4 structural units, joined together via shared oxygen atoms and may be cyclic or linear in structure. Boron most occurs in nature as borates, such as borate minerals and borosilicates; the simplest borate anion, the orthoborate ion, 3−, is known in the solid state, for example, in Ca32, where it adopts a nearly trigonal planar structure. It is a structural analogue of the carbonate anion 2 −. Simple bonding theories point to the trigonal planar structure. In terms of valence bond theory, the bonds are formed by using sp2 hybrid orbitals on boron; some compounds termed orthoborates do not contain the trigonal planar ion, for example, gadolinium orthoborate GdBO3 contains the polyborate 9− ion, whereas the high-temperature form contains planar 3−.
All borates can be considered derivatives of boric acid, B3. Boric acid is a weak proton donor in the sense of Brønsted acid, but is a Lewis acid, i.e. it can accept an electron pair. In water, it behaves as a Lewis acid, accepting the electron pair of a hydroxyl ion produced by the water autoprotolysis. B3 is acidic because of its reaction with OH− from water, forming the tetrahydroxyborate complex − and releasing the corresponding proton left by the water autoprotolysis: B3 + 2 H2O ⇌ − + + In the presence of cis-vicinal diols, such as mannitol, sorbitol and glycerol, the acidity of the boric acid solution is increased, the pKa can be lowered to about 4 if enough mannitol is added. With different mannitol concentrations, the pK of B3 extends on 5 orders of magnitude. Greenwood and Earnshawn refer to a pK value of 5.15, while a pK value of 3.80 is reported in the Vogel's book. The formation of the complex between one B3 molecule and two mannitol molecules, releases three water molecules and one proton in water as follows: boric acidB3 + 2 mannitolC6H14O6 ⇌ mannitoborate complex− + 3 H2O + H+The solution obtained after the complexation/esterification reaction – involving the release of a proton, from there, the ancient name of mannitoboric acid – is sufficiently acid to be titrated by a strong base as NaOH.
The equivalence point can be determined by potentiometric titration using an automated titrator in order to assay the borate content present in aqueous solution. This method is used to determine the boron content in the water of the primary circuit of light-water reactor, in which boric acid is added as a neutron moderator to control the reactivity of the core. At neutral pH boric acid undergoes condensation reactions to form polymeric oxyanions. Well-known polyborate anions include the triborate and pentaborate anions; the condensation reaction for the formation of tetraborate is as follows: 2 B3 + 2 − ⇌ 2− + 5 H2OThe tetraborate anion includes two tetrahedral and two trigonal boron atoms symmetrically assembled in a fused bicyclic structure. The two tetrahedral boron atoms are linked together by a common oxygen atom, each bears a negative net charge brought by the supplementary OH− groups laterally attached to them; this intricate molecular anion exhibits three rings: two fused distorted hexagonal rings and one distorted octagonal ring.
Each ring is made of a succession of alternate oxygen atoms. Boroxole rings are a common structural motif in polyborate ions; the tetraborate anion occurs in the mineral borax, or sodium tetraborate octahydrate, with the formula Na2·8H2O. The borax chemical formula is commonly written in a more compact notation as Na2B4O7·10H2O. Sodium borate can be obtained in high purity and so can be used to make a standard solution in titrimetric analysis. A number of metal borates are known, they are produced by treating boric boron oxides with metal oxides. Examples hereafter include linear chains of 2, 3 or 4 trigonal BO3 structural units, each sharing only one oxygen atom with adjacent unit: diborate 4−, found in Mg2B2O5, triborate 5−, found in CaAlB3O7, tetraborate 6−, found in Li6B4O9. Metaborates, such as LiBO2, contain chains of trigonal BO3 structural units, each sharing two oxygen atoms with adjacent units, whereas NaBO2 and KBO2 contain the cyclic 2− ion. Borosilicate glass known as pyrex, can be viewed as a silicate in which some 4− units are replaced by 5− centers, together with additional cations to compensate for the difference in valence states of Si and B.
Because this substitution leads to imperfections, the material is slow to crystallise and forms a glass with low coefficient of thermal expansion, thus resistant to cracking when heated, unlike soda glass. Common borate salts include sodium borax. Borax is soluble in water, so mineral deposits only occur in places with low rainfall. Extensive deposits were found in Death Valley and transported out using the famous twenty-mule teams from 1883 to 1889. In 1925, deposits were found at California on the edge of the Mojave Desert; the Atacama Desert in Chile contains mineable borate concentrations. Lithium metaborate, lithium tetraborate, or a mixture of both, can be
The Russian Ski Association is a non-governmental organization, which represents Russian ski sports in the international field. Organization includes 4 all-Russian sports Federations: Russian Alpine Skiing and Snowboard Federation, Cross-Country Ski Federation of Russia, Freestyle Federation of Russia, Ski Jumping and Nordic Combined Federation of Russia. Members of the Russian Ski Association are represented in the International Ski Federation. President - Andrey Bokarev Vice-president - Alexander Cherkasov General secretary - Georgiy Mnatsakanov The Russian Ski Association was founded in 2005 on the basis of The Russian Ski Union; the Russian Ski Union was founded in 1994 and it had combined the Cross-Country Ski Federation of Russia, the Nordic Combined and Ski Jumping Federation of Russia, the Freestyle Federation of Russia, the Alpine Skiing and Snowboard Federation of Russia. The reason of establishing of the Union was the necessity of uniting all of these 4 Federations for representing Russian Federation in international organizations, first of all in the International Ski Federation.
Due to the regulations of FIS one country can be represented only by one federation. The idea of uniting different sports organisations into one federation or association is realised in such countries as Austria, Finland, Sweden and Italy. In 1999 the Russian Government gave a direction to public organizations of Russia to re-register, but The Russian Ski Union was able to be re-registered only under conditions that the 4 federations had been re-registered. Some federations were late with this procedure; the Union existed till 2005 representing the Russian Federation on the international field. In 2005 the decision was made to recreate the Union, its new name was more relevant for the International Ski Association. The Russian Ski Association has a great authority in the world: 18 representatives of the Russian Federation work in different FIS Committees nowadays; the International Ski Federation conducts international meetings two times a year and once in two years, it conducts ordinary Congress to hear reports and elect new officials.
Our delegates take part in these meetings. The President of Russian Ski Association is a major figure for FIS, he is a binding member of the Russian delegation during the International Congress and other great international forums. Russian Ski Association is one of the largest Russian Associations of Olympic winter sports; every year about 20 winter sports competitions are carried out in Russia, all of them are announced in the FIS events calendar. The Cross-Country World Cup, the World freestyle and alpine ski Championships are among them. Today as a part of preparations for the Olympic Games Sochi-2014, a new sports centers is being built, it has ski jumping hills, alpine skiing tracks and slopes for freestyle and snowboarding. The commissioning of this sports center on the territory of Russian Federation will give a possibility to hold Championships and World Cups in all ski disciplines and increase the image of RSA on the world arena; the Russian Ski Association is recognized by the Russian Olympic Committee and included in the register of Russian public organizations.
Official site: http://www.rsaski.ru/en/
Short sentence expressing a motivation A motto is the general motivation or intention of an individual, social group or organization. Mottos are found predominantly in written form, may stem from long traditions of social foundations, or from significant events, such as a civil war or a revolution. A motto may be in any language, but Latin has been used in the Western world. In heraldry, a motto is found below the shield in a banderole. In the case of Scottish heraldry it is mandated to appear above the crest. Spanish coats of arms may display a motto in the bordure of the shield. In heraldic literature, the terms "rallying cry" "battle banner" are common, which date back to the battle cry, is located above the coat of arms. In English heraldry mottos are not granted with armorial bearings, may be adopted and changed at will. In Scottish heraldry, mottos can only be changed by re-matriculation, with the Lord Lyon King of Arms. Although unusual and outside standard heraldic practice, there are some examples of the particular appearance of the motto scroll and letters thereon being blazoned.
Ships and submarines in the Royal Navy each have a badge and motto, as do units of the Royal Air Force. Latin has been common for mottos, but for nation states their official language is chosen. Examples of unusual choices in motto language include: County of Somerset, Sumorsaete ealle, Anglo-Saxon. A canting motto is one. For example, the motto of the Earl of Onslow is Festina lente, punningly interpreting on-slow; the motto of the Burgh of Tayport, Te oportet alte ferri, is a rather terrible cant on "Tayport at auld Tay Ferry" alluding to the local lighthouse. The motto of the U. S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Bravery, Integrity, is a backronym of the letters F. B. I. United in diversity, the motto of the European Union United we stand, divided we fall In literature, a motto is a sentence, poem, or word prefixed to an essay, novel, or the like suggestive of its subject matter, it is a suggestive expression of a guiding principle for the written material that follows. For example, Robert Louis Stevenson's Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes uses mottos at the start of each section.
The South East Counties League was a football league for the youth teams of clubs from Southern England. The competition grew out of the Middlesex Youth Invitation Cup set up in the 1950s by the Middlesex FA and was known as the South East Counties Youth Football League. For many years it was the top level of youth football in the region, a second division was added in 1964 this more than not included teams from division one, these teams putting out their younger youth players. There was a League Cup called "Division One League Cup" which was, in 1986, superseded by the "South East Counties League Cup"; the setup of the FA Premier Youth League, a nationwide competition for the top clubs, in 1997 took many of the top clubs away. The SECL continued for another season with some clubs putting out their youth reserve teams. However, in 1998, the Premier Youth League was expanded and renamed the FA Premier Academy League, while a second tier of nationwide youth football, the Football League Youth Alliance was founded, absorbing the remaining teams, meaning the South East Counties League was abandoned
Garyn Vernon Preen is a Welsh footballer who plays as a winger for Evesham United. Preen began his career as a youth player with Welsh club Cardiff City, joining the youth system at Southampton at the age of 12. On 23 July 2010, with no appearances for the South Coast club, he joined League Two side Burton Albion on a free transfer following his release by the Saints. Preen made his debut for the club on 11 August in the First Round of the League Cup against former club Cardiff City, coming on as a 73rd-minute substitute for Lewis Young. On 26 November he went on loan to Stafford Rangers with fellow Burton Albion player James Ellison, he made his debut for the club on 11 December in a 0-2 home defeat to Workington. At the end of the 2010–11, Preen was released from the Brewers. In June 2011 he joined Neath. In 2012, he joined Salisbury City, before returning to Wales in October to sign for Merthyr Town, he joined Merthyr's Southern League rivals Cinderford Town in 2013. Preen Signed for Hereford in 2017 and scored against Eastleigh in the FA Cup 4th Qualifying Round in that game he was taken off injured after a collision with Gavin Hoyte knocked him out.
On 26 February 2018, he was released by Hereford F. C. Garyn Preen at Soccerbase Player profile
White Eyes, named Koquethagechton, was a leader of the Lenape people in the Ohio Country during the era of the American Revolution. Sometimes known as George White Eyes. Sir William, his given name in Lenape was rendered in many spelling variations in colonial records. By 1773 he was Speaker of the Delaware Head Council and known as one of the most important councilors. White Eyes was a war chief and a tireless mediator in turbulent times, negotiating the first Indian treaties with the fledgling United States, always working toward his ultimate goal of establishing a secure Indian territory, his murder by an American militia officer is believed to have been covered up by United States officials. Nothing is known about the early life of Koquethagechton. Born in present-day Pennsylvania, he was first noted in the English colonial record near the end of the Seven Years' War, as a messenger during treaty negotiations, he appeared to be considered well suited for interaction between Indians and whites, although he could not read or write, did not speak English—at least not well.
After the war, when European colonists began settling near the Lenape villages around Fort Pitt in western Pennsylvania, the Native Americans moved further west to the Muskingum River valley in present-day eastern Ohio. By this time, many Lenape had converted to Christianity under the influence of Moravian missionaries and lived in villages led by these missionaries; the missionary towns moved to the Muskingum, so that the Lenape, both Christian and non-Christian, could stay together. Though not a Christian, White Eyes ensured that the Christian Lenape remained members of the larger native community. In the early 1770s, Lenape attacked the Philip Doddridge family farm, killing some members of the nine-person extended family and capturing others; the Lenape took away three girls, a son, the grandmother. The five-year-old girl Rachel Doddridge was known to have been adopted into the tribe. After becoming a chief, White Eyes married Rachel Doddridge, a young English colonist, taken captive as a 5-year-old child during a Lenape raid and adopted into the Lenape people, becoming assimilated.
They had at least one son, named George Morgan White Eyes. Rachel had been living with her father Philip Doddridge and family at a farm on the shores of Chartier's Creek near Statler's Fort, her cousin Philip Doddridge reported seeing her as an adult at a trading post. Assimilated by she was not interested in a reunion with her British relatives. White Eyes established his own town, known by the colonists as White Eyes' Town, near the Lenape capital of Coshocton, Ohio. By 1773 White Eyes served as Speaker of the Delaware Head Council, an important position and indication of his high reputation in the tribe. In 1774, the Lenape Grand Council, an association of chiefs, named White Eyes as principal chief of the nation. In the early 1770s, violence on the frontier between whites and Indians threatened to escalate into open warfare. White Eyes unsuccessfully attempted to prevent what would become Lord Dunmore's War in 1774, fought between the Shawnee and Virginia colonists, he served as a peace emissary between the two armies, helped negotiate a treaty to end the war.
When the American Revolutionary War began soon after the end of Dunmore's War, White Eyes was negotiating a royal grant with Lord Dunmore to secure the Lenape territory in the Ohio Country. After the American revolutionaries forced Dunmore out of Virginia, White Eyes had to begin anew with the Americans. In April 1776, he addressed the Continental Congress in Philadelphia on behalf of the Lenape. Two years he completed an alliance of the Delaware with the United States by a treaty signed in 1778 at Fort Pitt, it promised to establish a Lenape state, with representation in the American Congress, provided that the Congress approved. The treaty provided for the Lenape to serve as guides for the Americans when they moved through the Ohio Country to strike at their British and Indian enemies to the north, in and around Detroit. In early November 1778, White Eyes joined an American expedition under General Lachlan McIntosh as a guide and negotiator. Soon after, the Americans reported that White Eyes had contracted smallpox and died during the expedition.
After his death, the Lenape alliance with the Americans collapsed. The Americans by had no interest in supporting a state under Lenape control. After his death, Gelelemend of the Turtle Clan became the principal chief of the Lenape as no other leader was qualified by clan. Years George Morgan, a US Indian agent and former close associate of White Eyes, wrote a letter to Congress claiming that the chief had been "treacherously put to death" by American militia in Michigan. Documentation affirmed that White Eyes had been killed by an American militia officer on November 5, 1778, he wrote that the murder of White Eyes had been covered up to prevent the Lenape from abandoning the revolutionaries. White Eyes' British-Lenape wife Rachel Doddridge was murdered by white men in 1788, their mixed-race son George Morgan White Eyes was cared for by the family friend George Morgan. He was educated at the College of New Jersey, where his tuition was paid by the Continental Congress, he graduated in 1789. White Eyes Township in Coshocton County, Ohio was named after the chief as a tribute to his leadership and building an alliance with the revolutionaries.
Gnadenhutten massacre Frontier warfare during the Am